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Radiation Chemistry of Synthetic Waste

Description: The yield of hydrogen from radiolysis of aqueous solutions is substantially reduced by the presence of nitrate and nitrite in the waste solutions. Nitrate is more efficient in scavenging the precursors to hydrogen than is nitrite, therefore, the latter should be maintained at higher levels if minimization of radiolytic gas production is required. Nitrate is the major scavenger for e(sub aq)(sup (minus)) and nitrite is the major scavenger for H atoms. At the concentration levels of the waste solutions some fraction of the radiation energy will be absorbed directly by the solutes, primarily the nitrate/nitrite components. Organic additive will increase the generation of hydrogen and mechanistic information is available to allow predictive modeling of trends in the rate of the generation. Physical parameters such as temperature, viscosity, and pressure will not significantly affect the gas generation relative to its generation under normal conditions. Radiolytic generation of N2O is very inefficient in the absence of organic solutes. No mechanistic information is available on its generation in the presence of organic additives. At the concentration levels of the inorganic salts in the waste solutions, it will be very difficult to find a chemical additive that could efficiently reduce the yield of the generated hydrogen, except, perhaps, increasing the concentration of the nitrite/nitrate components.
Date: November 1991
Creator: Meisel, Dan; Diamond, H.; Horwitz, E. P.; Jonah, Charles D.; Matheson, Max S.; Sauer, M. C. et al.

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1992

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1992. These included electrochemical technology; fossil fuel research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; integral fast reactor pyrochemical processes; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry; applied research and development; and computer applications.
Date: June 1993
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.

Argonne National Laboratory-East Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1992

Description: This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1992. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations .on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Golchert, N. W. & Kolzow, R. G.

Temperature Effects on Waste Glass Performance

Description: The temperature dependence of glass durability, particularly that of nuclear waste glasses, is assessed by reviewing past studies. The reaction mechanism for glass dissolution in water is complex and involves multiple simultaneous reaction proceeded, including molecular water diffusion, ion exchange, surface reaction, and precipitation. These processes can change in relative importance or dominance with time or changes in temperature. The temperature dependence of each reaction process has been shown to follow an Arrhenius relationship in studies where the reaction process has been isolated, but the overall temperature dependence for nuclear waste glass reaction mechanisms is less well understood, Nuclear waste glass studies have often neglected to identify and characterize the reaction mechanism because of difficulties in performing microanalyses; thus, it is unclear if such results can be extrapolated to other temperatures or reaction times. Recent developments in analytical capabilities suggest that investigations of nuclear waste glass reactions with water can lead to better understandings of their reaction mechanisms and their temperature dependences. Until a better understanding of glass reaction mechanisms is available, caution should be exercised in using temperature as an accelerating parameter.
Date: February 1991
Creator: Mazer, J. J.

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1994

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1994. These included electrochemical technology; fossil energy research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; electrometallurgical technology; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry.
Date: June 1995
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.

Test Results for 36-V Li/FeS Battery

Description: This report describes a collaborative effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Westinghouse Naval Systems Division from 1986 to 1989. This effort resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two 36-V lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide (Li/FeS) batteries. The test results provided validation of a conceptual design for a full-scale electric van battery, as well as design and performance data for 12-V Li/FeS modules and fractional-scale battery components.
Date: January 1990
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.; Malecha, R. F.; DeLuca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F. & Hogrefe, R. L.

Surveillance of Site A and Plot M : Report for 1992

Description: The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1992 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Golchert, N. W.

Leaching Action of EJ-13 Water on Unirradiated UO₂ Surfaces under Unsaturated Conditions at 90 C : Interim Report

Description: A set of experiments, based on the application of the Unsaturated Test method to the reaction of uranium dioxide with EJ-13 water, has been conducted over a period of 182.5 weeks. One half of the experiments have been terminated, while one half are still ongoing. Solutions that have dripped from uranium dioxide specimens have been analyzed for all experiments, while the reacted uranium dioxide surfaces have been examined for only the terminated experiments. A pulse of uranium release from the uranium dioxide solid, in conjunction with the formation of dehydrated schoepite on the surface of the uranium dioxide, was observed during the 39- to 96-week period. Thereafter, the uranium release decreased and a second set of secondary phases was observed. The latter phases incorporate cations from the EJ-13 water and include boltwoodite, uranophane, sklodowskite, compreignacite, and schoepite. The experiments are being continued to monitor for additional changes in solution composition and secondary phase formation, and have now reached the 319-week period.
Date: July 1991
Creator: Wronkiewicz, D. J.; Bates, John K.; Gerding, Thomas J.; Veleckis, Ewald; Tani, B. & Hoh, J. C.

Dissolution Characteristics of Mixed UO₂ Powders in J-13 Water Under Saturated Conditions

Description: The Yucca Mountain Project/Spent Fuel program at Argonne National Laboratory is designed to determine radionuclide release rates by exposing high-level waste to repository-relevant groundwater. To gain experience for the tests with spent fuel, a scoping experiment was conducted at room temperature to determine the uranium release rate from an unirradiated uranium dioxide powder mixture (14.3 wt % enrichment in uranium-235) to J-13 water under saturated conditions. Another goal set for the experiment was to develop a method for utilizing isotope dilution techniques to determine whether the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide matrix is in accordance with an existing kinetic model. Results of these analyses revealed unequal uranium dissolution rates from the enriched and depleted portions of the powder mixture because of undisclosed differences between them. Although the presence of this inhomogeneity has precluded the application of the kinetic model, it also provided an opportunity to elaborate on the utilization of isotope dilution data in recognizing and quantifying such conditions. Detailed listings of uranium release and solution chemistry data are presented. Other problems commonly associated with spent fuel, such as the effectiveness of filtering media, the existence of uranium concentration peaks during early stages of the leach tests, the need for concentration corrections due to water replenishments of sample volumes, and experience derived from isotope dilution data are discussed in the context of the present results.
Date: March 1991
Creator: Veleckis, Ewald & Hoh, J. C.

Annual Technical Report

Description: Highlights of the Chemical Technology Division's activities during 1990, including electrochemical technology and advanced batteries and fuel cells, technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion, methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste, and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste, the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.

Electronic Transport Properties in Copper Oxides

Description: Oxidation of copper and electronic transport in thermally grown large-grain poly-crystals of non-stoichiometric copper oxides were studied at elevated temperatures. Thermogravimetric copper oxidation was studied in air and oxygen at temperatures between 350 and 100 C. From the temperature-dependence of oxidation rates, three different processes can be identified for the oxidation of copper: bulk diffusion, grain-boundary diffusion, and surface control with whisker growth; these occur at high, intermediate, and low temperatures, respectively. Electrical conductivity measurements as a function of temperature (350 - 1134 C) and pO2 (10(sup⁻⁸-1.0 atm) indicated intrinsic electronic conduction in CuO over the entire range of conditions. Electronic behavior of non-stoichiometric Cu(sub 2)O indicates that the charge defects are doubly ionized oxygen interstitials and holes. The calculated enthalpy of formation of oxygen ((Delta)H(sub O(sub 2))) and the hole conduction energy (E(sub H)) at constant composition for non-stoichiometric Cu2O are 2.0 (plus minus) 0.2 eV and 0.82 (plus minus) 0.02 eV, respectively.
Date: July 1991
Creator: Park, J.-H. & Natesan, K.

Two-Phase Flow Patterns and Frictional Pressure Gradients in a Small, Horizontal, Rectangular Channel

Description: Two-phase flow patterns and frictional pressure gradients in flow in small, rectangular channels are being studies as part of a larger research program addressing phase-change heat transfer of pure refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures in plate-fin heat exchangers. Small rectangular flow channels were selected as representative of plain fin geometries. The particular channel reported herein has dimensions of 19.05 {times} 3.18 mm. Adiabatic flows of air/water mixtures, with the flow channel horizontal and the channel exit at near-atmospheric conditions, were utilized in the experiments. Analysis and interpretation of the pressure data relative to observed flow pattern transitions led to an objective method for determining the plug/bubble-to-slug flow transition. This method, together with visual observations, supplemented with photographic data, was used to develop a flow pattern man. A comparison of existing flow pattern maps for circular pipes, capillary tubes, and larger rectangular channels led to the conclusion that, while qualitative agreement exists, these maps are not generally applicable on a quantitative basis to the subject small rectangular channel. Two state-of-the-art correlations for frictional pressure gradient were evaluated, with particular emphasis on the practically important ranges of total mass quality and mass flux, from the standpoint of plate-fin heat exchangers designed as evaporators. Neither correlation was in good agreement over the entire range of interest. A modified, semi-empirical correlation was developed to predict, with satisfactory accuracy for design purposes, the measured data of these experiments.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Wambsganss, M. W.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; France, D. M. & Obot, Nsima T.

Parallel Programming with PCN

Description: PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, a set of tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools.
Date: September 1991
Creator: Foster, Ian & Tuecke, Steven

The Application of Automated Reasoning to Proof Translation and to Finding Proofs with Specified Properties: a Case Study in Many-Valued Sentential Calculus

Description: In both mathematics and logic, many theorems exist such that each can be proved in entirely different ways. For a striking example, there exist theorems from group theory that can be proved by relying solely on equality and (from the viewpoint of automated reasoning) the use of paramodulation, but can also be proved in a notation in which equality is totally absent and the inference rule is condensed detachment (captured with a single clause and the rule hyper-resolution). A study of such examples immediately shows how far from obvious is the problem of producing a proof in one system even in the presence of a proof in another; such problems can be viewed as ones of translation, where the rules of translation and the translation itself are frequently difficult to obtain. In this report, we discuss in detail various techniques that can be applied by the automated reasoning program OTTER to address the translation problem to obtain a proof in one notation and inference system given a proof in a completely different notation and inference system. To illustrate the techniques, we present a full treatment culminating in a successful translation'' of a proof of a theorem from many-valued sentential calculus. To our delight and amazement, instead of the expected translation consisting of approximately 175 applications of condensed detachment, OTTER obtained a far shorter proof. We also touch on techniques for finding shorter proofs and techniques for finding proofs satisfying some given property.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Wos, Larry & McCune, William W.

Argonne National Laboratory-East Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991

Description: This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1991. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Golchert, N. W.; Duffy, T. L. & Moos, L. P.

Automated Insertion of Sequences into a Ribosomal RNA Alignment: an Application of Computational Linguistics in Molecular Biology

Description: This thesis involved the construction of (1) a grammar that incorporates knowledge on base invariancy and secondary structure in a molecule and (2) a parser engine that uses the grammar to position bases into the structural subunits of the molecule. These concepts were combined with a novel pinning technique to form a tool that semi-automates insertion of a new species into the alignment for the 16S rRNA molecule (a component of the ribosome) maintained by Dr. Carl Woese`s group at the University of Illinois at Urbana. The tool was tested on species extracted from the alignment and on a group of entirely new species. The results were very encouraging, and the tool should be substantial aid to the curators of the 16S alignment. The construction of the grammar was itself automated, allowing application of the tool to alignments for other molecules. The logic programming language Prolog was used to construct all programs involved. The computational linguistics approach used here was found to be a useful way to attach the problem of insertion into an alignment.
Date: November 1991
Creator: Taylor, Ronald C.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Compilation of (Symbolic) Languages for Parallel Computers : Held October 31 - November 1, 1991, San Diego, CA

Description: This report comprises the abstracts and papers for the talks presented at the Workshop on Compilation of (Symbolic) Languages for Parallel Computers, held October 31 - November 1, 1991, in San Diego. These unrefereed contributions were provided by the participants for the purpose of this workshop; many of them will be published elsewhere in peer-reviewed conferences and publications.
Date: November 1991
Creator: Foster, Ian & Tick, Evan

Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : January 1989-January 1990

Description: This report reviews the activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) for the period January 1, 1989, through January 31, 1990. The ACRF is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The facility's principal objective is to foster research in parallel computing. Toward this objective, the ACRF continues to operate experimental advanced computers and to sponsor new technology transfer efforts and new research projects.
Date: February 1990
Creator: Pieper, Gail W.