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The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

Description: In December 2007, leaders of the European Union (EU) signed the Lisbon Treaty, which seeks to reform the EU's governing institutions and decisionmaking processes to enable a larger EU to operate more effectively. This new treaty represents the latest stage in a reform process begun in 2002 and essentially replaces the proposed EU "constitution" that foundered after French and Dutch voters rejected it in referendums in 2005. In June 2008, Irish voters rejected the Lisbon Treaty, and have thrown its future into doubt. This report provides background information on EU reform efforts and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the second session of the 110th Congress.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Item Type: Report

Poland and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief

Description: This report provides an overview and assessment of the relationship between the Untied States and Poland over the last 25 years, including developmentents in Poland that are of interest to the U.S. Congress.
Date: November 17, 2015
Creator: Mix, Derek E.
Item Type: Report

European Union Enlargement

Description: The European Union (EU) has long viewed the enlargement process as an extraordinary opportunity to promote political stability and economic prosperity in Europe. U.S. Administrations and many Members of Congress have long backed EU enlargement, believing that it serves U.S. interests by advancing democracy and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. Some U.S. officials are concerned that "enlargement fatigue" as well as the EU's ongoing financial crisis could hinder EU expansion. The status of EU enlargement and its implications for both the EU itself and U.S.-EU relations may be of interest to the second session of the 112th Congress.
Date: April 4, 2012
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Item Type: Report

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Item Type: Report

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Item Type: Report

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Item Type: Report

European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

Description: This report provides detailed background and legal analysis of the nature of the current European Union embargo on arms exports to China. It also provides detailed background on the European Union’s current Code of Conduct on Arms Exports. A strengthened version of the Code would be one of the control mechanisms that would remain should the EU lift the embargo on arms exports to China. This report also gives information on recent EU arms exports authorized for China. It further summarizes U.S. concerns regarding the lifting of the arms embargo, and notes the prospective timing of EU action on the embargo issue.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Papademetriou, Theresa
Item Type: Report

Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Description: In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Item Type: Report

Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Description: In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
Date: March 10, 2006
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Item Type: Report

Turkey: Situation Update

Description: This report briefly discusses recent political, economic, and security issues in Turkey, especially relating to Turkey's relationship with Greece, the European Union, and the United States.
Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Item Type: Report

European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy

Description: Overall, there are two sets of questions for Congress in examining U.S. policy toward the fate of the EU’s arms embargo on China. What are the implications for U.S. interests in trans-Atlantic relations and China? If U.S. interests are adversely affected, what are some options for Congress to discourage the EU from lifting its arms embargo on China and, if it is lifted, to protect U.S. national security interests in both Asia and Europe? Issues raised by these questions are the subject of this CRS Report.
Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Grimmett, Richard F. & Kan, Shirley A.
Item Type: Report

Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)

Description: The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry
Item Type: Report

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Relations: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress

Description: U.S. and European private stakeholders, concerned about slow growth, job creation, and increased competition from emerging economies, have urged Brussels and Washington to strengthen transatlantic trade and economic ties by reducing or eliminating remaining trade barriers and by cooperating more closely in addressing global economic challenges. A select group of these issues are examined in this report.
Date: January 18, 2012
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Item Type: Report

Coal Mining in Europe: A Study of Practices in Different Coal Formations and Under Various Economic and Regulatory Conditions Compared with Those in the United States

Description: From Introduction: "The major purpose of this bulletin, as indicated in the preface by Dr. John W. Finch, Director of the Bureau of Mines, is to give a critical review of the coal-mining methods used in the principal producing countries of Europe, to describe the reasons underlying the adoption of these methods, and to contrast them with coal-mining methods employed in the United States."
Date: 1939
Creator: Rice, George S. & Hartmann, Irving
Item Type: Report

Newsmap. Monday, March 22, 1943 : week of March 12 to March 19, 184th week of the war, 66th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Tunisia, Aleutians, New Guinea, Solomons, Pacific and Far East, Burma-China, Russia. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Inset maps show northern Tunisia, and along the Russian front. Includes photographs: Pulling together for victory [Chinese laborers flatten a runway with a heavy roller]; Sgt. Robert Wilson of Wichita, Kansas rides a wheelbarrow taxicab; Yanks in the Far East care for Burmese orphans; Amphibian jeeps; Wet feet are no worry [jungle fighting in New Guinea]; Allied troops wade from stream to shore [New Guinea]; American gun crew lowers their sights to fire into the jungle in New Guinea. Back: Military Courtesy. Color illustrations of Army and Navy uniforms and insignia of the United States, U.S.S.R., France, Poland, China and the British Empire. Accompanying text describes how to address each rank.
Date: March 22, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course
Item Type: Poster

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 280th week of the war, 162nd week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: U.S. aircrafts invade enemy waters, American troops penetrate Luzon, Allies Strike German Perimeter, Red Army on the Move. Maps: U.S. aircrafts invade enemy waters -- Western front salient -- Burma -- American troops penetrate Luzon -- Road to Manila -- Soviet offensive. Back: Color map of Sumatra and Malay states
Date: January 22, 1945
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch
Item Type: Poster

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 283rd week of the war, 165th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Allies close on Reich from two sides, Aircraft strike over wide Pacific area, Manila liberation frees prisoners. Maps: [Germany]; [Pacific area]; Manila liberated. Insets: Manila Back: Text and 17 photographs show Japan in 1939.
Date: February 12, 1945
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch
Item Type: Poster

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 284th week of the war, 166th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Allies press western front Offensive; Manila battle continues - B-29's active; Soviets make new crossings Maps: Western Front, Soviet Salient, U.S. troops continue to clear Manila. Back: Text and illustration and photographs highlight the role of Military Police.
Date: February 19, 1945
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch
Item Type: Poster

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 289th week of the war, 171st week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text: Rhine bridgehead, Saar breakthrough, Berlin threat, Slow squeeze, Rich target, Principal port, "Jap Pittsburgh," Empire's heart. Maps: Bonn-Koblenz; Saarbrucken-Frankfurt; Stettin-Berlin; Danzig-Konigsberg; Kyushu; Kobe-Osaka; Nagoya; Tokyo. Back: Text, photographs, and illustrations highlight some facts about the U.S.S.R.
Date: March 26, 1945
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch
Item Type: Poster

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 263rd week of the war, 145th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: France, Pacific, Italy, China-Burma, Eastern front. Maps: North Burma; France; Western Pacific; Warsaw. Insets: Palau Islands; Morotai. Back:"Mindanao, Philippine Islands." Two different oblique views of the island. The large image shows it as seen from the southwest.
Date: September 25, 1944
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch
Item Type: Poster