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1.06 μm 150 psec laser damage study of diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished and polished metal mirrors

Description: Using a well characterized 1.06 μm 150 ps glass laser pulse the damage characteristics for diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished, and polished copper and silver mirrors less than 5 cm diameter were studied. Although most samples were tested with a normal angle of incidence, some were tested at 45$sup 0$ with different linear polarization showing an increase in damage threshold for S polarization. Different damage mechanisms observed will be discussed. Laser damage is related to residual surface influences of the fabrication process. First attempts to polish diamond turned surfaces resulted in a significant decrease in laser damage threshold. The importance of including the heat of fusion in the one dimensional heat analysis of the theoretical damage threshold and how close the samples came to the theoretical damage threshold is discussed. (auth)
Date: July 24, 1975
Creator: Saito, T. T.; Milam, D.; Baker, P. & Murphy, G.

1.8.2.1.2 Site system engineering implementation Fiscal Year 1998 multi-year work plan

Description: Manage the Site Systems Engineering process to provide a traceable, integrated, requirements-driven, and technically defensible baseline., Through the Site Integration Group, Systems Engineering ensures integration of technical activities across all site projects. Systems Engineering`s primary interfaces are with the Project Direction Office and with the projects, as well as with the Planning organization.
Date: October 3, 1997
Creator: Ferguson, J. E.

1.8.3 Site system engineering FY 1997 program plan

Description: The FY 1997 Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) technical baseline describes the functions to be accomplished and the technical standards that govern the work. The following information is provided in this FY 1997 MYWP: technical baseline, work breakdown structure, schedule baseline, cost baseline, and execution year.
Date: September 13, 1996
Creator: Grygiel, M. L.

A 1.8 K test facility for superconducting RF cavities

Description: To demonstrate the feasibility of superconducting RF technology for a high energy e{sup +}/e{sup {minus}} collider, a research and development program has begun with collaborators from Europe, Asia, and North America. The immediate goal of the R&D program is to build and operate a 50 meter-long linac at DESY with 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavities at a temperature of 1.8 K - 2.0 K and an accelerating gradient of 15 MV/meter. The refrigeration for the test system at DESY initially will have a capacity of about 100 W at 1.8 K, distributed among three test cryostats. In a second step, refrigeration will be upgraded to 200 W at 1.8 K in order to supply the 50 meter test linac. This paper describes the cryogenics of this test system.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Horlitz, G.; Knopf, U.; Lange, R.; Petersen, B.; Sellmann, D.; Trines, D. et al.

A 1.8 Mev K+ injector for the high current beam transport experiment fusion

Description: For the High Current Beam Transport Experiment (HCX) at LBNL, an injector is required to deliver up to 1.8 MV of 0.6 A K{sup +} beam with an emittance of {approx}1 p-mm-mrad. We have successfully operated a 10-cm diameter surface ionization source together with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator to meet these requirements. The pulse length is {approx}4 {micro}s, firing at once every 10-15 seconds. By optimizing the extraction diode and the ESQ voltages, we have obtained an output beam with good current density uniformity, except for a small increase near the beam edge. Characterization of the beam emerging from the injector included measurements of the intensity profile, beam imaging, and transverse phase space. These data along with comparison to computer simulations provide the knowledge base for designing and understanding future HCX experiments.
Date: May 20, 2002
Creator: Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek,F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Prost, L. & Seidl, P.

1-10 Mbar Laser-Driven Shocks Using the Janus Laser Facility

Description: We report preliminary results using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Janus laser facility to generate high pressure laser-driven shocks in the 1-10 Mbar regime. These experiments address various issues, including shock steadiness, planarity, uniformity and low target preheat, important for making precision EOS measurements on a small (E < 250 J) laser facility. A brief description of the experimental techniques, target design and measurements will be given.
Date: August 10, 2001
Creator: Dunn, J.; Price, D. F.; Moon, S. J.; Cauble, R. C.; Springer, P. T. & Ng, A.

1/12-Scale mixing interface visualization and buoyant particle release tests in support of Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation

Description: In support of tank waste safety programs, visualization tests were performed in the 1/12-scale tank facility, using a low-viscosity simulant. The primary objective of the tests was to obtain video records of the transient jet-sludge interaction. The intent is that these videos will provide useful qualitative data for comparison with model predictions. Two tests were initially planned: mixing interface visualization (MIV) and buoyant particle release (BPR). Completion of the buoyant particle release test was set aside in order to complete additional MIV tests. Rheological measurements were made on simulant samples before testing, and the simulant was found to exhibit thixotropic behavior. Shear vane measurements were also made on an in-situ analog of the 1/12-scale tank simulant. Simulant shear strength has been observed to be time dependent. The primary objective of obtaining video records of jet-sludge interaction was satisfied, and the records yielded jet location information which may be of use in completing model comparisons. The modeling effort is not part of this task, but this report also discusses test specific instrumentation, visualization techniques, and shear vane instrumentation which would enable improved characterization of jet-sludge interaction and simulant characteristics.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Eschbach, E. J. & Enderlin, C. W.

1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

Description: Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Fort, J. A.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Enderlin, C. W. & Elmore, M. R.

1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation. Final report

Description: Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.
Date: January 1993
Creator: Fort, J. A.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Enderlin, C. W. & Elmore, M. R.

1/12-Scale scoping experiments to characterize double-shell tank slurry uniformity: Test plan

Description: Million gallon double-shell tanks (DSTs) at Hanford are used to store transuranic, high-level, and low-level wastes. These wastes generally consist of a large volume of salt-laden solution covering a smaller volume of settled sludge primarily containing metal hydroxides. These wastes will be retrieved and processed into immobile waste forms suitable for permanent disposal. The current retrieval concept is to use submerged dual-nozzle pumps to mobilize the settled solids by creating jets of fluid that are directed at the tank solids. The pumps oscillate, creating arcs of high-velocity fluid jets that sweep the floor of the tank. After the solids are mobilized, the pumps will continue to operate at a reduced flow rate sufficient to maintain the particles in a uniform suspension. The objectives of these 1/12-scale scoping experiments are to determine how Reynolds number, Froude number, and gravitational settling parameter affect the degree of uniformity achieved during jet mixer pump operation in the full-scale double-shell tanks; develop linear models to predict the degree of uniformity achieved by jet mixer pumps operating in the full-scale double-shell tanks; apply linear models to predict the degree of uniformity that will be achieved in tank 241-AZ-101 and determine whether contents of that tank will be uniform to within {+-} 10% of the mean concentration; and obtain experimental concentration and jet velocity data to compared with the TEMPEST computational and modeling predictions to guide further code development.
Date: October 1994
Creator: Bamberger, J. A. & Liljegren, L. M.

1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I

Description: We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.
Date: January 30, 2013
Creator: Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kessel, C. & Poli, F.

1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

Description: The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, ...
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Hansen, E.

1. 8K conditioning (non-quench training) of a model SSC dipole

Description: The accepted hypothesis is that training quenches are caused by heat generation when conductors move under Lorentz force. Afterwards no conductor motion will occur until a higher field and greater Lorentz force acts. If superior heat transfer and/or greater temperature margin is provided by operating at lower bath temperature, one might expect that the heat generated by conductor motion will not cause a runaway temperature increase, or quench. To test this hypothesis, the central dipole field in SSC model magnets was ramped at 1.8 K to 7.1 tesla without the magnets' quenching. The bath was then raised to 4.4 K and the magnets quenched at their short sample limits of 6.6 tesla or higher. Comparison with similar magnets trained in He I at 4.4 K is made and the significance of the non-quench training on system operation is discussed.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Gilbert, W. S. & Hassenzahl, W. V.

1-D closure models for slender 3-D viscoelastic free jets: von Karman flow geometry and elliptical cross section

Description: In this paper we derive one space dimensional, reduced systems of equations (1-D closure models) for viscoelastic free jets. We begin with the three-dimensional system of conservation laws and a Maxwell-Jeffreys constitutive law for an incompressible viscoelastic fluid. First, we exhibit exact truncations to a finite, closed system of 1-D equations based on classical velocity assumptions of von Karman. Next, we demonstrate that the 3-D free surface boundary conditions overconstrain these truncated systems, so that only a very limited class of solutions exist. We then proceed to derive approximate 1-D closure theories through a slender jet asymptotic scaling, combined with appropriate definitions of velocity, pressure and stress unknowns. Our nonaxisymmetric 1-D slender jet models incorporate the physical effects of inertia, viscoelasticity (viscosity, relaxation and retardation), gravity, surface tension, and properties of the ambient fluid, and include shear stresses and time dependence. Previous special 1-D slender jet models correspond to the lowest order equations in the present asymptotic theory by an a posteriori suppression to leading order of some of these effects, and a reduction to axisymmetry. Solutions of the lowest order system of equations in this asymptotic analysis are presented: For the special cases of elliptical inviscid and Newtonian free jets, subject to the effects of surface tension and gravity, our model predicts oscillation of the major axis of the free surface elliptical cross section between perpendicular directions with distance down the jet, and drawdown of the cross section, in agreement with observed behavior. 15 refs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Bechtel, S. E.; Forest, M. G.; Holm, D. D. & Lin, K. J.

1-D Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo

Description: We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Evans, T. M.; Urbatsch, T. J. & Lichtenstein, H.

1-D hybrid code for FRM start-up

Description: A one-D hybrid has been developed to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. The code uses a multi-group numerical model originally developed by J. Willenberg to describe fusion product dynamics in a solenoidal plasma. Earlier we described such a model for use in determining self-consistent ion currents and magnetic fields in FRM start-up. However, consideration of electron dynamics during start-up indicate that the electron current will oppose the injected ion current and may even foil the attempt to achieve reversal. For this reason, we have combined the multi-group ion (model) with a fluid treatment for electron dynamics to form the hybrid code FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up). The details of this merger, along with sample results of operation of FROST, are given.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Stark, R.A. & Miley, G.H.

A 1-D model for highly sensitive tubular reactors

Description: We consider the steady state operation of wall-cooled, fixed-bed tubular reactors. In these reactors the temperature rise ..delta..T must normally be limited to small fractions of the adiabatic temperature rise ..delta..T/sub ad/, both to avoid runaway and maintain product selectivity. Yet ..delta..T/..delta..T/sub ad/ << 1 can only occur if eta = t/sub dif//t/sub reac/ << 1, where t/sub dif/ is the timescale on which heat escapes the reactor by ''diffusing'' to the cooled walls, and t/sub reac/ is the timescale over which the reaction occurs. So here we use asymptotic methods based on eta << 1 to analyze the 2-d reactor equations, and find the radial concentration and temperature profiles to leading order in eta. We then obtain a 1-d model of the reactor by substituting these asymptotically correct profiles into the reactor equations and averaging over r. This model, the ..cap alpha..-model, is identical to the standard (Beek and Singer) 1-d model, except that the reactor's overall heat transfer coefficient U is a decreasing function of the temperature rise ..delta..T. This occurs because as ..delta..T increases, the reaction becomes increasingly concentrated near r = 0, causing a decreased heat transfer efficiency through the reactor's walls. By comparing it with numerical solutions of the original 2-d reactor equations, we find that the ..cap alpha..-model simulates the 2-d equations very accurately, even for highly sensitive reactors operated near runaway. We also find that a runaway criterion derived from the ..cap alpha..-model predicts the runaway transition of the original 2-d equations accurately, especially for highly sensitive reactors. 19 refs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Hagan, P.S.; Herskowitz, M. & Pirkle, J.C.