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U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues

Description: This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle — land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and heavy bombers — focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force.
Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. The report includes an extensive listing and summary of statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
Date: January 11, 2013
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K. & Weed, Matthew C.

The Advanced Technology Program

Description: This report discuses the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) that was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries
Date: July 25, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.

The Medical Device Excise Tax: Economic Analysis

Description: This report reviews the issues surrounding the medical devices tax within the framework of basic principles surrounding the choice of commodities to tax under excise taxes. The next section describes the tax and its legislative origins. After that, the report analyzes the arguments for retaining and repealing the tax.
Date: January 9, 2015
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Lowry, Sean

Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Description: This report discusses ethanol consumption which has grown significantly in the past several years with the establishment of a renewable fuels standard in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58). This standard requires U.S. gasoline to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel, including ethanol.
Date: March 10, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.

U.S. - European Union Disputes in the World Trade Organization

Description: This report discusses disputes in the World Trade Organization (WTO) between the United States and the European Union (EU). The report begins with an overview of the issues to be addressed, and continues with a brief description of the WTO dispute settlement process, a summary of U.S.-EU dispute settlement history, and a review of issues arising from cases of longstanding non-compliance. The report concludes with a discussion of continuing concerns and policy considerations.
Date: May 27, 2003
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J. & Grimmett, Jeanne J.

The Judgment Fund: History, Administration, and Common Usage

Description: This report sets out specific instances in which the Fund can be accessed and illustrates the procedural mechanisms for obtaining payment under certain statutory causes of action. In addition, this report will briefly highlight several recently proposed changes to the Judgment Fund’s administration. In the 113th Congress, the Judgment Fund Transparency Act of 2013 (H.R. 317) would require the Secretary of the Treasury to post on a public website the claimant, agency, fact summary, and payment amount for each claim paid out of the Fund.
Date: March 7, 2013
Creator: Chu, Vivian S. & Yeh, Brian T.

Legislative History Research: A Guide to Resources for Congressional Staff

Description: This report provides an overview of federal legislative history research, the legislative process, and where to find congressional documents. The report also summarizes some of the reasons researchers are interested in legislative history, briefly describes the actions a piece of legislation might undergo during the legislative process, and provides a list of easily accessible print and electronic resources.
Date: August 16, 2013
Creator: Taylor, Julia