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Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

Description: The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).
Date: July 1, 1937
Creator: Schapitz, E

The critical velocity of a body towed by a cable from an airplane

Description: It is sufficient to consider only the equations of motion of the towed body whereas those of the cable may be left out of consideration. The result obtained makes it possible to determine which factors affect the critical velocity and what modifications of the instrument are necessary for extending the upper limit of that velocity.
Date: July 1937
Creator: Koning, C. & DeHaas, T. P.

The design of airplane-engine superchargers

Description: With the forms of superchargers and underlying principles of computation, delivery heads per stage of 7,000 to 8,500 meters (air column) at an effective efficiency, based on the adiabatic process, of 0.7 may be attained, the space and weight requirements being kept within reasonable limits.
Date: October 1, 1937
Creator: Von Der Null, Werner

Experimental apparatus for the study of propellers

Description: The apparatus consists of a universal balance with transmission at variable speeds from 300 to 5,000 rpm and a group directly coupled to the model for speeds of 5 to 30,000 revolutions. This new apparatus was also designed with a torsion meter for measuring the torque. Tests were conducted on the effect of the angle between the propeller axis and the wind direction. The results presented correspond to a first series of tests made without an interposed wing and in which the distance between the plane of the propeller disk and the tail was maintained constant.
Date: March 1, 1937
Creator: Panetti, M

Experimental investigation of the problem of surface roughness

Description: Based on the universal laws of turbulent velocity distribution at rough and smooth walls, there is in the present work presented a method that allows surface roughness tests and in particular, measurements on the roughness of ship surfaces to be carried out in a much simpler manner. The types of roughness investigated were in the form of flat, rough plates installed in a square-section rectangular channel, the other three walls always being smooth. Twenty-one plates of various roughness were investigated, the roughness elements being the following: spheres of diameter 0.41 and 0.21, respectively, spherical segments, cones, and "short" and "long" angles.
Date: April 1937
Creator: Schlichting, H.

The ground effect on lifting propellers

Description: In what follows an estimate will be made of the magnitude of the ground effect. For the two cases where the distance a of the propeller from the ground is very small, and very large, respectively, in comparison with the propeller radius r(sub o) the relations may be simply expressed. We consider first the effect of the ground, assuming that the thrust is held constant, as may be done by a suitable change in the propeller speed.
Date: August 1937
Creator: Betz, A.

Ground effect - theory and practice

Description: The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.
Date: June 1, 1937
Creator: Pistolesi, E

The gyroplane : its principles and its possibilities

Description: This report begins by indicating several simple principles concerning the velocity distribution over the blades of a lifting propeller of diameter D, revolving at n revolutions per second, and animated by a horizontal movement of translation at speed V. The calculation, compared with the test data, has shown that the aerodynamic action of the air on the blades depends almost only on the velocity components in a plane at right angles to the blade span. A history of gyroplane and gyrocopter development is presented as well as the advantages in using both types of craft.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Breguet, Louis

Helicopter problems

Description: The present report deals with a number of the main problems requiring solution in the development of helicopters and concerning the lift, flying performance, stability, and drive. A complete solution is given for the stability of the helicopter with rigid blades and control surfaces. With a view to making a direct-lift propeller sufficient without the addition of auxiliary propellers, the "flapping drive" is assessed and its efficiency calculated.
Date: May 1, 1937
Creator: Kussner, H G

Method of curved models and its application to the study of curvilinear flight of airships. Part I

Description: In the first part of this paper we shall present the theoretical side of the problem of constructing curved model forms and the method of testing the model. In the second part we shall present a detailed account of the first experiments according to the given method, carried out with a curved model of the nonrigid airship V-2, and a comparison of the experimental results with some data of full-scale tests made with this airship in 1933.
Date: June 1, 1937
Creator: Gourjienko, G A

Method of curved models and its application to the study of curvilinear flight of airships. Part II

Description: This report compares the results obtained by the aid of curved models with the results of tests made by the method of damped oscillations, and with flight tests. Consequently we shall be able to judge which method of testing in the tunnel produces results that are in closer agreement with flight test results.
Date: June 1, 1937
Creator: Gourjienko, G A

On the actual loads on airplane landing gears

Description: This investigation was intended to throw light on a number of problems: 1) obtain a time history of the force acting on the gear wheels during take-off and landing runs; 2) obtain the time history of the direction of this force (magnitude of its three components along the coordinate axes); 3) derive conclusions as to the design load factors. In connection with the latter, of special interest was the solution of such problems as: a) the dynamic loads in the three main landing attitudes; b) the problem of the true direction of the forces for each of the three "pure" types of landing; c) combination of the above types; d) the comparison for each of the chassis members of the computed force (according to the design standards) with the actual force measured in the tests so as to determine the actual factors of safety.
Date: March 1, 1937
Creator: Shiskin, S.

Research and design problems introduced by increased power output

Description: In what follows the question of the number and geometrical arrangement of the cylinders so important in the design of high performance power units will be considered from various points of view. A discussion will be given of the possibilities of the various working processes and an investigation will be made of possible means for improving the continuous operation and take-off performance, particularly the methods of supercharging, increasing the r.p.m., and employing the two-stroke-cycle engine. Finally, the question of lowered fuel consumption will be gone over briefly. The subject will be treated under four headings: I) Considerations on the engine layout; II) Increase in output per given swept volume; III) Improvement in the take-off performance; IV) Lowering of the fuel consumption.
Date: October 1, 1937
Creator: Kurtz, Oskar

The scale effect in towing tests with airplane-float systems

Description: The present report includes a description of the making of three-component measurements on a full-size float mounted on an actual airplane and the comparison of the results with those from two models of the same form but of different size which had been tested in the towing tank. The purpose of the comparison is to determine the effect of the Reynolds Number on the results of model tank tests. Following a brief discussion of previous tests intended to elucidate the problem of scale effect on float systems and a description of the testing equipment, the choice of the reference quantities to be used in the comparison is discussed. The selection of load, speed, and trim as a basis of comparison seems best suited to the practical operation of making this comparison. The quantities affected by scale are then: resistance, trimming moment, and their derivatives; planing number (resistance/weight on water); and position of center of pressure.
Date: May 1, 1937
Creator: Schmidt, Rudolph

Some experiments on the slipstream effect

Description: The models designated "Torino 30, 31, 32" are horizontal tail surfaces of rectangular, triangular, and elliptical plan form and all of the same profile section. Tests were carried out with the object being to determine the effect of the propeller slipstream on the aerodynamical characteristics of the horizontal stabilizer. The results presented correspond to a first series of tests made without an interposed wing and in which the distance between the plane of the propeller disk and the tail was maintained constant.
Date: March 1937
Creator: Ferrari, C.

The source of propeller noise

Description: A two blade propeller of 40 cm diameter and zero pitch was explored for its noise development; it could be whirled up to 17,000 rpm - i.e., a tip speed of 355 meters/second. To obtain the power loss N(sub m) of the propeller for comparison with the produced acoustical power N(sub A) the engine performance characteristics were measured with and without propeller. The result is the sought-for relation c, that is, curve c' after correction with the engine efficiency.
Date: May 1, 1937
Creator: Ernsthausen, W.

The stability of orthotropic elliptic cylinders in pure bending

Description: The theoretical critical bending stress of elliptic cylindrical shells is determined on the assumption of infinite shell length and absence of local instability phenomena. The results of the tests on isotropic elliptic cylindrical shells stressed in bending are compared with the theoretical results. The practical applicability of the theory is discussed.
Date: July 1, 1937
Creator: Heck, O S

The strength of shell bodies : theory and practice

Description: The monocoque form of airplane construction has introduced a number of new problems to the stress calculator and the designer. The problems for the stress calculator fall into two groups: the determination of the stress condition (shell statics) and the determination of the failing strength (shell strength). The present report summarizes the most important theoretical and experimental results on this subject.
Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Ebner, H