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The fundamental principles of high-speed semi-diesel engines. Part 1: a general discussion of the subject of fuel injection in diesel engines and detailed descriptions of many types of injection nozzles

Description: Three questions relating to the technical progress in the utilization of heavy oils are discussed. The first question considers solid injection in high-speed automobile engines, the second concerns the development of the hot-bulb engine, and the third question relates to the need for a more thorough investigation of the processes on which the formatation of combustible, rapidly-burning mixtures depend.
Date: April 1926
Creator: Büchner

Integral methods in the theory of the boundary layer

Description: From Summary: "The application of the well-known basic principle of mechanics, the principle of Jourdain, to problems of the theory of the boundary layer leads to an equation from which the equations of Von Karman, Leibenson, and Golubev are derived as special cases. The given equation may be employed in other integral methods. The present paper deals with the method of the variation of the thickness of the boundary layer. A number of new approximate formulas valuable in aerodynamic calculations for the friction distribution are derived from this procedure. The method has been applied only to laminar boundary layers, but it seems probable that it may be generalized to include turbulent layers as well."
Date: July 1944
Creator: Loitsianskii, L. G.

Instrument for measuring the wall shearing stress of turbulent boundary layers

Description: It is shown that at a smooth wall in a turbulent boundary layer the velocity profile next to the wall is dependent, aside from the material constants of the flowing medium, only on the shearing stress transmitted to the wall, even with pressure rise or with pressure drop. Consequently, the heat transfer of a small element that is built into the wall and has a higher temperature than that of the flowing medium is a measure of the wall shearing stress. Theoretical considerations indicate that the wall shearing stress of the boundary layer can be defined by means of a heat-transfer measurement with an instrument mounted in the wall. Such an instrument is described. The calibration curve and its directional sensitivity curve are indicated. It permits the determination of the wall shearing stress in magnitude and direction.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Ludwieg, H.

Inherent stability of helicopters

Description: The equilibrium, in still air, of a "stationary" helicopter (i.e., of one having neither vertical nor translational velocity, but a tendency to remain practically motionless within restricted limits of space) presents some difficulty in practice and justifies a theoretical investigation of its "inherent stability," i.e., independent of the pilot.
Date: October 1923
Creator: Crocco, G. Arturo

New frictional resistance law for smooth plates

Description: From measurements in the free boundary layer of a plate the laws governing the velocity distribution and a new resistance law are derived which, by increasing Reynolds number Re(sub x) afford lower resistance values than the logarithmic law. The transverse velocities, the shearing stress, and the mixing path profiles were also defined.
Date: September 1941
Creator: Schultz-Grunow, F.

The new interpretation of the laws of air resistance

Description: A closer examination of Newton's formula for air resistance shows that it is well to consider the air as an ordinary fluid, and, indeed for most of the velocities considered, as a non-compressible fluid, so long as the dimensions of the moving body are large in comparison with the mean free path of the particles of air.
Date: April 1923
Creator: Prandtl, L.

A new spinning-test method

Description: This report contains a description of a new spinning-test arrangement wherein the otherwise customary rotation of the model about a fixed axis is abandoned in favor of a corresponding rotation of the air stream. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the model is at rest while the spin is recorded. In this manner it is possible to secure systematic results with little loss of time while employing 3- or 6-component wind-tunnel balances. The troublesome equalization of the mass forces is eliminated and the flow phenomena are accessible to direct observation.
Date: April 1938
Creator: Kramer, M. & Krüger, K. B.

NACA Conference on Aircraft Loads, Structures, and Flutter

Description: This document contains reproductions of technical papers on some of the most recent research results on aircraft loads, flutter, and structures from the NACA laboratories. These papers were presented by members of the staff of the NACA laboratories at the Conference held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory March 5, 6, and 7, 1957. The primary purpose of this Conference was to convey to contractors of the military services and others concerned with the design of aircraft these recent research results and to provide those attending an opportunity to discuss the results. The papers in this document are in the same form in which they were presented at the Conference in order to facilitate their prompt distribution. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee?s more complete and formal reports. Accordingly, if information from this document is utilized it is requested that this document not be listed as a reference. Individual reports dealing with most of the information presented at the Conference will subsequently be published by NACA and will therefore be suitable as reference material.
Date: March 5, 1957

Preliminary results from fatigue tests with reference to operational statistics

Description: Simple elements were subjected to repeated loads of variable ampliture, chosen in such a way that they may be regarded as approximations to the operational loads (gust and maneuver) experienced by an airplane. The effect of varying some parameters was investigated briefly. Some discussion is given of the question whether a design according to current (1938 German) requirements for static strength is adequate from the fatigue point of view, and existing requirements on fatigue strength are compared,.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Gassner, E.

General considerations on the flow of compressible fluids

Description: This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the flow of compressible media. Information regarding steady potential flow, flows with "subsonic" velocities, higher approximations of subsonic velocities, flow with supersonic velocities, an approximate method for general two-dimensional supersonic flow, passage through the velocity of sound, and the application to airfoils is provided. Historical development and hydraulics are omitted.
Date: October 1936
Creator: Prandtl, L.

Heat transfer in geometrically similar cylinders

Description: The power and heat-stress conditions of geometrically similar engines are discussed. The advantages accruing from smaller cylinder dimensions are higher specific horsepower, lower weight per horsepower, lower piston temperature, and less frontal area, with reduced detonation tendency.
Date: May 1941
Creator: Riekert, P. & Held, A.

Note on the calculation of boundary layers

Description: The properties of the solutions of the hydrodynamic equations of viscous fluid by "boundary-layer omission" are discussed. A method is indicated for the numerical determination of the solution for a known initial profile u(x(sub o),y) and pressure distribution p(x) within the region.
Date: November 1940
Creator: Prandtl, L.

On the theory of unsteady planing and the motion of a wing with vortex separation

Description: The disturbance imparted to water by a planing body give rise to a wave form of motion on the free surface, the length of the waves increasing indefinitely with increase in the Froude number and being directly proportional to the latter in the case of the plane or two-dimensional problem. At large Froude numbers the effect of the weight shows up to any appreciable extent only at some distance from the body, so that the flow near the body can be considered as part of a flow of an infinitely extending weightless fluid. This paper is a consideration of these characteristics as well as a formulation of the planing problem and its relation to the problem of a thin wing.
Date: May 1940
Creator: Sedov, L.

On the turbulent friction layer for rising pressure

Description: Among the information presented are included displacement, momentum, and kinetic energy thicknesses, shearing stress distributions across boundary layer, and surface friction coefficients. The Gruschwitz method and its modifications are examined and tested. An energy theorem for the turbulent boundary layer is introduced and discussed but does not lead to a method for the prediction of the behavior of the turbulent boundary layer because relations for the shearing stress and the surface friction are lacking.
Date: October 1951
Creator: Wieghardt, K. & Tillmann, W.

On the representation of the stability region in oscillation problems with the aid of the Hurwitz determinants

Description: This report concerns the use of the Hurwitz determinants in defining boundaries of regions where oscillatory phenomena are to be stable or unstable. A simplification is suggested as an aid in reducing the computations usually required, although it is emphasized that point checks in the various regions defined are required using the complete set of Hurwitz determinants or some other complete stability determination.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Sponder, E.

On the recording of turbulent longitudinal and transverse fluctuations

Description: A thorough understanding of the turbulent flow movements cannot be arrived at from investigations of the temporal mean values of the flows alone. Study of the fluctuation phenomena themselves is indispensable. Thus turbulence research entered a new promising stage when investigators started performing fluctuation measurements and basing theories on those measurements. The investigations of fluctuations carried out so far refer almost exclusively to the so-called isotropic turbulence. It represents a damping phenomenon; it is the simplest type of turbulence where merely the longitudinal fluctuations need to be measured. However, it is precisely nonisotropic turbulence which involves the most essential problem of the turbulent exchange movement and the turbulent apparent friction. Investigation of nonisotropic turbulence requires measurement of longitudinal and transverse fluctuations.
Date: August 1951
Creator: Reichardt, H.

The effect of compressibility on the pressure reading of a Prandtl pitot tube at subsonic flow velocity

Description: Errors arising from yawed flow were also determined up to 20 degrees angle of attack. In axial flow, the Prandtl pitot tube begins at w/a approx. = 0.8 to give an incorrect static pressure reading, while it records the tank pressure correctly, as anticipated, up to sonic velocity. Owing to the compressibility of the air, the Prandtl pitot tube manifests compression shocks when the air speed approaches velocity of sound. This affects the pressure reading of the instrument. Because of the increasing importance of high speed in aviation, this compressibility effect is investigated in detail.
Date: November 1939
Creator: Walchner, O.