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Seeking Solutions: High Performance Computing for Science

Description: This background paper focuses on the Federal role in supporting a national high-performance computing initiative. High-performance ‘‘supercomputers’ * are fast becoming tools of international competition and they play an important role in such areas as scientific research, weather forecasting, and popular entertainment. They may prove to be the key to maintaining America’s preeminence in science and engineering. The automotive, aerospace, electronic, and pharmaceutical industries are becoming more reliant on the use of high-performance computers in the analysis, engineering, design, and manufacture of high-technology products.
Date: March 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture

Description: This report discusses different aquatic species that are produced in the United States, including various animal and plant ornamentals, species for environmental remediation, industrial and pharmaceutical feedstocks, and products for biomedical research.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

The Social Security Administration's Decentralized Computer Strategy: Issues and Options

Description: The report highlights some of the opportunities and challenges faced by a major federal agency in: 1 ) implementing the Administration’s “National Performance Review and “National Information Infrastructure” programs, and 2) addressing issues raised in OTA’s 1993 report Making Government Work: Electronic Delivery of Federal Services.
Date: April 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

High-Temperature Superconductivity in Perspective

Description: This is the second of two OTA assessments on the subject of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS). As the title suggests, this study attempts to put HTS in perspective, both in terms of competing technologies (e.g., the more mature low-temperature superconductors), and in terms of the many technical and economic problems that must be overcome before HTS can be widely used.
Date: April 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

HIV in the Health Care Workplace

Description: This background paper examines evidence of the risk of HIV transmission in the health care workplace and discusses the policy implications of CDC guidelines and congressional actions in response to this risk.
Date: November 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Holding the Edge: Maintaining the Defense Technology Base—Vol. II, Appendices

Description: The report notes that America’s defense technology base has weathered significantly, with challenges to U.S. high-Technology firms from abroad, increasing dependence on foreign and civilian sources of technology for use in military systems, and growing technological sophistication of our adversaries.
Date: January 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Home Drug Infusion Therapy Under Medicare

Description: This report deals with the drug and biological infusion treatments (including blood transfusions) being used in the home but not yet explicitly covered by Medicare in that setting. Medicare does cover total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in the home for individuals with long-term disabilities that prevent them from being able to digest food. TPN has many similarities to the therapies discussed in detail in this report, and many providers of HDIT also provide TPN and other nutritional products and services.
Date: May 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Hospital Financing in Seven Countries

Description: This report discusses a seven-country study of hospital financing is an attempt to find lessons for the United States. The individual experiences over the past decade of the United States and six of its international peers—Canada, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden—in hospital financing and payment systems are reviewed by experts in each country.
Date: May 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

How Has Federal Research on AIDS/HIV Disease Contributed to Other Fields?

Description: The House Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations asked the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to document the extent to which federally funded research on AIDS/HIV has contributed to advances in other fields including biomedical and behavior research, prevention, patient care, and health care financing. In response to this request OTA conducted a survey of distinguished biomedical and social scientists. This Staff Paper reports on the results of that survey.
Date: April 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Health Care in Rural America

Description: This report is about access of people in rural America to basic health care services. This report focuses on trends in the availability of primary and acute health care in rural areas and factors affecting those trends.
Date: September 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries

Description: This paper discusses the experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—technology assessment with six technologies (or sets of technologies) including evaluation and management efforts and how the technologies diffused— are presented and compared.
Date: February 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Health Insurance: The Hawaii Experience

Description: This paper provides a detailed look at the State that is often considered a model for what States can do to help provide universal or near universal health insurance coverage for their residents. The paper discusses the history of health insurance provision in Hawaii, emphasizing two relatively recent State insurance laws: 1) the 1974 law that required employers to offer coverage to most of their employees, and 2) the 1989 law that provided a State subsidy for coverage of those individuals who fell in the gap between employment-based coverage and Medicaid coverage. The paper addresses the difficulties faced in evaluating the impact of Hawaii’s various attempts to provide coverage and access, and speaks to whether all or parts of Hawaii’s experience can be transferred to other States or to the Nation as a whole.
Date: June 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Helping America Compete: The Role of Federal Scientific and Technical Information

Description: This Special Report assesses how Federal scientific and technical information (STI) can contribute to a more competitive America and what actions are needed to realize this potential. The report was prepared in response to a request from the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology.
Date: June 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Compilation of Abbreviations and Terms

Description: This paper contains glossaries of terms and abbreviations compiled from selected reports issued between 1987 and 1992 by the Health Program and the Biological and Behavioral Sciences Program of the Office of Technology Assessment.
Date: September 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Competing Economies: America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim

Description: This report examines how the economic environment of the United States can be made more conducive to improving manufacturing performance. It considers how Federal institutions, in cooperation with industry, can develop competitiveness strategies for high-tech, fast growing industries; and how trade, financial, and technology policies could be combined into a strategic competitiveness policy.
Date: October 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Complex Cleanup: The Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production

Description: This report is a comprehensive look at the problem as we now know it, the public concerns about the problem, and DOE’s plans for addressing it. It focuses especially on the need for additional attention to those areas which DOE has neither the capability nor the credibility to handle.
Date: February 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Computer Software and Intellectual Property

Description: This background paper examines existing intellectual-property protection for computer software-copyrights, patents, and trade secrets—and provides an overview of the often conflicting views and concerns of various stakeholders. It was prepared in response to a request from the Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Administration of Justice of the House Committee on the Judiciary.
Date: March 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Dismantling the Bomb and Managing the Nuclear Materials

Description: This report presents the results of OTA’s investigations and analyses regarding the types of adverse environmental and health impacts that resulted from nuclear weapons production in the past. In this report, OTA suggests various initiatives that Congress could consider to establish a national policy, determine the next steps in warhead dismantlement and nuclear materials management, approach decisions on the ultimate disposition of nuclear materials, enhance the institutional capabilities necessary to ensure success, and encourage sound dismantlement and materials management in Russia.
Date: September 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Disposal of Chemical Weapons: Alternative Technologies

Description: This background paper briefly describes the Army’s chemical weapons destruction program, discusses the factors that could affect a decision to develop alternatives, discusses the alternatives, and illustrates the difficulty of gaining public acceptance of complex technical systems.
Date: June 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.