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Amplitude distribution and energy balance of small disturbances in plate flow

Description: From Introduction: "The present report, therefore, deals first, with the distribution of the amplitude of the disturbance over the flow section, that is, the calculation of the characteristic functions and second, with the study of the energy distribution and energy balance of the disturbance motion. The investigations are based upon the disturbances of the laminar flow past a flat plate which are situated exactly at the boundary between amplification and damping (neutral oscillations)."
Date: April 1950
Creator: Schlichting, H.

The Boundary Layers in Fluids with Little Friction

Description: The vortices forming in flowing water behind solid bodies are not represented correctly by the solution of the potential theory nor by Helmholtz's jets. Potential theory is unable to satisfy the condition that the water adheres at the wetted bodies, and its solutions of the fundamental hydrodynamic equations are at variance with the observation that the flow separates from the body at a certain point and sends forth a highly turbulent boundary layer into the free flow. Helmholtz's theory attempts to imitate the latter effect in such a way that it joins two potential flows, jet and still water, nonanalytical along a stream curve. The admissibility of this method is based on the fact that, at zero pressure, which is to prevail at the cited stream curve, the connection of the fluid, and with it the effect of adjacent parts on each other, is canceled. In reality, however, the pressure at these boundaries is definitely not zero, but can even be varied arbitrarily. Besides, Helmholtz's theory with its potential flows does not satisfy the condition of adherence nor explain the origin of the vortices, for in all of these problems, the friction must be taken into account on principle, according to the vortex theorem.
Date: February 1950
Creator: Blasius, H.

Contribution to the problem of buckling of orthotropic plates, with special reference to plywood

Description: Planar stress-strain relations and bending stress-strain relations are presented for elastic orthotropic plates and specialized to plywood. These relations are used to derive the differential equation and energy expression for the buckling of orthotropic rectangular plates whose principal stiffness directions are not parallel to the plate edges. Buckling analyses are made for the case of pure compression and pure shear of a long plate-strip.
Date: August 1, 1950
Creator: Thielemann, Wilhelm

Dependence of the elastic strain coefficient of copper on the pre-treatment

Description: The effect of various pre-treatments on the elastic strain coefficient (alpha) (defined as the reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity E) (Epsilon) and on the mechanical hysteresis of copper has been investigated. Variables comprising the pre-treatments were pre-straining by stretching in a tensile testing machine and by drawing through a die, aging at room and elevated temperatures and annealing. The variation of the elastic strain coefficient with test stress was also investigated.
Date: August 1, 1950
Creator: Kuntze, Wilhelm

The development of a hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines

Description: The subject of the development of German hollow turbine blades for use with internal cooling is discussed in detail. The development of a suitable blade profile from cascade theory is described. Also a discussion of the temperature distribution and stresses in a turbine blade is presented. Various methods of manufacturing hollow blades and the methods by which they are mounted in the turbine rotor are presented in detail.
Date: December 1, 1950
Creator: Kohlmann, H

Effect of intense sound waves on a stationary gas flame

Description: Intense sound waves with a resonant frequency of 5000 cycles per second were imposed on a stationary propane-air flame issuing from a nozzle. In addition to a slight increase of the flame velocity, a fundamental change both in the shape of the burning zone and in the flow pattern could be observed. An attempt is made to explain the origin of the variations in the flame configuration on the basis of transition at the nozzle from jet flow to potential flow.
Date: July 1, 1950
Creator: Hahnemann, H & Ehret, L

Equations of Motion of a Rocket

Description: In considering the motion of the rocket, at each instant of time only the state of those material particles which a t that instant are within the control surface passing through the exterior surface of the body of the rocket and the exit section of the nozzle shall be included. In order t o obtain the equations of motion of the rocket, the following procedure is used. An arbitrary but fixed instant of time is considered. A fictitious solid body is denoted by S with mass m, which would be obtained if the rocket at the instant t solidified and ceased giving off particles. The solid body S will not be homogeneous; in some of its parts, it will have the density of a metal and in other parts the density of a gas, and so forth. It shall be assumed that the fictitious solid body S is invariably fixed to the body of the rocket and from the instant t onwards (instant of solidification) moves together with the rocket. The momentum of the body S shall be denoted by Q.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Gantmacher, F. R. & Levin, L. M.

The gas kinetics of very high flight speeds

Description: The aerodynamic forces on bodies of arbitrary shape were investigated under conditions such that the mean free path of the air molecule is greater than the dimensions of the body. Air pressures and friction forces were calculated from gas kinetic theory for surfaces facing both toward and away from the air stream at any angle. Air forces for an atmosphere of definite composition (molecular hydrogen) were calculated as a function of the flight velocity. The results indicate that the friction stresses between the air and the body surface are of the same magnitude as the dynamic pressure and as the air pressures normal to the surface. The application of the general method to the specific cases such as thin airfoils and projectiles leads to high drag coefficients and poor glide ratios even for the theoretically best wing sections.
Date: May 1, 1950
Creator: Sanger, Eugen

Graphical determination of wall temperatures for heat transfers through walls of arbitrary shape

Description: A graphical method is given which permits determining of the temperature distribution during heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped walls. Three examples show the application of the method. The further development of heat engines depends to a great extent on the control of the thermal stresses in the walls. The thermal stresses stem from the nonuniform temperature distribution in heat transfer through walls which are, for structural reasons, of various thicknesses and sometimes complicated shape. Thus, it is important to know the temperature distribution in these structural parts. Following, a method is given which permits solution of this problem.
Date: April 1, 1950
Creator: Lutz, Otto

Hydrodynamic Properties of Planing Surfaces and Flying Boats

Description: The study of the hydrodynamic properties of planing bottom of flying boats and seaplane floats is at the present time based exclusively on the curves of towing tests conducted in tanks. In order to provide a rational basis for the test procedure in tanks and practical design data, a theoretical study must be made of the flow at the step and relations derived that show not only qualitatively but quantitatively the inter-relations of the various factors involved. The general solution of the problem of the development of hydrodynamic forces during the motion of the seaplane float or flying boat is very difficult for it is necessary to give a three-dimensional solution, which does not always permit reducing the analysis to the form of workable computation formulas. On the other had, the problem is complicated by the fact that the object of the analysis is concerned with two fluid mediums, namely, air and water, which have a surface of density discontinuity between them. The theoretical and experimental investigations on the hydrodynamics of a ship cannot be completely carried over to the design of floats and flying-boat hulls, because of the difference in the shape of the contour lines of the bodies, and, because of the entirely different flow conditions from the hydrodynamic viewpoint.
Date: October 1, 1950
Creator: Sokolov, N. A.

Instrument for measuring the wall shearing stress of turbulent boundary layers

Description: It is shown that at a smooth wall in a turbulent boundary layer the velocity profile next to the wall is dependent, aside from the material constants of the flowing medium, only on the shearing stress transmitted to the wall, even with pressure rise or with pressure drop. Consequently, the heat transfer of a small element that is built into the wall and has a higher temperature than that of the flowing medium is a measure of the wall shearing stress. Theoretical considerations indicate that the wall shearing stress of the boundary layer can be defined by means of a heat-transfer measurement with an instrument mounted in the wall. Such an instrument is described. The calibration curve and its directional sensitivity curve are indicated. It permits the determination of the wall shearing stress in magnitude and direction.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Ludwieg, H.

Investigation of the Model ME 210 in the Spin Wind Tunnel of the DVL, Report 4, Model with Long Fuselage and with a VEE Tail

Description: After conclusion of the spin investigation of the model Me 210 with elongated fuselage and central vertical tail surfaces (model condition III; reference 3), tests were performed on the same model with a vee tail (model condition IV). Here the entire tail surfaces consist of only one surface with pronounced dihedral. Since the blanketing of the vertical tail surfaces by the horizontal tail surfaces, which may occur in case of standard tail surfaces, does not occur here, one could expect for this type of tail surface favorable spin characteristics, particularly with respect to rudder effectiveness for spin recovery. However, the test results did not confirm these expectations. The steady spin was shown to be very irregular; regarding rudder effectiveness the vee tail surfaces proved to be inferior even to standard tail surfaces, thus they represent the most unfavorable of the four fuselage and tail-surface combinations investigated so far.
Date: April 1, 1950
Creator: Huffschmid, A

Investigations of Lateral Stability of a Glide Bomb Using Automatic Control Having No Time Lag

Description: The investigation of the lateral stability of an automatically controlled glide bomb led also to the attempt of clarifying the influence of a phugoid oscillation or of any general longitudinal oscillation on the lateral stability of a glide bomb. Under the assumption that its period of oscillation considerably exceeds the rolling and yawing oscillation and that c(sub a) is, at least in sections, practically constant, the result of this test is quite simple. It becomes clear that the influence of the phugoid oscillation may be replaced by suitable variation of the rolling-yawing moment on a rectilinear flight path instead of the phugoid oscillation. If the flying weight of the glide bomb of unchanged dimensions is increased, an increase of the flight velocity will be more favorable than an increase of the lift coefficient. The arrangement of the control permits lateral stability to be achieved in every case; a minimum rolling moment due to sideslip proves of great help.
Date: August 1950
Creator: Sponder, E. W.

Investigations of the wall-shearing stress in turbulent boundary layers

Description: Because of the unsatisfactory state of knowledge concerning the surface shearing stress of boundary layers with pressure gradients, the problem is re-examined. It is found that for general turbulent boundary layers in wall proximity, that is, in the laminar sublayer, in the transition zone and in the part of the completely turbulent zone near the wall, the same universal law applies as for the plate flow.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Ludwieg, Hubert & Tillmann, W.

Isentropic phase changes in dissociating gases and the method of sound dispersion for the investigation of homogeneous gas reactions with very high speed : Conclusion

Description: The analytical results of Part I are also applied to sound dispersion by friction and heat conduction, An irreversible change of momentum, energy, and type of particle corresponding to friction, heat conduction, and diffusion effects can appear both in the direction of the sound field and traverse to it. Longitudinal damping, the coupling of longitudinal damping and that due to chemical and physical changes, and coupling of diffusion and compositional changes are treated for a plane sound wave of infinite extent. The same principles are also applied to sound effects in cylindrical tubes. The limitations of the method are discussed in some detail.
Date: September 1950
Creator: Damkoehler, Gerhard

Laws of flow in rough pipes

Description: An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted Reynolds numbers from about 10 (sup. 4) to 10 (sup. 6). The laws of resistance and velocity distributions were obtained as a function of relative roughness and Reynolds number. Mixing length, as described by Prandtl's mixing-length formula, is discussed in relation to the experimental results.
Date: November 1, 1950
Creator: Nikuradse, J

On the Formation of Shock Waves in Subsonic Flows With Local Supersonic Velocities

Description: In the flow about a body with large subsonic velocity if the velocity of the approaching flow is sufficiently large, regions of local supersonic velocities are formed about the body. It is known from experiment that these regions downstream of the flow are always bounded by shock waves; a continuous transition of the supersonic velocity to the subsonic under the conditions indicated has never been observed. A similar phenomenon occurs in pipes. If at two cross sections of the pipe the velocity is subsonic and between these sections regions of local supersonic velocity are formed without completely occupying a single cross section, these regions are always bounded by shock waves.
Date: April 1950
Creator: Frankl, F. I.

On the theory of the propagation of detonation in gaseous systems

Description: The existing theory of detonation is critically examined. It is shown that the considerations with which the steady value of the velocity of detonation is chosen are not convincing. In connection with the problem of the process of the chemical reaction in a detonation wave, the objections raised against the conceptions of Le Chatelier and Vieille of the 19th century with regard to the ignition of the gas by the shock wave are refuted. On the basis of this concept, it is possible to give a rigorous foundation for the existing method of computing the detonation velocity. The distributions of the temperature, the pressure, and the velocity in the detonation wave front as the chemical reaction proceeds, are considered. On the assumption of the absence of losses, the pure compression of the gas in the shock wave at the start of the chemical reaction develops a temperature that is near the temperature of combustion of the given mixture at constant pressure.
Date: November 1, 1950
Creator: Zeldovich, Y B

Preliminary results from fatigue tests with reference to operational statistics

Description: Simple elements were subjected to repeated loads of variable ampliture, chosen in such a way that they may be regarded as approximations to the operational loads (gust and maneuver) experienced by an airplane. The effect of varying some parameters was investigated briefly. Some discussion is given of the question whether a design according to current (1938 German) requirements for static strength is adequate from the fatigue point of view, and existing requirements on fatigue strength are compared,.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Gassner, E.