UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - Browse

ABOUT BROWSE FEED

Physics of Reactor Safety, Quarterly Report: October-December 1977

Description: Quarterly progress report summarizing work done in Argonne National Laboratory's Applied Physics Division and Components Technology Division. The work in the Applied Physics Division includes reports on reactor safety program by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Group, Monte Carlo analysis of safety-related critical assembly experiments by members of the Theoretical Fast Reactor Physics Group, and Planning of Safety-Related (ZPR) Planning and Experiments Group. Work on reactor core thermal-hydraulic code development performed in the Components Technology Division is also included in this report.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Applied Physics Division.

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: July-September 1978

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials presently being used or intended for use in coal conversion processes. The program entails studies of erosive wear, nondestructive testing, corrosion, refractory degradation, and failure analysis.
Date: 1978
Creator: Ellingson, W. A.

Analysis of Cracked Core Spray Injection Line Piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors

Description: Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Diercks, D. R.

Waste Heat Recovery Fluids for Heavy-Duty Transportation Bottoming Cycle Systems : A Summary Report

Description: Working fluids used in Rankine bottoming cycle systems for heat recovery from long-haul trucks, marine vessels, and railroad locomotives are examined. Rankine bottoming cycle systems improve fuel economy by converting the exhaust heat from the prime mover into useful power. The report assesses fluid property requirements on the basis of previous experience with bottoming cycle systems. Also, the exhaust gas characteristics for the transportation modes of interest are summarized and compared. Candidate working fluids are discussed with respect to their potential for use in Rankine bottoming cycle systems. Analytical techniques are presented for calculating the thermodynamic properties of single-component working fluids. The resulting equations have been incorporated into a computer code for predicting the performance of Rankine bottoming cycle systems. In evaluating candidate working fluids, the code requires the user to input only a minimal amount of fluid property data.
Date: September 1983
Creator: Krazinski, J. L.; Uherka, K. L.; Holtz, Robert E. & Ash, J. E.

Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report: Part 1, Fundamental Molecular Physics, October 1977-September 1978

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological and Environmental Research Division regarding activities related to molecular physics and chemistry. This report discusses a study on the physical properties and the chemical reactions of atmospheric constituents, with emphasis on the role of pollutants arising from the use of fossil fuels. Special effort is being placed on understanding nucleation phenomena through the study of the molecular properties of gas phase clusters.
Date: October 1977
Creator: Rowland, R. E.

An Approach to Programming Multiprocessing Algorithms on the Denelcor HEP

Description: In the process of learning how to write code for the Denelcor HEP, we have developed an approach that others may well find useful. We believe that the basic synchronization primitives of the HEP (i.e., asynchronous variables), along with the prototypical patterns for their use given in the HEP FORTRAN 77 User's Guide, form too low-level a conceptual basis for the formulation of multiprocessing algorithms. We advocate the use of monitors, which can be easily implemented using the HEP primitives. Attempts to solve substantial problems without introducing higher-level constructs such as monitors can produce code that is unreliable, unintelligible, and restricted to the specific dialect of FORTRAN currently supported on the HEP. Our experience leads us to believe that solutions which are both clear and efficient can be formulated using monitors.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Lusk, Ewing L. & Overbeek, Ross A.

Fuel Cycle Programs, Quarterly Progress Report: July-September 1978

Description: Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research. Fuel cycle work reported for this period includes testing of hydraulic performance and extraction efficiency of eight-stage centrifugal contactors, testing of a flowsheet for the Aralex process, evaluation of ruthenium and zirconium extraction in a miniature centrifugal contactor, study of zirconium aging in the organic phase and its effect on zirconium extraction and hydraulic testing of the 9-cm-ID contactor.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Bernstein, G.; Flynn, K.; Gerding, T.; Jardine, L. J. et al.

Development of a MK-II Loop to Simulate Reactor Hydraulic Conditions

Description: The Mk-IIC Integral Loop was modified to provide an in-pile experimental apparatus that would simulate the subassembly coolant flow rate and inlet pressure head of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). There were two main design changes. First, the safety dump tanks were removed from the Mk-IIC loop and replaced by a second annular linear induction pump (ALIP). Second, a flow restricting orifice was sized so that the hydraulic requirements of prototypical test-section coolant velocity and pressure head would be achieved. The resulting redesigned loop was used for the in-pile TREAT transient over-power Test H6, which investigated fuel sweep-out and coolability following fuel-pin failure under hydraulic conditions typical of the FTR. The procedure reported here will help in the design of advanced TREAT vehicles such as the Mk-III loop.
Date: January 1979
Creator: Page, R. J. & Robinson, L. E.

Fully-Coupled Solution of Pressure-Linked Fluid-Flow Equations

Description: A robust and efficient numerical scheme has been developed for the solution of the finite-differenced pressure linked fluid flow equations. The algorithm solves the set of nonlinear simultaneous equations by a combination of Newton's method and efficient sparse matrix techniques. In tests on typical recirculating flows the method is rapidly convergent. The method does not require any under-relaxation or other convergence-enhancing techniques employed in iterative schemes. It is currently described for two-dimensional steady state flows but is extendible to three dimensions and mildly time-varying flows. The method is robust to changes in Reynolds number, grid aspect ratio, and mesh size. This paper reports the algorithm and the results of calculations performed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Vanka, S. P. & Leaf, G. K.

Full- and Half-Range Theory of Indefinite Sturm-Liouville Problems

Description: This report is concerned with eigenvalue problems of the form Au = lambda Tu, where A is a selfadjoint positive differential operator and T a selfadjoint indefinite multiplicative operator on a Hilbert space H. Three particular cases are discussed in detail. In the first case, A is positive definite and T is unitary; in the second case, A is positive definite and T is bounded, but T⁻¹ is unbounded; in the third case, A is positive, dim ker(A) = 1, and T is bounded, but T⁻¹is unbounded. Emphasis is on the full-range and half-range expansion properties of the eigenfunctions.
Date: September 1983
Creator: Kaper, H. G.; Kwong, Man Kam; Lekkerkerker, C. G. & Zettl, A.

Experimental Validation of PTA-1 Computer Code for Pressure Transient Analysis Including the Effect of Pipe Plasticity

Description: The PTA-1 code for computing pressure transients in piping networks includes a computational model to treat the significant effect of plastic deformation of the piping on pulse propagation. Stanford Research Institute has completed an experimental program on the response of piping systems to internal pressure pulses which plastically deform portions of the piping. This report makes extensive comparisons between PTA-1 computations and these experimental results. The excellent agreement obtained for both pressure histories and strain histories for all the experiments indicates that the PTA-1 computational model for pipe plasticity effects is accurate. The computation-experiment comparisons also permit a number of observations and conclusions to be made on other aspects of computational modeling of pressure transients, particularly with respect to pulse propagation around elbows.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Youngdahl, C. K.; Kot, C. A. & Valentin, R. A.

Symposium on Applications of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDS) at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, March 23, 1978

Description: The abstracts are given of thirteen papers presented at a ''SQUID Symposium'' organized by the Division of Materials Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and held March 23-25, 1978, at the University of Virginia. Since SQUID systems have already been utilized in feasibility demonstration in geothermal reservoir exploration, it was recognized that these devices also hold great potential for many other important scientific measurements. Many of these are energy-related, and others include forefront investigations in a diverse group of scientific areas, from biomedical to earthquake monitoring. Research in SQUIDs has advanced so rapidly in recent years that it was felt that a symposium to review the current status and future prospects of the devices would be timely. The abstracts given present an overview of work in this area and hopefully provide an opportunity to increase awareness among basic and applied scientists of the inherent implications of the extreme measurement sensitivity in advanced SQUID systems.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Falco, Charles M. & Clarke, John

Loss-of-Flow Test L5 on FFTF-Type Irradiated Fuel

Description: Test L5 simulated a hypothetical loss-of-flow accident in an LMFBR using three (plutonium, uranium) dioxide fuel elements of the FTR type. The test elements were irradiated before TREAT Test L5 in the General Electric Test Reactor to 8 at. % burnup at about 40 kW/m. The pre-irradiation in GETR caused a fuel-restructuring range characteristic of moderate-power structure relative to the FTR. The test transient was devised so that a power burst would be initiated at incipient cladding melting after the loss of flow. The test simulation corresponds to a scenario for FTR in which fuel in high-power-structure subassemblies slump, resulting in a power excursion. The remaining subassemblies are subjected to this power burst. Test L5 addressed the fuel-motion behavior of the subassemblies in this latter category. Data from test-vehicle sensors, hodoscope, and post-mortem examinations were used to construct the sequence of events within the test zone. From these observations, the fuel underwent a predominantly dispersive event just after reaching a peak power six times nominal at, or after, scram. The fuel motion was apparently driven by the release of entrained fission-product gases, since fuel vapor pressure was deliberately kept below significant levels for the transient. The test remains show a wide range of microstructural evolution, depending on the extent of heat deposition along the active fuel column. Extensive fuel swelling was also observed as a result of the lack of the cladding restraint. The results of the thermal-hydraulic calculations with the SAS3A code agreed qualitatively with the postmortem results with respect to the extent of the melting and the dispersal of cladding and fuel. However, the calculated times of certain events did not agree with the observed times.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Simms, R.; Gehl, S. M.; Lo, R. K. & Rothman, Alan B.

Domain and Surface Structures of Sodium Tungsten Bronzes, NaxWO₃ (0.4 [x [1)

Description: The domain and surface structures of metallic sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO₃, 0.4 < x < 1, were studied using optical microscopy, supplemented by chemical methods, photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, etc. The birefringent, multidomain structure of the bronze is exhibited by a sodium-deficient, epitaxial surface film and hence is not, as reported elsewhere, a bulk property. The film can be synthesized by anodic electrolysis in alkaline solution and can exist only epitaxially with the substrate. It is chemically inert, translucent, and often laminated to a multilayered film. The film domain is hypersensitive to lateral stress and to thermal change, and appears to be modulated by minute structural changes of the substrate. This epitaxial modulation of the film is strikingly large at the phase transitions of the substrate induced by slightly different tiltings of the oxygen octahedra. The domain-wall movement is often slow enough to be visible, and that by thermal effect is occasionally accompanied by an audible, high-pitched, snapping sound.
Date: September 1978
Creator: Atoji, Masao

Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage, Second Edition

Description: The second addition is a substantial revision of the original work. A new chapter on latent heat storage, an appendix on units and conversions, and an index have been added. The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.

Computations of Turbulent Recirculating Flows with Fully Coupled Solution of Momentum and Continuity Equations

Description: A fully coupled solution algorithm for pressure-linked fluid flow equations earlier found to be rapidly convergent in laminar flows has been extended to calculate turbulent flows. The governing mean flow equations are solved in conjunction with a two-equation (k - epsilon) turbulence model. A number of two-dimensional recirculating flows have been computed and it is shown that the calculation procedure is rapidly convergent in all the cases. The calculations have been compared with published experimental data; their agreement is in accord with other published experiences with the (k - epsilon) model in similar flows.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Vanka, S. P.

HYCSOS : A Chemical Heat Pump and Energy Conversion System Based on Metal Hydrides

Description: The current status of the HYCSOS chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides is described. Heat transfer fluid loops were insulated and modified for isothermal operation. Software development for HYCSOS manual mode operation was completed. Routines to handle data acquisition, logging, compression, correction and plotting, using a Tektronix Graphics system with flexible disk data storage, provide a rapid and versatile means of presenting HYCSOS data for analysis. Advanced concept heat exchangers to improve the heat transfer of the hydride bed with the heat transfer fluid are discussed. Preliminary tests made with a LaNi5 loaded aluminum foam test unit showed that heat transfer properties are very markedly improved. Thermodynamic expressions are applied to the selection of alloys for use in HYCSOS. The substitution of aluminum for nickel in AB5 type alloys is shown to reduce hysteresis and permits the use of potentially lower cost materials with added flexibility for the optimization of engineering design and performance characteristics of the hydride heat pump system. Transient thermal measurements on hydride beds of CaNi5 and LaNi5 show no deterioration with cycling. Relatively slow heat transfer between the hydride beds and heat transfer fluid in the coiled tube heat exchangers is indicated by temperature lag of the bed and heat transfer fluid. Improved heat transfer is anticipated with aluminum foam heat exchangers.
Date: April 1979
Creator: Sheft, Irving; Gruen, Dieter M. & Lamich, George

Evaluation of Ceramic Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers : Summary of Progress to Date

Description: Commercial refractories were tested for up to 500 h in both basic and acidic slags. The slag compositions typify those expected in slagging coal gasifiers. The slag temperatures ranged up to 1600 degrees C. Compositions tested have included silicon carbides, chrome-alumina-magnesia spinels, and alumina and magnesia-based refractories with various amounts of chromia and silica. In some tests, the cold faces were water cooled. With water cooling, the silicon carbides showed virtually no attack after 500 h. In the absence of water cooling, the chrome-alumina-magnesia spinels were the most resistant to slag attack but were subject to thermal-shock cracking. Alumina-chrome refractories performed well in acid slags when water cooled, are probably more stable than silicon carbide in coal-gasification atmospheres, and, in the form of ramming mixes, showed excellent thermal-shock resistances. Plans for future testing are described.
Date: September 1978
Creator: Kennedy, C. R.; Swaroop, R.; Jones, D. J.; Fousek, R. J.; Poeppel, R. B. & Stahl, D.

Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage

Description: The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating system, and stand-alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: February 1979
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.