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Activities of the NBS Spectrochemical Analysis Section: July 1970 to June 1971
Review of the progress in research, instrumentation, and service activities of the Spectrochemical Analysis Section from July 1970 to June 1971.
Analysis of Tentative Seismic Design Provisions for Buildings
Report issued by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards discussing an analysis of seismic design provisions for buildings with three main objectives. As stated in the introduction, "The first objective was to assist the ATC in the preparation of its report. The second objective of the study was to augment the text of the published Provisions by providing a formal, consistent documentation of the text. The third objective was to provide alternate arrangements of the Provisions that would make them more readily usable by several categories of users" (p. 1). This report includes illustrations.
Automated Measurement of Frequency Response of Frequency-Modulated Generators Using the Bessel Null Method
From abstract: This paper describes a Bessel null technique to measure the frequency response of a frequency-modulated rf carrier and a program to automate frequency response measurements of signal generators with output frequencies from 0.450 to 2000 MHz. The measurements obtained using this technique are more precise than those obtained by a highly trained technician using a manual system.
Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis
Abstract: Tables of important data for use in the analytical chemistry laboratory are provided. These tables contain information for use in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and wet chemical techniques. Tables relating to safe practice in the analytical laboratory are also included.
Beam-Profile Measurement of Laser Pulses Using a Spatial Filter to Sample the Hermite Modes of a String of Pulses
Abstract: As a first step in the development of a beam-profile measuring instrument for laser sources that is capable of determining the distribution of low-order (less than 25) Hermitian modes in a series of laser pulses, I designed and evaluated the three key parts of such an instrument. First, there is the telescope system which allows the incident laser beam to be phase, beamwidth, and beam center matched to the optical spatial filter. Second, there is a brief error analysis of the structure of the mismatch function between the beam out of the telescope and that expected by the filter. Finally, there is the detailed analysis and design of the computer-generated spatial filter that will cause the incident-laser beam to be cross correlated with the low-order Hermite modes and will create an array of light spots in the detector (Fourier transform) plane each of which can be uniquely related to a particular Hermite mode of the original laser pulse. The principal conclusion is that the Hermite mode analysis can be done with better than 99 percent separation between modes, provided the phase between modes is uncorrelated from pulse to pulse when the filter has been fabricated with a two-level, gray-scale structure which samples the profile with either 0 percent, or 100 percent transmission.
Calculation of Sunrise and Sunset Times at Ionospheric Heights Along a Great Circle Path
Formulas, computer program, and illustrations for a great circle path at ionospheric heights.
The Characteristics of Iris-Fed Millimeterwave Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas
From introduction: The fabrication of various iris-fed millimeterwave rectangular microstrip patch antennas is described. A model is proposed to describe the iris-fed antenna. Irises ranging in size from 15 percent of the area of the patch to the fully open waveguide are used to couple energy into the antenna. Resonance of the antenna is observed to be insensitive to the size of the iris for irises up to 115 percent of the size of the patch. A study is also made of th? relationship of coupling to the antenna as a function of position of the iris with respect to the transverse plane of the waveguide, the iris always being centered with respect to the patch. In general, the antenna has a VSWR in the waveguide feed on the order of 5:1 at resonance, except for the fully open waveguide which gives rise to a VSWR of 2.9:1 at resonance. Far-field antenna power patterns are observed to be quite broad with H-plane beamwidths on the order of 1300. Maximum antenna gain is seen to be 4.5 dBi with 3 dBi typical. An initial study is made of the microstrip patch antenna fed from a longitudinal waveguide wall. Results indicate that this feed structure is likely to prove valuable for microstrip patch antennas with coupling at least as good as for the transverse-fed patch added to the possibility of feeding of multiple patches from a single waveguide.
The Characterization of Optical Fiber Waveguides: A Bibliography with Abstracts, 1970-1980
Abstract: This bibliography contains approximately 450 citations of papers concerning the characterization of optical fiber waveguides. Papers from scientific journals, trade journals and conferences are included along with book chapters. The citations of organized by parameter measured and measurement method. Where published abstracts are available they are included.
A Coaxial Noise Standard for the 1 GHz to 12.4 GHz Frequency Range
From introduction: This note describes the design and construction of a coaxial thermal noise standard. The standard is designed to operate at the boiling point of liquid nitrogen with a noise temperature accurate to t 1 K in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 12.4 GHz.
A Comparison of Two Melting-Pressure Equations Constrained to Triple Point Using Data for Eleven Gases and Three Metals
Parameters determined by a least-squares method for the reduced Simon equation and for a new, empirical melting equation.
A Compilation of the Physical Equilibria and Related Properties of the Hydrogen-Carbon Monoxide System
Graphical presentation of K-factors for eight isotherms, published data on the solid-vapor region, and a bibliography of approximately 450 references.
Construction of a Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Laser and an Acousto-Optik Modulator for Mode-Locking
Design of a flashlamp-pumped dye laser capable of emitting light pulses 500 ns wide with a risetime of 300 ns.
Construction of a Large Transverse Electromagnetic Cell
Report issued by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards discussing the construction of large electromagnetic cells. As stated in the introduction, "this instruction provides information and procedures necessary to fabricate a large transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell to be used for experimental "electromagnetic interference" (EMI) evaluation studies" (p. 1). This report includes illustrations, and photographs.
Cryogenic Fluids Density Reference System: Provisional Accuracy Statement (1980)
Abstract: The improved Density Reference System, the reference densimeter, and the method of determining sample density are described. The uncertainty of the density reference system is + 0.055%. The contribution from the estimated systema -ic error in density was + 0.022%. The estimated uncertainty caused by random error is three times the standard deviation of 0.011% and is based on sixty-three measurements of the densities of saturated liquid methane. The total density uncertainty is taken to be the sum of the systematic and random errors. This applies to the density range of 400 to 480 kg/m at pressures from 0.8 to 4 bar absolute and temperatures between 109 and 128 K. This accuracy statement is expected to apply over ranges of at least 400 to 1000 kg/m3 in density, 77 to 300 K in temperature, and 0.8 to 7 bar in pressure though the accuracy over these ranges has not been verified.
Design and Error Analysis for the WR10 Thermal Noise Standard
From introduction: This note describes the design and error analysis of a WR10 thermal noise power standard. The standard is designed to operate at the boiling point of liquid nitrogen with a noise temperature accurate to plus or minus 1 K.
Design, Evaluation, and Use of a Reverberation Chamber for Performing Electromagnetic Susceptibility/Vulnerability Measurements
Abstract: This report presents the results of work at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, to carefully evaluate, document, develop (when necessary), and describe the methodology for performing radiated susceptibility/vulnerability measurements using a reverberation chamber. The report describes the reverberation chamber theory of operation, construction, evaluation, functional operation, and use for performing immunity measurements. It includes an estimate of measurement uncertainties derived empirically from test results and from comparisons with anechoic chamber measurements. Finally, it discusses the limitations and advantages of the measurement technique to assist potential users in determining the applicability for this technique to their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurement needs.
Design for a Variable-Output-Coupling Far-Infrared Michelson Laser
Technique for varying the coupling of power from far-infrared gas lasers and the design and construction of these lasers.
Design of the National Bureau of Standards Isotropic Magnetic Field Meter (MFM-10) 300 kHz to 100 MHz
From introduction: In this report the following will he discussed: (1) design consideration of the broadband magnetic field sensor, (2) overall design of the magnetic field meter, (3) performance of the meter, (4) calibration and operating procedures, (5) alignment and adjustment procedures, and (6) summary and conclusions.
Direct Measurement of the Electric Field of a Laser Pulse--Theory
From abstract: This paper presents the conflicts in the design and gives a solution. The complete evaluation requires assembly of the proposed apparatus to assess final accuracy.
An Electric and Magnetic Field Sensor for Simultaneous Electromagnetic Near-Field Measurements -- Theory
Abstract: This paper describes the theory of a single sensor to perform simultaneous electric and magnetic near-field measurements. The theory indicates that it is possible to obtain the magnetic-loop and electric-dipole currents using a loop terminated with identical loads at diametrically opposite points. The theory also indicates that it is possible to obtain an ideal load impedance for achieving equal electric and magnetic field responses of the loop. Preliminary experiments have been performed using plane waves to verify these results. Key words: electric field, electromagnetic interference, electromagnetic radiation, loop, magnetic field, near fields.
Electrical Properties of Materials and Their Measurement at Low Temperatures
Abstract: A review is given of the electrical resistance of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Measurement techniques, the data base, and uses of the data are presented. The emphasis is on metals and alloys of technological importance; a toxic which covers a large range of materials. Similarly, the treatment of theory and of measurement techniques is primarily for the user interested in the more practical aspects of the subject. In every instance, however, references are given which allow the reader to pursue the subject at any level.
Electromagnetic-Acoustic-Transducer/Synthetic-Aperture System for Thick-Weld Inspection
Abstract: This report describes a system based on electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) as an approach to automated nondestructive evaluation of thick weldments (>25 mm). Good signal-to-noise ratios, often a problem with EMATs, were possibTe through careful design of the transducers and associated electronic circuits and the use of signal averaging. At 454 kHz, the transducers produce shear-horizontal waves of approximately 7-mm wavelength in steel. The long wavelength permits determination of through-thickness flaw depth from the amplitudes of scattered ultrasonic waves. A minicomputer controlled transducer positioning and acquired the digitized ultrasonic waveforms for synthetic aperture processing. The synthetic aperture technique further improved signal quality and yielded flaw localization through the weld thickness. Measurements on artificial flaws demonstrated a detectability threshold of 0.5 mm (through thickness) and sizing ability up to 2.5 mm, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Details include the design of the transducers and electronics, as well as the mechanical positioner, signal processing algorithms, and complete computer program listing.
Electromagnetic Compatibility and Interference Metrology
From abstract: The material included in this report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EMI) metrology to be offered jointly by the staff of the Fields Characterization Group (723.03) and the Interference Characterization Group (723.04) of the Electromagnetic Fields Division (723). The purpose of this short course is to present a review of some of the radiated EMC/EMI measurement methods, to which the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) at Boulder, Colorado, has made significant contributions during the past two decades.
An Equation of State for Fluid Ethylene
Abstract: A thermodynamic property formulation for ethylene, developed as a part of a joint industry-government project, is presented. The formulation includes an equation of state, vapor pressure equation, and equation for the ideal gas heat capacity. The coefficients were determined by a least squares fit of selected experimental data. Comparisons of property values calculated using the equation of state with measured values are given. The equation of state is not valid in the critical region (pc + 0.3 pc for temperatures of Tc + 0.05 Tc). Errors on the order of 20 percent for derived properties and 10 percent for density may be encountered near the critical point. Tables of the thermodynamic properties of ethylene for the liquid and vapor phases for temperatures from the freezing line to 450 K with pressures to 40 MPa are presented. The equation of state and its derivative and integral functions for calculating thermodynamic properties are included. Estimates of the accuracy of calculated properties are given. A guide for use of computer programs for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of ethylene with listings of subprograms and a sample program to illustrate the use and results of the program are included.
An Equation of State for Fluid Ethylene: Erratum
Card listing corrections to several data points documented in a previous technical report, titled "An Equation of State for Fluid Ethylene."
An Error Analysis for the Use of Presently Available Lunar Radio Flux Data in Broadbeam Antenna-System Measurements
From introduction: Simple, precise expressions for lunar diameter, average brightness temperature, flux density, and shape factor are presented. An analysis of the relationship between these parameters and corresponding errors are included. For broadbeam (HPBW>d) antennas, results show that flux density and shape factor can be determined with errors less than 13 percent and 0.4 percent respectively at frequencies below 10 GHz. Extension of the analysis to higher frequencies is indicated.
Excitation of a TEM Cell by a Vertical Electric Hertzian Dipole
From abstract: The excitation of a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell by a vertical electric Hertzian dipole is analyzed where the gap between the septum and side wall is assumed to be small. Approximate expressions for the field distribution and characteristic impedance are derived. These expressions are numerically evaluated for some typical geometries, and good agreement with previously published results is shown. The formation also allows a vertical offset for the septum position, thus offering more flexibility of increasing the size of the test area to accommodate larger pieces of test equipment.
Extension of Programs for Calculations of Great Circle Paths and Sunrise-Sunset Times
Modification of an earlier program to remove restrictions in calculating the short or long great circle path.
Finline Diode Six-Port: Fundamentals and Design Information
Abstract: The preliminary design and testing of a planar circuit six-port with diode detectors is described. The planar circuit medium was chosen to be finline, and all preliminary work was done in WR-42 waveguide (18-26.5 GHz). The finline substrate was alumina, and initially commercial beam-lead diodes were bonded to the finline metalization. The goal is to design an integrated circuit which could be fabricated on one chip (with diode detectors) and used as part of a six port network analyzer in the waveguide bands above 18 GHz. Initial designs proved to b unsatisfactory because of high losses and reflections. Most of the problems have b en solved, and a usable integrated finline circuit is a good possibility for a millimeter wave six-port.
Fitness-for-Service Criteria for Assessing the Significance of Fatigue Cracks in Offshore Structure
Abstract: Results of a research program to develop fitness-for-service criteria for assessing the significance of fatigue cracks in offshore structures are presented in five papers. Each paper describes the goals and approaches to a specific task and details the results of the study.
Glass Limit Standards Deposited at NBS for Railway, Highway, and Airways Traffic Signal Colors: History, Permanence and Colorimetric Properties
Permanence and colorimetric properties of signal glass.
HAYSTAQ: a Mechanized System for Searching Chemical Information
Description of a computer program for searching chemical information on magnetic tape.
Information Selection Systems Retrieval Replica Copies: a State-of-the-Art Report
Description of 15 specific systems employing search-type selection principles.
Input Impedance of a Probe Antenna Exciting a TEM Cell
Abstract: The input impedance of a probe antenna exciting a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transmission line cell is formulated by a variational approach. The formulation also utilizes the results from a previous work on the field distribution inside a TEM cell excited by a vertical electrical Hertzian dipole. The final result of imoedance is shown to consist of two distinct terms, which are respectively contributed by the ordinary rectangular waveguide and the gap perturbation. Numerical results for both the real and imaginary parts of the impedance are given. The resistive part is found to be proportional to the square of the probe length, and the reactive part largely capacitive.
Interactive FORTRAN Programs for Micro Computers to Calculate the Thermophysical Properties of Twelve Fluids (MIPROPS)
From abstract: The thermophysical and transport properties of selected fluids have been programmed in FORTRAN 77 which is available for micro computers. The input variables are any two of P, p, T (pressure, density, and temperature) in the single phase regions, and either P or T for the saturated liquid or vapor states. The output is pressure, density, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacities (Cp and Cv), speed of sound and, in most cases, viscosity, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant.
Introduction to STARPAC: the Standards Time Series and Regression Package
From preface: STARPAC documentation is being published as a series of Technical Notes. This Note is the first in the series. It gives an overview of the STARPAC library, defines conventions used in the documentation, provides an example using STARPAC subroutines, and presents general background material. This Note includes information which is essential for using the STARPAC library, and users should be familiar with its contents before attempting to use any STARPAC subroutine.
Linear Gain: Standard Antennas Below 1000 MHz
Abstract: Gain and antenna parameters related to input impedance are calculated using a computer program called HVD6. This program uses well documented equations to compute these parameters for gain-standard antennas used in relative-gain or gain-transfer measurements at frequencies below 1000 MHz. The utility of this program is that it calculates gain patterns and input impedances for linear dipoles above perfect or imperfectly conducting plane ground and in free space, and for monopoles on perfectly conducting plane ground. Examples are included to illustrate the use of the program. Uncertainties in the calculated parameters are estimated to be less than those of the measured parameters.
Measurement of Optical Fiber Bandwidth in the Frequency Domain
Abstract: The design, evaluation, and performance of a system for determining the magnitude of the transfer function (hence, the bandwidth) of a multimode optical fiber are presented. The system operates to about 1450 MHz using a tracking generator/spectrum analyzer combination for narrowband detection. It is constructed, almost entirely, from commercially available components. The system is less complex and easier to use than an equivalent time domain system and the measurement precision is comparable. Background information on time and frequency domain specifications, fiber bandwidth limitations, and alternate frequency domain techniques is also presented.
A Method to Quantify the Radiation Characteristics of an Unknown Interference Source
From introduction: A new method for determining the radiation characteristics of leakage from electronic equipment for interference studies is described in this report. Basically, an unintentional leakage source is considered to be electrically small, and may be characterized by three equivalent orthogonal electric dipole moments and three equivalent orthogonal magnetic dipole moments. When an unknown source object is placed at the center of a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell, its radiated energy couples into the fundamental transmission mode and propagates toward the two output ports of the TEM cell. With a hybrid junction inserted into a loop connecting the cell output ports, one is able to measure the sum and difference powers and the relative phase between the sum and difference outputs. Systematic measurements of these powers and phases at six different source object positions, based on a well-developed theory, are sufficient to determine the amplitudes and phases of the unknown component dipole moments, from which the detailed free-space radiation pattern of the unknown source and the total radiated power can be determined. Results of simulated theoretical examples and an experiment using a spherical dipole radiator are given to illustrate the theory and measurement procedure.
Millimeter Attentuation and Reflection Coefficient Measurement System
This paper presents the details to implement a WR15 attentuation and reflection coefficient magnitude measurement system.
A Near-Field Array of Yagi-Uda Antennas for Electromagnetic Susceptibility Testing
Abstract: In electromagnetic susceptibility testing of electronic equipment, the ideal incident field is a plane wave. To approximate this condition, a seven-element array of Yagi-Uda antennas has been constructed and tested at a frequency of 500 MHz. The element weightings are determined by a near-field synthesis technique which optimizes the uniformity of the field throughout a rectangular test volume in the near field of the array. The amplitude and phase of the electric field have been measured throughout the test volume with a short dipole probe, and the agreement with the theory is excellent.
A New Near-Zone Electric Field-Strength Meter
Design and performance of a new near-zone electric field-strength meter.
Nonlinear Least Squares Regression Using STARPAC: The Standards Time Series and Regression Package
From preface: This Note documents 16 subroutines for nonlinear least squares regression. Twelve of these compute the least squares estimates, performing either weighted or unweighted analysis with either numerically approximated or user-supplied (analytic) derivatives. The other four are user-callable subroutines for two procedures used within the estimation code: the first selects optimum step sizes for approximating the partial derivatives of the model; and the second checks the validity of a user-supplied derivative subroutine.
On the Formulation and Numerical Evaluation of a set of Two-Phase Flow Equations Modelling the Cooldown Process
Summarizes progress to date on the formulation and numerical integration of systems of equations modeling general two-phase flows in a pipe.
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer Performance and Calibration Studies
from Introduction: The measurement accuracy of the optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is restricted in some applications by a limited operational dynamic range and by a lack of standardized test procedures. In an effort to better understand these restrictions, we have measured the range of linearity of some avalanche photodiodes used as backscatter detectors. Also, the effect of input launch conditions is examined and a possible standardized OTDR test procedure is proposed. Using these suggestions, we have made comparisons between attenuation values determined by cutback and backscatter methods and found that good agreement is possible. Finally, some methods are described for checking the response. linearity of OTDR systems.
Phase Equilibria: an Informal Symposium
From introduction: The accurate prediction of phase equilibria plays an important. role in the chemical process industries. A grief overview of final phase equilibria predictive techniques is presented with special emphasis on methods in current use in industry. Areas were better fundamental understanding will lead to improved models are discussed whenever possible.
Picosecond Time Difference Measurements Utilizing CAMAC-Based ANSI/IEEE-488 Data Acquisition Hardware : Operating Manual IE3, Version 1.0
Abstract: Automated time-difference measurements at the picosecond level have been achieved. The system described combines the best properties of three common methods: the single heterodyne measurement technique, the frequency divider, and the dual-mixer time-difference measurement system. This particular system combines two instrumentation standards, ANSI/IFEE-583 and ANSI/IEEE-488 with new, modular dual-mixer time-difference measurement hardware. The modular, standardized hardware together with the new measurement techniques permit the data acquisition modules to be contained in a standard CAMAC crate. This system, along with an external controller, is capable of measuring eiqht clocks, at the present time, and is expandable to twenty-four clocks with modified software and additional measurement modules. The system noise performance is described by a (rT = 3 x 10^-12 t^-1 for time difference measurements.
Possible Estimation Methodologies for Electromagnetic Field Distributions in Complex Environments
Abstract: The problem of measuring and characterizing complicated multiple-source, multiple-frequency electromagnetic environments is becoming more important and more difficult as electrical devices proliferate. This paper outlines three general approaches to the problem which are currently under investigation at the National Bureau of Standards. The three approaches are: 1) a statistical treatment of the spatial distribution of electromagnetic field intensities, 2) a numerical computation using a finite-difference (or lattice) form of the electromagnetic action functional, and 3) use of a directional probe to scan a volume. All three methods are still in the development stage, but each appears promising.
Provisional Thermodynamic Functions for Para-Hydrogen
The need for thermodynamic functions of para hydrogen, especially in compressed liquid and dense fluid states, prompts the tabulation of these provisional properties, computed by approximate methods utilizing the new PVT data of these reports. Computation and preparation of the tables is discussed under the following: Approximate Computational Methods; Correlation Methods; Discussion of Errors; and Tables of Functions.
A Radio-Frequency Power Delivery System: Procedures for Error Analysis and Self-Calibration
Abstract: An expression is developed for net power delivered to a load in terms of the indicated forward and reflected power and the system S-parameters and reflection coefficients. The dual directional coupler is treated as nonideal with power reflections assumed between all ports. The system itself is used to evaluate the major S-parameter terms in net power computation, and uncertainty in the computed power is derived from origins in the power meter readings and incompletely known S-parameters.