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1999 Accountability Report

Description: A report including the United States Agency for International Development's financial statements and the inspector general's opinion on the statements, internal controls, and compliance with law and regulations. It also highlights the effectiveness of the Agency's programs in achieving U.S. foreign policy objectives.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: United States. Agency for International Development.

2000 Census: Coverage Evaluation Matching Implemented as Planned, but Census Bureau Should Evaluate Lessons Learned

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. Census Bureau conducted the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (ACE) survey to estimate the number of people missed, counted more than once, or otherwise improperly counted in the 2000 Census. On the basis of uncertainty in the ACE results, the Bureau's acting director decided that the 2000 Census tabulations should not be adjusted in order to redraw the boundaries of congressional districts or to distribute billions of dollars in federal funding. Although ACE was generally implemented as planned, the Bureau found that it overstated census undercounts because of an error introduced during matching operations and other uncertainties. The Bureau concluded that additional review and analysis of these uncertainties would be needed before the data could be used. Matching more than 1.4 million census and ACE records involved the following four phases, each with its own matching procedures and multiple layers of review: computer matching, clerical matching, field follow-up, and clerical matching. The Bureau applied quality assurance procedures to each phase of person matching. Because the quality assurance procedures had failure rates of less than one percent, the Bureau reported that person matching quality assurance was successful at minimizing errors. Overall, the Bureau carried out person matching as planned, with few procedural deviations. GAO identified areas for improving future ACE efforts, including more complete documentation of computer matching decisions and better assurance that problems do not arise with the bureau's automated systems."
Date: March 14, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

21st Century Community Learning Centers in P.L. 107-110: Background and Funding

Description: This report summarizes the major provisions of the reauthorized 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) program. It includes sections on fundings, national reservations, formula grants to states, competitive local grants, history, program effectiveness, and relevant legislation in the 107th Congress.
Date: March 16, 2004
Creator: McCallion, Gail

Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency in the legislative branch. GAO provides Congress with the best information available to help members make informed oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO meets Congress' information needs by (1) evaluating how government programs and policies are working, (2) auditing agency operations to determine whether federal funds are being spent efficiently and effectively, (3) investigating allegations of illegal and improper activities, and (4) issuing legal decisions and opinions. Most GAO work is done at the request of committees or members, but some reports are self-initiated or done in response to congressional mandates included in public laws or committee reports. GAO's annual index is a two-volume set. The first volume--Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000--contains summaries of 878 publicly released reports and testimony listed alphabetically by division or staff office. Classified reports, correspondence, and legal publications are not included. The second volume--Indexes for Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000--contains several indexes to help you locate reports and testimony by issue category, subject matter, title, or GAO witness. The annual index is also available in electronic format on GAO's website (www.gao.gov)."
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Access to Government Information In the United States

Description: The Constitution of the United States makes no specific allowance for any one of the co-equal branches to have access to information held by the others and contains no provision expressly establishing a procedure for, or a right of, public access to government information. Nonetheless, Congress has legislated various public access laws. These include two records access statutes — the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act — and two meetings access statutes — the Federal Advisory Committee Act and the Government in the Sunshine Act. This report provides background on the issue of government transparency and examines relevant litigation.
Date: March 13, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C. & Ginsberg, Wendy

Acid Rain: Emissions Trends and Effects in the Eastern United States

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on acid rain emissions trends in the eastern United States, focusing on: (1) sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted into the air at the national level; (2) deposition in the eastern United States and in three environmentally sensitive areas; (3) sulfates and nitrates in lakes in the Adirondack Mountains and the prospects for the lakes' recovery from the damage caused by acid rain; and (4) the extent to which utilities in 11 midwestern states used sulfur dioxide allowances originally assigned to utilities in their states, compared with allowances that originated in other states from 1995 through 1998."
Date: March 9, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

Description: The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.
Date: March 11, 2002
Creator: Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A. & Wilson, Travis C.

The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal (ASP) program's history and outlines issues for Congress as the program moves forward. The ASP is an improved type of radiation detection device, meant to serve as part of new and existing programs to protect against terrorist nuclear or radiological attack.
Date: March 25, 2009
Creator: Shea, Dana A.; Moteff, John D. & Morgan, Daniel

Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government.
Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan Security: U.S. Programs to Further Reform Ministry of Interior and National Police Challenged by Lack of Military Personnel and Afghan Cooperation

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The United States has invested more than $6.2 billion in the Afghan Ministry of Interior (MOI) and Afghan National Police (ANP). The Department of Defense's (Defense) Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A), with the Department of State (State), leads U.S. efforts to enhance MOI and ANP organizational structures, leadership abilities, and pay systems. This report assesses the status of U.S. efforts to help Afghanistan (1) restructure MOI and ANP, (2) retrain ANP units, (3) screen MOI and ANP personnel, and (4) enhance MOI and ANP pay systems. GAO reviewed Defense, State, and United Nations (UN) data and met with officials in the United States and Afghanistan."
Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

Agricultural Conservation: Survey of USDA State Technical Committee Members

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report presents the views of members of state technical committees on (1) the effectiveness of USDA's conservation efforts in addressing environmental concerns related to agriculture, (2) any program elements that hinder the achievement of related environmental objectives, and (3) any program characteristics that current or new programs might include to better meet these objectives. GAO summarizes the responses of the state technical committee members and stratifies them by geographic region and organization."
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues

Description: The federal government has a long history of providing credit assistance to farmers by issuing direct loans and guarantees, and creating rural lending institutions. These institutions include the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which makes or guarantees loans to farmers who cannot qualify at other lenders, and the Farm Credit System (FCS), which is a network of borrower-owned lending institutions operating as a government-sponsored enterprise. This report discusses legislation regarding this credit assistance expected in the the 110th Congress. Appropriators will consider funding for FSA’s farm loan programs, and the agriculture committees may consider changes to FSA and FCS lending programs. The 2007 farm bill is expected to be the venue for many of the authorizing issues, although stand-alone legislation may be used for extensive reforms.
Date: March 8, 2007
Creator: Monke, Jim

Agricultural Trade: Impacts of the Andean Trade Preference Act on Asparagus Producers and Consumers

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. asparagus imports increased in the 1990s and now comprise nearly one-half of the asparagus consumed in the United States. Peru is the second largest source of imported asparagus and benefits from duty-free treatment under the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA). ATPA is estimated to have displaced between two and eight percent of the value of domestic production from what it would have been without the act. Although the supply of fresh asparagus from imports has increased since ATPA's enactment, consumer demand has been strong, and prices have risen. In addition, an apparent increase in consumer preference for fresh asparagus has contributed to a downward shift in the domestic demand for processed asparagus. Most of the decline in the domestic production of processed asparagus occurred in Michigan and Washington, the two states that produce most canned and frozen asparagus. If ATPA is reauthorized, domestic producers of asparagus and, in particular, asparagus for processing, will likely face continued displacement, but consumers can expect continued benefits from the year-round availability of fresh asparagus. However, some of this displacement will likely occur even if ATPA is not reauthorized and the normal tariff is imposed. If ATPA is not reauthorized, consumers would likely have decreased availability and pay higher prices to the extent that tariff increases reduce Peruvian asparagus imports and hence total asparagus supplies. Domestic industries can petition the U.S. International Trade Commission to investigate whether increased imports under the ATPA have caused them serious injury or threat of serious injury. If the Commission finds serious injury, it may recommend relief options to the President, including suspending duty-free treatment for imports."
Date: March 15, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness

Description: The potential of terrorist attacks against agricultural targets (agroterrorism) is increasingly recognized as a national security threat, especially after the events of September 11, 2001. This report focuses primarily on biological weapons (rather than chemical weapons) because biological weapons generally are considered the more potent agroterrorism threat. This report also focuses more on the threat of agroterrorism against agricultural production, rather than on food processing and distribution, although the latter is discussed.
Date: March 12, 2007
Creator: Monke, Jim

Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program

Description: This report discusses the U.S. Air Force in-flight aerial refueling aircraft program. The KC-135, which makes up the preponderance of the Air Force's tanker force, is among the Air Force's oldest aircraft.
Date: March 4, 2008
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Knight, William

Air Pollution: EPA Could Take Additional Steps to Help Maximize the Benefits from the 2007 Diesel Emissions Standards

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Diesel engine emissions pose health risks, but one major source--heavy-duty diesel vehicles--is critical for our economy. To reduce risks, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set stringent emissions standards for diesel engines. In 1998, EPA found that some engine makers were violating standards, so they agreed to build engines that meet 2004 standards early, by October 2002. EPA has set even more stringent standards for 2007. GAO was asked to (1) assess the October 2002 deadline's effects on industry and emissions, and (2) obtain stakeholders' views on the readiness of technology for the 2007 standards and EPA's efforts to ensure this. GAO analyzed information from EPA, 10 large trucking companies, the engine makers subject to the early deadline, and other stakeholders."
Date: March 11, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Air Quality: TVA Plans to Reduce Air Emissions Further, but Could Do More to Reduce Power Demand

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) relied on its 11 coal-burning plants to supply 60 percent of its electric power in fiscal year 2001. These plants account for almost all of TVA's emissions of two key air pollutants--sulfur dioxide (SO2), which has been linked to reduced visibility, and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which contribute to the formation of harmful ozone. To meet an increase in demand of 1.7 percent annually through 2010, TVA estimates that it will need to expand its current generating capacity of 30,365 megawatts by 500 megawatts annually. Building new generating capacity can produce more emissions, which raises environment concerns. To lessen the need for new capacity, TVA and other electricity suppliers promote the efficient use of electricity through "demand-side management" programs, which seek to reduce the amount of energy consumed or to change the time of day when it is consumed. Even though TVA intends to increase its capacity to generate electricity through 2005, it also expects to reduce its SO2 and NOx emissions during the same time period, primarily by burning lower-sulfur coal, installing devices to control emissions at its existing plants, and relying on fuels other than coal for new capacity. Although TVA's demand-side management programs have allowed customers to cut their electrical consumption, these programs have made only modest contributions to reducing peak-time demand. TVA has limited the scope of its key program to reduce peak-time consumption by residential customers because TVA believes the program is not cost-effective. TVA projects that its demand-side programs will produce nearly twice as much in savings between 2001 and 2005 as was achieved in the previous five years. Other large utilities have more fully implemented the types of programs that TVA now has in place ...
Date: March 8, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Alabama Emergency Management and Homeland Security Statutory Authorities Summarized

Description: This report is one of a series that profiles the emergency management and homeland security statutory authorities of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and three territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Each profile identifies the more significant elements of state statutes, generally as codified. This report focuses on the state of Alabama.
Date: March 23, 2004
Creator: Bea, Keith; Runyon, L. Cheryl & Warnock, Kae M.

Alaska Emergency Management and Homeland Security Statutory Authorities Summarized

Description: This report is one of a series that profiles the emergency management and homeland security statutory authorities of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and three territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Each profile identifies the more significant elements of state statutes, generally as codified. This report focuses on the state of Alaska.
Date: March 17, 2004
Creator: Bea, Keith; Richardson, Pat; Runyon, L. Cheryl & Warnock, Kae M.

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5): Title V, Medicaid Provisions

Description: In addition to reducing some taxes and funding infrastructure projects, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provisions were designed to provide: temporary support to families and individuals by increasing unemployment compensation benefits; financial assistance for individuals to maintain their health coverage under provisions in the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA); temporary increases in Medicaid matching rates; and increases in disproportionate share hospital allotments. This report is a summary of ARRA's Medicaid provisions.
Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Binder, Cliff; Baumrucker, Evelyne P.; Grady, April & Herz, Elicia J.

Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorization

Description: This report discuses Amtrak, which was created by Congress in 1970 to provide intercity passenger railroad service. Without a yearly federal grant to cover operating losses, Amtrak would not survive as presently configured. This issue brief discusses reform proposals from both the Administration and Amtrak in the 109th Congress.
Date: March 14, 2008
Creator: Frittelli, John & Peterman, David Randall

Annual Energy Outlook 2009: with Projections to 2030

Description: The Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO2009), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), presents long-term projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2030, based on results from EIA’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). EIA published an “early release” version of the AEO2009 reference case in December 2008.
Date: March 2009
Creator: United States. Energy Information Administration.

Annual Report to the Congressional Defense Committees

Description: 2008 Annual Report measuring and updating the accomplishments and priorities of the Department of Defense (DoD) in regards to business transformation and the Military Health System. The report offers extensive documentation of the DoD Business Enterprise Priorities, reporting on milestones, modernization, property accountability, and visibility in regards to personnel, acquisitions, and finances.
Date: March 15, 2008
Creator: United States. Department of Defense.