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0. 4 mm interferometer system using dielectric waveguide

Description: A 0.4 mm submillimeter-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer is used for simultaneous time-dependent measurement of line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation along chords of the plasma column in ISX-B tokamak. Heterodyna detection and hollow dielectric waveguide are utilized to achieve the high sensitivity required for the multichord equipment.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Hutchinson, D. P.; Ma, C. H.; Staats, P. A. & Vander Sluis, K. L.

0. 9 a Gev /sup 238/U on /sup 238/U collisions in the LBL streamer chamber. Appendix A

Description: Charged particle exclusive data for high multiplicity U on U events are reported. Analyses are based on comparison with Cugnon's intranuclear cascade model, and the explosion-evaporation simulation of Fai and Randrup. The azimuthal structure of the observed events shows evidence of collective flow. The widely used flow angle methodology proves to be relatively insensitive to collective effects under the conditions of the present experiment. An isotropic pattern of ejectile emission is not reached at maximum multiplicity. 18 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Fung, S.Y.; Beavis, D.; Gorn, W.; Keane, D.; Liu, Y.M.; Poe, R.T. et al.

0-D study of the compression of low temperature spheromaks

Description: Compression of low temperature spheromak plasmas has been studied with the aid of a O-D two-fluid computer code. It is found that in a plasma which is radiation dominated, the electron temperature can be increased by up to a factor of seven for a compression of a factor of two, provided the temperature is above some critical value (approx.25eV) and the electron density particle confinement time product n/sub e/tau/sub p/ greater than or equal to 1 x 10/sup 9/s/cm/sup 3/. If the energy balance is dominated by particle confinement losses rather than radiation losses, the effect of compression is to raise the temperature as T/sub e/ approx.C/sup 6/5/, for constant tau/sub p/.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Meyerhofer, D.D.; Hulse, R.A. & Zweibel, E.G.

1/2 Creep Fracture in Ceramic Polycrystals I. Creep Cavitation Effects in Polycrystalline Alumina

Description: Fine grained polycrystalline alumina has been deformed in creep at high temperatures, to examine the evolution of cavities at grain boundaries. Cavities with equilibrium and crack-like morphologies have been observed, distributed non-uniformly throughout the material. The role of cavities during creep has been described. A transition from equilibrium to crack-like morphology has been observed and correlated with a model based on the influence of the surface to boundary diffusivity ratio and the local tensile stress. The contribution of cavitation to the creep rate and total creep strain has been analyzed and excluded as the principal cause of the observed non-linear creep rate,
Date: September 1980
Creator: Porter, J. R.; Blumenthal, W. & Evans, A. G.

1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Description: The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation facility optimized to generate soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviole (XUV) light using magnetic insertion devices, was proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1982. It consists of a 1.3-GeV injection system, an electron storage ring optimized at 1.3 GeV (with the capability of 1.9-GeV operation), and a number of photon beamlines emanating from twelve 6-meter-long straight sections, as shown in Fig. 1. In addition, 24 bending-magnet ports will be avialable for development. The ALS was conceived as a research tool whose range and power would stimulate fundamentally new research in fields from biology to materials science (1-4). The conceptual design and associated cost estimate for the ALS have been completed and reviewed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), but preliminary design activities have not yet begun. The focus in this paper is on the history of the ALS as an example of how a technical construction project was conceived, designed, proposed, and validated within the framwork of a national laboratory funded largely by the DOE.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Berkner, K.H.

1/2 Sintering of Mullite-Containing Materials: I. Effect of Composition

Description: Sintering behavior of mullite-containing powders was studied over a range of chemical compositions (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} ratio). Densification measurements were made for both liquid phase-containing and solid state systems. Small amounts of liquid phase were observed to have a significant effect on densification rate. A linear relationship was obtained between the percent of theoretical density and the logarithm of time for compositions in the range 73-75 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Currently available models for intermediate stage sintering kinetics were considered to be inadequate for these systems. Grain boundary transport 0r diffusion appeared to be the primary mechanism of densification.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Sacks, Michael D. & Pask, Joseph A.

A 1-D model for highly sensitive tubular reactors

Description: We consider the steady state operation of wall-cooled, fixed-bed tubular reactors. In these reactors the temperature rise ..delta..T must normally be limited to small fractions of the adiabatic temperature rise ..delta..T/sub ad/, both to avoid runaway and maintain product selectivity. Yet ..delta..T/..delta..T/sub ad/ << 1 can only occur if eta = t/sub dif//t/sub reac/ << 1, where t/sub dif/ is the timescale on which heat escapes the reactor by ''diffusing'' to the cooled walls, and t/sub reac/ is the timescale over which the reaction occurs. So here we use asymptotic methods based on eta << 1 to analyze the 2-d reactor equations, and find the radial concentration and temperature profiles to leading order in eta. We then obtain a 1-d model of the reactor by substituting these asymptotically correct profiles into the reactor equations and averaging over r. This model, the ..cap alpha..-model, is identical to the standard (Beek and Singer) 1-d model, except that the reactor's overall heat transfer coefficient U is a decreasing function of the temperature rise ..delta..T. This occurs because as ..delta..T increases, the reaction becomes increasingly concentrated near r = 0, causing a decreased heat transfer efficiency through the reactor's walls. By comparing it with numerical solutions of the original 2-d reactor equations, we find that the ..cap alpha..-model simulates the 2-d equations very accurately, even for highly sensitive reactors operated near runaway. We also find that a runaway criterion derived from the ..cap alpha..-model predicts the runaway transition of the original 2-d equations accurately, especially for highly sensitive reactors. 19 refs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Hagan, P.S.; Herskowitz, M. & Pirkle, J.C.

1/N

Description: There exist families of field theories with symmetry group SO(N) (or SU(N)) that become simpler as N becomes larger. More precisely, the solutions to these theories possess an expansion in powers of 1/N. This expansion is the subject of these lectures. The 1/N expansion can be used to analyze model field theories. The 1/N expansion is developed for phi/sup 4/ theory and applied to two two-dimensional models with similar combinatoric structures, the Gross-Neveu model and the CP/sup N-1/ model. These models display (in the leading 1/N approximation) such interesting phenomena as asymptotic freedom, dynamical symmetry breaking, dimensional transmutation, and non-perturbative confinement. It is possible that the 1/N expansion, with N the number of colors, might fruitfully be applied to quantum chromodynamics. Unfortunately, it is not possible to make a decisive test of the approximation, because no one knows how to compute even the first term in the expansion in closed form. However, it is possible to argue that this first term, whatever its detailed form, has many properties that are also shared by the real world, and which are otherwise underived from field theory. These include the saturation of scattering amplitudes by an infinite number of narrow resonances, the essential feature of dual-resonance models. (RWR)
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Coleman, S.

1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

Description: A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K/sup -/,K/sup +/ reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10/sup 6/ particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references.
Date: February 15, 1985
Creator: Chrien, R.E.

2-1/2-dimensional numerical solution for the electromagnetic scattering using a hybrid technique

Description: The use of the electromagnetic method for geothermal reservoir exploration and delineation was studied. A number of techniques were developed to provide high quality field data. The remaining problem of interpreting these data in regions of complex geologic structure was overcome by the development of a numerical solution based on the hybrid technique, making use of both the finite element and the integral equation techniques. The major improvement is in the computing speed. (ACR)
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Lee, K.H. & Morrison, H.F.

2-D emittance equation with acceleration and compression

Description: Since both acceleration and compression are required for an Inertial Fusion Driver, the understanding of their effect on the beam quality, emittance, is important. This report attempts to generalize the usual emittance formula for the drifting beam to include these effects. The derivation of the 2-D emittance equation is carried out and a comparison with the particle code results is given. The 2-D emittance at a given axial location is reasonable to consider for a long beam, particularly with velocity tilt; transverse emittance averaged over the entire bunch is not a useful quantity. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Hahn, K.D. & Smith, L.

2-D skin-current toroidal-MHD-equilibrium code

Description: A two-dimensional, toroidal, ideal MHD skin-current equilibrium computer code is described. The code is suitable for interactive implementation on a minicomptuer. Some examples of the use of the code for design and interpretation of toroidal cusp experiments are presented.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Feinberg, B.; Niland, R.A.; Coonrod, J. & Levine, M.A.

S = -2 dibaryons and hypernuclei

Description: Future prospects for the exploration of doubly strange hypernuclear systems are evaluated. Such systems may be produced via the double strangeness exchange reactions (K/sup -/,K/sup +/) or (K/sup -/,K/sup 0/) on nuclear targets. Theoretical estimates are given of the formation cross sections for Xi/sup -/ hypernuclear states via the one-step K/sup -/p ..-->.. K/sup +/Xi/sup -/ process, or discrete states of the ..lambda lambda.. hypernucleus in the two step reaction K/sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/..lambda.. followed by ..pi../sup 0/p ..-->.. K/sup +/..lambda... Recently, there has been much discussion of six quark (dibaryon) states in the Bag Model. Arguments are given which indicate that the (K/sup -/,K/sup +/) reaction on light nuclear targets (ex. /sup 3/He) affords a very promising way of producing the lowest-lying S = -2 dibaryon (called the H).
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Dover, C.B.

2-Dimensional studies of the disk-and-washer and side-coupled resonant cavity structures

Description: The work done consists of three parts: optimizing the disk-and-washer (DAW) structure at ..beta.. = 0.5662 corresponding to E = 200 MeV; comparing the DAW structure with the side-coupled (SCS) structure at various values of beta, ranging from ..beta.. = 0.4569 and E = 116 MeV to ..beta.. = 0.7131 and E = 400 MeV; and re-optimizing the DAW structure at ..beta.. = 0.7131. 4 refs., 51 figs., 41 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Larry, L.D. Jr.

N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein Supergravity theories: their compact and non-compact gaugings and Jordan algebras

Description: In this talk we give a review of our work on the construction and classification of N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein Supergravity theories (MESGT), study of the underlying algebraical and geometrical structure of these theories, and their compact and non-compact gaugings. We begin by summarizing our construction of the N = 2 MESGT's in five dimensions and give a geometrical interpretation to various scalar dependent quantities in the Lagrangian, based on the constraiants implied by supersymmetry. This is followed by a complete classification of the N = 2 MESGT's whose target manifolds parametrized by the scalar fields are symmetric spaces. 39 refs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Guenaydin, M.; Sierra, G. & Townsend, P.K.

A 2-MeV microwave thermionic gun

Description: A high-gradient, S-band microwave gun with a thermionic cathode is being developed in a collaborative effort by AET, Varian, and SSRL. A prototype design using an upgraded Varian dispenser cathode mounted with thermal isolation directly in the first half-cell of a 1-1/2 cell, side-coupled, standing-wave cavity has been fabricated and is being tested. Optimization of the cavity shape and beam formation was done using SUPERFISH, MASK, and PARMELA. An overview of design details, as well as the status of in-progress beam tests, will be presented. 9 refs., 6 figs.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Tanabe, E.; Borland, M.; Green, M.C.; Miller, R.H.; Nelson, L.V.; Weaver, J.N. et al.

2, Pulse-mode expansions and refractive indices in plane-wave propagation

Description: This memo presents basic background theory for treating simultaneous propagation of electromagnetic pulses of various colors, directed along a common ray, through a molecular vapor. The memo discusses some techniques for expanding the positive frequency part of the transverse electric field into pulse modes, characterized by carrier frequencies within a modulated envelope. We discuss, in the approximation of plane waves with slowly varying envelopes, a set of uncoupled envelope equations in which a polarization mode-envelope acts as a source for an electric-field envelope. These equations, when taken with a prescription for the polarization field, are the basic equations of plane-wave pulse propagation through a molecular medium. We discuss two ways of treating dispersive media, one based upon expansions in the frequency domain and the other based in the time domain. In both cases we find envelope equations that involve group velocities. This memo represents a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. Many of the equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected and described here as a summary and review of contemporary theory.
Date: June 20, 1987
Creator: Shore, B.W.; Sacks, R.; Karr, T.; Morris, J. & Paisner, J.A.

3. 6 simplified methods for design

Description: Simplified design analysis methods for elevated temperature construction are classified and reviewed. Because the major impetus for developing elevated temperature design methodology during the past ten years has been the LMFBR program, considerable emphasis is placed upon results from this source. The operating characteristics of the LMFBR are such that cycles of severe transient thermal stresses can be interspersed with normal elevated temperature operational periods of significant duration, leading to a combination of plastic and creep deformation. The various simplified methods are organized into two general categories, depending upon whether it is the material, or constitutive, model that is reduced, or the geometric modeling that is simplified. Because the elastic representation of material behavior is so prevalent, an entire section is devoted to elastic analysis methods. Finally, the validation of the simplified procedures is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Nickell, R.E. & Yahr, G.T.

3-10 keV and 0. 1- to 2-MeV observations of four gamma-ray bursts

Description: Four catalogued ..gamma..-ray bursts that occurred between 79/3/7 and 79/7/31 have been observed over the 3 to 10 keV range by a joint NRL/Los Alamos experiment on the Air Force P78-1 satellite. The bursts were also well observed by members of the interplanetary network. In this paper we present hardness ratios, x-ray/..gamma..-ray luminosity ratios, and time histories. The most significant results presented herein can be summarized as follows: (1) gamma-ray bursters can emit fairly strongly at x-ray energies near the time of the ..gamma.. burst with L/sub x//L/sub ..gamma../ approx. .02 (L/sub x/ approx. 10/sup 37/ ergs s/sup -1/, 3 to 10 keV, assuming a distance of 1 kpc); (2) the centroid of the x-ray emission generally lags the ..gamma..-ray centroid, but there is also evidence for one or more types of x-ray precursor activity; (3) the ..gamma..-ray hardness ratios were not highly variable for these particular events. However, there is some evidence that the ..gamma..-ray spectra softened near the ends of the bursts when the x-ray/..gamma..-ray ratios were high; (4) the x-ray/..gamma..-ray power law number index during times of the strongest ..gamma..-ray emission ranged from 0.8 to approx. 1.1 for the four bursts; (5) the x-ray tail of GB790307 probably can be modeled as the cooling of hot plasma generated during the ..gamma..-ray burst. Simple versions of this model can be used to estimate various source parameters. These estimates imply a distance of a few hundred to a few thousand pc; (6) gamma-ray bursters probably do not produce events similar to classical x-ray bursts independently of the ..gamma..-ray emission.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Laros, J.G.; Evans, W.D.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Shulman, S. & Fritz, G.

3-body final states in peripheral heavy-ion collisions: nuclear clustering structure and projectile excitation revisited

Description: Even though peripheral heavy-ion collisions are less violent than their central counterparts, the large energy exchange between the reactants often leaves the primary products in excited particle-unstable states whose subsequent decay leads to 3 or more nuclei emerging in the final exit channel. These post-reaction, predominantly sequential de-excitation processes can sometimes provide interesting structural information about the parent nuclei. In fact, provided these processes are well understood, one can employ them as probes for studying initial properties of the fragments. This report discusses results of two experiments that deal with (1) nonstatistical, rare decay modes of the projectile, and (2) internal excitation energy of the projectile- and target-like fragments in peripheral collisions. The physics addressed in each is different, but the experimental and data-analysis techniques are so similar that it is relevant to join them together.
Date: February 1, 1986
Creator: Chan, Y.; Chavez, E.; Gazes, S.B.; Kamermans, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siwek-Wilczynska, J. et al.

3-D analysis on arbitrarily-shaped ICRF antennas and Faraday shields

Description: Cavity antennas with Faraday shields are proposed to couple ion cyclotron radio frequency power for heating fusion plasmas. This application requires small, high-power, low-frequency antennas. The results are presented of a theoretical study of the ICRF antennas being developed for this purpose at the Radio Frequency Test Facility (RFTF). The objectives of this work are to optimize experimental designs and to confirm test results. (MOW)
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Chen, G.L.; Whealton, J.H.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J. & Owens, T.L.