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Design of a Tunable High-Q Superconducting Notch Filter

Description: The design of a tunable high-Q superconducting notch filter is presented. The filter is designed to be manufactured from high Tc superconductors (Nb3S, Nb3Ge) made by high-rate magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrates. The geometry of the various elements, holder materials for the cryostat, studies relating to the preparation of suitable high Tc materials, and the photo-etching procedures for the filter elements are discussed.
Date: October 1978
Creator: Falco, Charles M.; Kampwirth, R. T.; Pang, C. S. & Schuller, Ivan K.

Liquid-Liquid Contact in Vapor Explosion

Description: The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture).
Date: August 1978
Creator: Segev, Aryeh

Advanced Fuel Cell Development: Progress Report for July-September 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities focuses on the development of electrolyte structures that have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long term stability, and on developing methods of synthesis amenable to mass production.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A.; Arons, R. M.; Kinoshita, K.; Sim, J. W. et al.

Energy Level Structure and Transition Probabilities in the Spectra of the Trivalent Lanthanides in LaF₃

Description: Two types of correlations with experimental results are reported. For even-f-electron systems, a center of gravity was computed based on the energies of the observed states, and calculated optimized sets of atomic energy level parameters. For odd-electron systems complete crystal field calculations were performed in which parameters of both the atomic and crystal-field parts of the interaction were adjusted to experimental data. The result is a set of eigenvectors for all the ionic states in each configuration. Spectroscopic results for all lanthanides doped into LaF3 (In³⁺ +/:LaF3) except Pm³⁺ and Eu³⁺ are reported.
Date: 1978
Creator: Carnall, W. T.; Crosswhite, H. M. & Crosswhite, H. M.

Cryogenic Distillation: a Fuel Enrichment System for Near-Term Tokamak-Type D-T Fusion Reactors

Description: The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.
Date: February 1980
Creator: Misra, B. & Davis, J. F.

Theoretical Evaluation of Thermal Imaging for Detection of Erosive Wear of Internally Refractory-Lined Transfer Lines

Description: Infrared scanning has potential use in detecting erosive wear (thickness change) of the refractory surface of large-diameter steel pipes internally lined with refractory concrete, which are typical of those used in coal-conversion processes. An analytical study was conducted to determine the viability of this method. Heat-transfer models were developed to predict surface-temperature distributions on the outer metal surface for various erosive-wear conditions on the inner surface, assuming uniform inner-surface temperature. Variables investigated included thermal conductivity of the refractory concrete, thermal contact resistance between the steel shell and the refractory, outer-surface convective coefficient, outer-surface radiative properties, and refractory-lining thickness and composition. The study used two- and three-dimensional heat-transfer models and various well-defined rectangular cavities on the inner surface. Temperature resolution, and thus calculation of cavity sizes from surface-temperature profiles, is better when the convective coefficient is small and the interfacial contact resistance is uniformly low. The presence of dual refractory-concrete liners using a layer of insulating concrete between the hot-face lining and the steel shell, together with thick steel (t > 25 mm), tends to smear temperature patterns and reduce the temperature gradient so that calculation of cavity shapes becomes impractical.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Hsieh, C. K.; Ellingson, W. A. & Su, K. C.

Disposal of Radioactive Sodium Waste

Description: Operation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) will result in production of various quantities of radioactive sodium waste. Two methods have been developed and tested on a small scale for converting this sodium waste to inert compounds suitable for disposal. The first method is direct oxidation of the sodium after dispersal in a silica matrix. The sodium is mixed with silica and oxidized in a rotary drum reactor. The product is suitable for making glass when other stabilizing compounds are added. The second method is reaction of elemental sodium with molten sodium hydroxide at 450 degrees C and subsequent injection of steam into the melt to convert the reaction products (Na2O and NaH) to additional sodium hydroxide. The reactions are smooth and easily controlled with little danger of run-away reactions. The end product is molten sodium hydroxide which can be cast into drums for further treatment or disposal. The advantages of these two methods over more conventional aqueous processes are the elimination of aqueous wastes and the elimination of minimization of gaseous effluents.
Date: September 1978
Creator: McPheeters, C. C. & Wolson, R. D.

IPNS: a National Facility for Condensed Matter Research

Description: This report has been prepared to present a summary description of the Intense Pulsed Neutron System (IPNS). The principal purpose of the document is to assemble the relevant information in a concise and integrated format so that the scientific community and others interested can obtain an accurate impression of the IPNS facilities and their intended purpose. The background and technology for pulsed neutron sources are summarized.
Date: November 1978
Creator: Carpenter, J. M.; Price, D. L. & Swanson, N. J.

Numerical Methods for a Porous Medium Equation

Description: The degenerate parabolic equation has been used to model the flow of gas through a porous medium. Error estimates for continuous and discrete time finite element procedures to approximate the solution of this equation are proved and a new regularity result is described.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Rose, Michael Edward

Feasibility of Underground Storage/Disposal of Noble Gas Fission Products

Description: The quantities of krypton-85 that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the krypton-85 released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of krypton-85 by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of krypton-85 as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of krypton-85 injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Winar, R. M.; Trevorrow, L. E. & Steindler, M. J.

Theory and Application of a Quasi-Eulerian Fluid Element for the STRAW Code

Description: Two-dimensional finite-element models for the treatment of the nonlinear, transient response of fluids and structures are described. The fluid description is quasi-Eulerian, so that the mesh can move independently of the material, and it includes a new finite-element up-winding scheme. The structural description is based on a co-rotational formulation in which the coordinate system is embedded in the elements, which is applicable to arbitrarily large rotations. The interface between the fluid and structure permits relative sliding, but because of the description of the quasi-Eulerian fluid, the nodes of the fluid and structure can be allowed to remain contiguous. Modeling procedures for treating the various aspects of subassemblies, such as the narrow fluid channels, the fuel bundles which are immersed in the coolant, and the axial flow are developed. Calculations are made for a symmetric 7-subassembly cluster and compared to experimental results. In addition, the application to a 19-subassembly cluster is described.
Date: 1978
Creator: Kennedy, J. M. & Belytschko, Ted B.

Fluctuation Analysis of Fast Reactor Safety Experiments in TREAT

Description: Statistical fluctuations of measured signals about their mean are related to physical processes in fuel-failure experiments. Signal variance, correlation, and spectral density are shown to be sensitive measures to instrument response characteristics, of flow-blockage formation, and of boiling phenomena. This sensitivity is demonstrated by a series of examples that use test data from the E6, E7, and L5 experiments. A mathematical model of the Mark-II loop is developed to predict both the mean and the fluctuation behavior of measured test parameters. The analysis is extended to include signal forecasting by the ARIMA time-series model. Techniques that are used to identify the model and to estimate the model parameters are discussed in detail. It is shown that departure of real-time data from the on-line forecasts is a powerful tool for the rapid detection of off-normal conditions. A description of the experiments and the data-reduction process is given in the Appendices.
Date: November 1978
Creator: Doerner, R. C.; Meek, C. C.; Hurt, R. F. & Pekarsky, M. I.

The Current Status of Fusion Reactor Blanket Thermodynamics

Description: The available thermodynamic information is reviewed for three categories of materials that meet essential criteria for use as breeding blankets in deuterium-tritium (D-T) fueled fusion reactors: liquid lithium, solid lithium alloys, and lithium-containing ceramics. The leading candidate, liquid lithium, which also has potential for use as a coolant, has been studied more extensively than have the solid alloys or ceramics.
Date: April 1979
Creator: Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R. M. & Maroni, V. A.

Analysis of Nonlinear Fluid Structure Interaction Transient in Fast Reactors

Description: A generalized Eulerian method is described for analyzing the fluid transients and the structural response in nuclear reactors under the postulated accident conditions. The phenomena considered are the wave propagation, slug impact, sodium spillage, bubble migration, and the fluid-structure interaction. The basic equations and numerical formulation are presented in detail. Sample calculations are given to illustrate the analysis. It is shown from the results that the implicit, iterative method used is unconditionally stable and is especially suitable for problems involving large material distortions.
Date: 1978
Creator: Yang, C. Y.

Investigations of Materials Compatibility Relevant to the EBR-2 System : FY 1978

Description: This report is the ninth in a series of yearly reports on investigations of components of the EBR-II reactor plant and out-of-reactor experiments in which materials or techniques are tested before being used in the EBR-II reactor systems. Wide ranges of materials, circumstances, and evaluation techniques are involved. Therefore, each investigation is reported separately.
Date: January 1979
Creator: Longua, K. J.; Shields, J. A.; Ruther, W. E. & Olson, W. H.

EBR-2 Fisson-Product-Source Test No. 1

Description: A fission-product source (FPS) was irradiated in EBR-II to provide data for calibrating the facility's fuel-element rupture detector (FERD), which is a delayed-neutron monitor, and germanium-lithium argon-scanning system (GLASS), a fission-gas-activity monitor. A metal alloy source, Ni-3.2 wt.% uranium, provided quantitative recoil release of the fission-product nuclides. The source alloy, in tubular form, was irradiated as core-region segments of 18 capsules in the FPS subassembly. The irradiation showed that the response of the FERD was linear with increasing reactor power. The magnitude of the FERD signal was dependent on local fission rate for the FPS and the flow path of the sodium carrying the delayed-neutron emitters. The relatively high fission-gas activity released by the FPS allowed accurate calibration of the GLASS under several modes of operation and provided data for verifying a gas-release model for the reactor.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Strain, R. V.; Fogle, G. L.; Thresh, H. R.; Heinrich, R. R.; Freyer, R. M.; So, B. Y. C. et al.

Results of UO₂ Diagnositic Tests for Run Beyond Cladding Breach in EBR-2

Description: Pre-defected uranium dioxide fuel elements were irradiated in EBR-II to determine the response of the fission-product-monitoring systems. In particular, the tests were performed to indicate whether the amount of oxide fuel exposed to the primary sodium could be estimated by monitoring, with the fuel-element-rupture detector (FERD), delayed neutrons (DN's) emitted from bromine and iodine isotopes in the sodium. Elements with defect areas of 0.005 and 0.20 cm sq. were irradiated consecutively in April and June 1977. Post-irradiation examination of the elements showed that an unexpectedly large amount of uranium dioxide/sodium chemical reaction occurred in the element with the 0.20-cm sq. defect.
Date: 1979
Creator: Strain, R. V. & Lambert, J. D. B.

Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction for Different Heats of Type 304 Stainless Steel by Linear-Damage Rule, Strain-Range Partitioning Method, and Damage-Rate Approach

Description: The creep-fatigue life results for five different heats of Type 304 stainless steel at 593 degrees C (1100 degrees F), generated under push-pull conditions in the axial strain-control mode, are presented. The life predictions for the various heats based on the linear-damage rule, strain-range partitioning method, and damage-rate approach are discussed. The appropriate material properties required for computation of fatigue life are also included.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Maiya, P. S.

Bilinear Cyclic Stress-Strain Parameters for Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steel

Description: The bilinear cyclic stress-strain parameters for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel are described. The bilinear properties of solution-annealed and aged Type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) and solution-annealed Type 3l6 stainless steel (heat 8092297) under cyclic-loading conditions at a strain rate of 8.6 x 10⁵ s⁻¹, total strain range between 0.2 and 0.8 percent, and temperatures from 22 to 593 degrees C were determined. The dependence of bilinear parameters on maximum strain epsilon and temperature is discussed.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Maiya, P. S.

An Ultrasonic Scanner for Stainless Steel Weld Inspections

Description: The large grain size and anisotropic nature of stainless steel weld metal make conventional ultrasonic testing very difficult. This paper evaluates a technique for minimizing the coherent noise in stainless steel weld metal. The method involves digitizing conventional A-scan traces and averaging them with a minicomputer. Results are presented for an ultrasonic scanner which interrogates a small volume of the weld metal while averaging the coherent ultrasonic noise.
Date: September 1978
Creator: Kupperman, D. S. & Reimann, K. J.

Second Mechanized In-Service Inspection of EBR-2 Steam Generator

Description: The second mechanized ultrasonic inspection of evaporation EV-702, part of the EBR-II steam-generator system, was completed in March 1978. The 2 1/2 Cr-1 Mo duplex tubes were inspected from the bore (water) side for flaws and changes in wall thickness and for evaluating the condition of the braze between the tubes. An addition to this second inspection was the use of an ultrasonic probe to search for circumferential flaws. The inspection equipment was thoroughly checked and routinely calibrated, using a reference standard containing electrical-discharge-machined notches. Notches as small as 1.6 mm long by 0.25 mm deep were readily detected.
Date: November 1978
Creator: Longua, K. J.; Whitham, G. K.; Allen, C. C. & Larson, H. A.

ATLAS: a Proposal for a Precision Heavy Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting radiofrequency technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of approximately 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approximately 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.
Date: February 1978
Creator: Bollinger, L. M.

Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs Progress Report: April-June 1978

Description: Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research. This report includes studies on advanced solvent extraction techniques focused on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes, extraction kinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in the presence of uranium, and dispersion of uranium and plutonium by fires.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Bernstein, G.; Flynn, K.; Gerding, T.; Jardine, L. J. et al.