Search Results

open access

Analyses of Coals in the United States with Descriptions of Mine and Field Samples Collected between July 1, 1904 and June 30, 1910: Part 1. -- Analyses

Description: From Significance and value of Analyses of Coal: "The analyses published in this report cover samples of coal collected in many different parts of the country with unusual care by experiences men, in such manner as to make them representative of extensive beds of coal."
Date: 1913
Creator: Lord, N. W.
open access

Analyses of Coals in the United States with Descriptions of Mine and Field Samples Collected between July 1, 1904 and June 30, 1910 Part 2. Descriptions of Samples

Description: From Introduction: "This volume contains the descriptions of the samples whose analyses are published in the preceding volume, Part I of this bulletin. The descriptions have been compiled from the notebooks of the persons who collected the samples, have been condensed from accounts given in published reports of the United States Geological Survey, or have furnished by the collection themselves. Inasmuch as the descriptions represent the work of many persons during a period of six years, and inasmuch as they were recorded under widely differing conditions, they necessarily vary in fullness detail."
Date: 1913
Creator: Lord, N. W.
open access

Chemically Assisted in Situ Recovery of Oil Shale

Description: The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Ramierz, W. F.
open access

Chemically Assisted in Situ Recovery of Oil Shale. [Quarterly Report], April 1, 1990--June 30, 1990

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}O), to obtain-data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. The technical progress of the project is reported. The progress of the project is that experiment preparations are underway. Reactor design, process design, and experiment design have been completed. The laboratory to be used has required extensive clean-up, and is nearly ready. Safety considerations are underway. Finally, an initial literature search has revealed some important aspects that need to be considered.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
open access

Chemically Assisted in Situ Recovery of Oil Shale. [Quarterly] Report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}0), to obtain data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. The technical progress of the project is reported. The project status is that the progress is being made towards being able to run meaningful experiments.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
open access

Chemically Assisted in Situ Recovery of Oil Shale. [Quarterly Report], October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}O), to obtain data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. The technical progress of the project is reported. The project status is that the solutions to the problems discussed in the third quarter status, were found to function satisfactorily. Future needs have been considered, and appropriate equipment and instrumentation changes have been designed. Only one experiment was performed this quarter, with some improvement over the previous experiments. The increase in shale oil recovery followed directly from the changes discussed last quarter, but the improvement could have been larger with wider-spread implementation of the changes. Equipment was purchased to rectify the need, and will be installed shortly. Further, a minor change in the design was necessary to account for the brittleness of high temperature electrical resistance heating tapes. The focus of the work this quarter has been on the development of computer software to enable the use of on-line parameter identification, the design of the instrumentation necessary to adequately observe the system, and the design of a continuous gas mixer to implement the experiment.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
open access

Chemically Assisted in Situ Recovery of Oil Shale. Technical Progress Report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}O), to obtain data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. Quarter summary: all modifications previously planned where completed and a reaction experiment was run. A couple design flaws were discovered, improvements were designed, and all parts are expected in the first week of July. Experiment {number_sign}6 is expected to run the following Monday. Barring further mishap, experiments will be run one each week thereafter. The project is behind schedule, but the project is well positioned to make significant and considerable progress.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
open access

Direct Conversion of Methane to Methanol in a Non-Isothermal Catalytic Membrane Reactor

Description: The direct partial oxidation of CH{sub 4} to CH{sub 3}OH has been studied in a non-permselective, non-isothermal catalytic membrane reactor system. A cooling tube introduced coaxially inside a tubular membrane reactor quenches the product stream rapidly so that further oxidation of CH{sub 3}OH is inhibited. Selectivity for CH{sub 3}OH formation is significantly higher with quenching than in experiments without quenching. For CH{sub 4} conversion of 4% to 7% CH{sub 3}OH selectivity is 40% to 50% with quenching and 25% to 35% without quenching.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
open access

Direct Methane Conversion to Methanol

Description: Objective is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (ceramic membrane combined with catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. None of the membranes tested in a high pressure system could selectively remove methanol, until a cooling tube was inserted inside the membrane reactor to quench the product stream; this effectively increased methanol selectivity 2[times] during methane oxidation. For both conditions, combined selectivity for methanol and CO is constant, 85%. The remaining product is CO[sub 2]. The membranes were broken when removed from the system; this was remedied when a cooling tube with a smaller diameter was used.
Date: December 3, 1992
Creator: Falconer, J. L. & Noble, R. D.
open access

Direct Methane Conversion to Methanol

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal, the membrane was used to be used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. The cooling tube inserted inside the membrane reactor has created a low temperature zone that rapidly quenches the product stream. This system has proved effective for increasing methanol selectivity during CH[sub 4] oxidation, and we are using and modifying this non-isothermal, non-permselective membrane reactor.
Date: February 12, 1992
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
open access

Direct Methane Conversion to Methanol. Annual Report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal, the membrane was used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. The cooling tube inserted inside the membrane reactor has created a low temperature zone that rapidly quenches the product stream. This system has proved effective for increasing methanol selectivity during CH{sub 4} oxidation. The membranes broke during experiments, however, apparently because of the large radial thermal gradient and axial thermal expansion difference. Our efforts concentrated on improving the membrane lifetime by modifying this non-isothermal membrane reactor.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
open access

Direct Methane Conversion to Methanol. Annual Report, October 1993--September 1994

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal, the membrane was used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. However, all the membranes tested in this laboratory lost their selectivity under the reaction conditions. A modified non-isothermal, non-permselective membrane reactor then was built and satisfactory results were obtained. The conversion and selectivity data obtained in this laboratory were better than that of the most published studies.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
open access

Direct Methane Conversion to Methanol. Quarterly Project Status Report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to solely produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal the membrane was used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. The cooling tube inserted inside the membrane reactor has created a low temperature zone that rapidly quenches the product stream. Both ceramic and metal membranes were tested in this study and similar results were obtained. This membrane reactor system has proved effective for increasing methanol selectivity during CH{sub 4} oxidation. We are currently using this non-isothermal non-permselective membrane reactor, and evaluating modifications to further improve performance. Metal membrane was used to avoid the membrane breakage problem. A series of experiments were carried out in order to optimize the operation of the process. A methanol yield of 3.8% was obtained when 8% O{sub 2} was fed in a reactant mixture. The catalyst, MoO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}, was found not good for this methane partial oxidation process.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
open access

Direct Methane Conversion to Methanol. Quarterly Project Status Report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

Description: Objective is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (ceramic membrane combined with catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. None of the membranes tested in a high pressure system could selectively remove methanol, until a cooling tube was inserted inside the membrane reactor to quench the product stream; this effectively increased methanol selectivity 2{times} during methane oxidation. For both conditions, combined selectivity for methanol and CO is constant, 85%. The remaining product is CO{sub 2}. The membranes were broken when removed from the system; this was remedied when a cooling tube with a smaller diameter was used.
Date: December 3, 1992
Creator: Falconer, J. L. & Noble, R. D.
open access

Nickel Deposit Near Gold Hill, Boulder County, Colorado

Description: From Introduction: "Scattered throughout the Colorado Front Range, there are many small copper deposits, believed to be of pre-Cambrian age. The have been widely prospected but have produced little or no ore. In one of these, the Copper King mine, near Gold Hill, Colo., nickel was discovered in 1930, and development in the following years has exposed some 25,000 tons of ore containing from 2 to 3 percent of nickel. No other nickel deposit is known in the Front Range, but a somewhat similar deposit has been opened in Gem mine, near Canon City and about 120 miles south of Gold Hill."
Date: 1942
Creator: Goddard, Edwin N. & Lovering, T. S.
open access

Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado Technical Progress Report, 1976 and Proposal for Continuation of Contract

Description: This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1975 to November 1, 1976. The low energy nuclear physics section is dominated by light-ion reaction studies which span a wide range. These include both two-neutron and two-proton transfer reactions, charge exchange and inelastic scattering, as well as single nucleon transfer reactions. The nuclei studied vary widely in their mass and characteristics. These reaction studies have been aided by the multi-use scattering chamber which now allows the energy-loss-spectrometer beam preparation system (beam swinger) to shift from charged particle studies to neutron time-of-flight studies with a minimum loss of time. The intermediate energy section reflects the increase in activity accompanying the arrival of LAMPF data and the initiation of (p,d) studies at the Indiana separated-sector cyclotron. The nucleon removal results provided by the ..pi.. beam at EPICS previous to completion of the spectrometer have shown that nuclear effects dominate this process, so that the widely used free interaction picture is inadequate. The section entitled ''Other Activities'' reveals continuing activities in new applications of nuclear techniques to problems in medicine and biology. Reactions important to astrophysics continue to be investigated and our trace-element program remains at a high level of activity. The theoretical section reports new progress in understanding magnitudes of two-step reactions by inclusion of finite-range effects. A new finite-range program which is fast and economical has been completed. Intermediate energy results include calculations of ..pi..-..gamma.. angular correlations, low energy ..pi..-nucleus interactions, as well as (p,d) and nucleon scattering calculations for intermediate energies.
Date: November 1, 1976
open access

Numerical Calculation of the Three Dimensional Electrical Field in the Central Region of a Cyclotron

Description: To provide detailed and accurate electric fields in the ion source-puller region and at the dee dummy-dee gap for a cyclotron, a relaxation method solution of Laplace's equation has been used. A conventional difference equation with variation in mesh size and relaxation factor as well as different schemes for boundary corrections have been developed to achieve roughly 1 percent accuracy for a thre-dimensional domain with 10/sup 6/ mesh points. Although the computation requires considerable computer time, it is much less expensive than electrolytic tank analogue methods for measuring field distributions around complex electrode configurations.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Chen, M. & Lind, D. A.
open access

Reconnaissance for Radioactivity in the Gold Hill Mining Area, Boulder County, Colorado, Part 1

Description: Abstract: Several radioactive deposits were found as a result of reconnaissance in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder County, Colo. The ore deposits of the area have been worked chiefly for gold. All ore shipped has come from fissure veins, most of which are gold telluride veins. There are, however, some important sulfide veins which show a vague zonal distribution of pyritic gold ores and silverlead ores. The results of this reconnaissance suggest a possible relationship of the radioactive deposits to this indistinct sulfide zoning; however, the zoning is so obscure that its practical application to prospecting for uranium is of doubtful value at the present time. Pitchblende, torbernite, metatorbernite, and schroeckingerite have been identified in specimens from the area; however, no uranium minerals have yet been identified from most of the radioactive deposits, and the uraniferous material present is probably in disseminated small particles. Although selected samples from several localities assay 0.10 percent uranium or more, the known deposits are small and probably are not of immediate economic importance
Date: February 1955
Creator: Campbell, R. H.
Back to Top of Screen