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Proceedings of the Third Post-Accident Heat Removal Information Exchange November 2-4, 1977, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Description: Papers presented at the third Post-Accident Heat Removal Information Exchange concerning heat distribution and criticality considerations, particulate-bed phenomena, pool heat transfer and melt-front phenomena, behavior of heated concrete and sodium-concrete interactions, design-related studies, gas bubbling and boiling effects, and materials interactions at high temperatures and experimental methods.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Baker, Louis, Jr.

Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report: Part 3, Ecology, January-December 1978

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological and Environmental Research Division regarding activities related to ecology. This report includes studies on the effects of sulfur dioxide on Midwestern grain crops and the addition of the new research vessel, the Ekos.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Radiological and Environmental Research Division.

Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report: Part 4, Atmospheric Physics, January-December 1978

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological and Environmental Research Division regarding activities related to atmospheric chemistry. This report includes studies on dispersion of pollutants to the surface of water near shorelines and steam fog and the exchange of gases across an air-water interface.
Date: 1978
Creator: Rowland, R. E. & Hicks, B. B.

Reactor Physics Studies in the Steam Flooded GCFR-Phase 2 Critical Assembly

Description: A possible accident scenario in a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) is the leakage of secondary steam into the core. Considerable analytical effort has gone into the study of the effects of such an accidental steam entry. The work described in this report represents the first full scale experimental study of the steam-entry phenomenon in GCFRs. The reference GCFR model used for the study was the benchmark GCFR Phase II assembly, and polyethylene foam was used to provide a very homogeneous steam simulation.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Bhattacharyya, S. K.

Separation of Metal Ions by Anion Exchange in Mixtures of Hydrochloric Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid

Description: Distribution coefficients were determined for the adsorption of more than 40 elements on anion-exchange resins from mixtures of HCl (0.1 to 12M) and HF (0.1-8M). Two resins, Dowex 1 x 10, 200 to 400 mesh and Dowex 1 x 4, 100 to 200 mesh, were used. Distribution coefficients were also determined for the adsorption of many elements on both resins from 0.1 to 12M HCl and 0.1 to 12M HF. Anion exchange in the presence of HF was found useful for separating impurities from various materials for their subsequent determination, and specific procedures used in our spectrochemical laboratory for this purpose are outlined. The results of a literature search on the use of anion exchange in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride-containing media are presented in an extensive bibliography.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Faris, J. P.

Prevention of Significant Deterioration: Implications for Energy Research and Development

Description: This report examines the implications of thee Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 concerned with provisions designed to prevent the significant deterioration of air quality in areas of the nation where the ambient air is cleaner than the minimum levels required to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The legislation will affect the economic competitiveness of alternative fuel cycles for the generation of power and will have implications for the future siting of all new major sources of emissions. This paper examines the potential effects of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) legislation on energy technologies and industrial facilities and, in particular, the possible effects on energy research and development programs of the Department of Energy (DOE).
Date: February 10, 1978
Creator: Garvey, Doris B.; Streets, David G.; Kung, Shyang-Lai & Leppert, George

Decommissioning Alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

Description: The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively.
Date: June 1978
Creator: Munson, L. F.; Nemec, J. F. & Koochi, A. K.

FX2-TH : A Two-Dimensional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics Code with Thermal-Hydraulic Feedback

Description: FX2-TH is a two-dimensional, time-dependent nuclear reactor kinetics program with thermal and hydraulic feedback. The neutronics model used is multi-group neutron diffusion theory. The following geometry options are available: x, r, x-y, r-z, theta-r, and triangular. FX2-TH contains two basic thermal and hydraulic models: a simple adiabatic fuel temperature calculation, and a more detailed model consisting of an explicit representation of a fuel pin, gap, clad, and coolant. FX2-TH allows feedback effects from both fuel temperature (Doppler) and coolant temperature (density) changes. FX2-TH will calculate a consistent set of steady state conditions by iterating between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics until convergence is reached. The time-dependent calculation is performed by the use of the improved quasistatic method. A disk editing capability is available. FX2-TH is operational on IBM system 360 or 370 computers and on the CDC 7600.
Date: October 1978
Creator: Shober, R. A.; Daly, T. A. & Ferguson, D. R.

Design of a Tunable High-Q Superconducting Notch Filter

Description: The design of a tunable high-Q superconducting notch filter is presented. The filter is designed to be manufactured from high Tc superconductors (Nb3S, Nb3Ge) made by high-rate magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrates. The geometry of the various elements, holder materials for the cryostat, studies relating to the preparation of suitable high Tc materials, and the photo-etching procedures for the filter elements are discussed.
Date: October 1978
Creator: Falco, Charles M.; Kampwirth, R. T.; Pang, C. S. & Schuller, Ivan K.

Liquid-Liquid Contact in Vapor Explosion

Description: The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture).
Date: August 1978
Creator: Segev, Aryeh

Advanced Fuel Cell Development: Progress Report for July-September 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities focuses on the development of electrolyte structures that have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long term stability, and on developing methods of synthesis amenable to mass production.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A.; Arons, R. M.; Kinoshita, K.; Sim, J. W. et al.

Energy Level Structure and Transition Probabilities in the Spectra of the Trivalent Lanthanides in LaF₃

Description: Two types of correlations with experimental results are reported. For even-f-electron systems, a center of gravity was computed based on the energies of the observed states, and calculated optimized sets of atomic energy level parameters. For odd-electron systems complete crystal field calculations were performed in which parameters of both the atomic and crystal-field parts of the interaction were adjusted to experimental data. The result is a set of eigenvectors for all the ionic states in each configuration. Spectroscopic results for all lanthanides doped into LaF3 (In³⁺ +/:LaF3) except Pm³⁺ and Eu³⁺ are reported.
Date: 1978
Creator: Carnall, W. T.; Crosswhite, H. M. & Crosswhite, H. M.

Cryogenic Distillation: a Fuel Enrichment System for Near-Term Tokamak-Type D-T Fusion Reactors

Description: The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.
Date: February 1980
Creator: Misra, B. & Davis, J. F.

Theoretical Evaluation of Thermal Imaging for Detection of Erosive Wear of Internally Refractory-Lined Transfer Lines

Description: Infrared scanning has potential use in detecting erosive wear (thickness change) of the refractory surface of large-diameter steel pipes internally lined with refractory concrete, which are typical of those used in coal-conversion processes. An analytical study was conducted to determine the viability of this method. Heat-transfer models were developed to predict surface-temperature distributions on the outer metal surface for various erosive-wear conditions on the inner surface, assuming uniform inner-surface temperature. Variables investigated included thermal conductivity of the refractory concrete, thermal contact resistance between the steel shell and the refractory, outer-surface convective coefficient, outer-surface radiative properties, and refractory-lining thickness and composition. The study used two- and three-dimensional heat-transfer models and various well-defined rectangular cavities on the inner surface. Temperature resolution, and thus calculation of cavity sizes from surface-temperature profiles, is better when the convective coefficient is small and the interfacial contact resistance is uniformly low. The presence of dual refractory-concrete liners using a layer of insulating concrete between the hot-face lining and the steel shell, together with thick steel (t > 25 mm), tends to smear temperature patterns and reduce the temperature gradient so that calculation of cavity shapes becomes impractical.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Hsieh, C. K.; Ellingson, W. A. & Su, K. C.

Disposal of Radioactive Sodium Waste

Description: Operation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) will result in production of various quantities of radioactive sodium waste. Two methods have been developed and tested on a small scale for converting this sodium waste to inert compounds suitable for disposal. The first method is direct oxidation of the sodium after dispersal in a silica matrix. The sodium is mixed with silica and oxidized in a rotary drum reactor. The product is suitable for making glass when other stabilizing compounds are added. The second method is reaction of elemental sodium with molten sodium hydroxide at 450 degrees C and subsequent injection of steam into the melt to convert the reaction products (Na2O and NaH) to additional sodium hydroxide. The reactions are smooth and easily controlled with little danger of run-away reactions. The end product is molten sodium hydroxide which can be cast into drums for further treatment or disposal. The advantages of these two methods over more conventional aqueous processes are the elimination of aqueous wastes and the elimination of minimization of gaseous effluents.
Date: September 1978
Creator: McPheeters, C. C. & Wolson, R. D.

IPNS: a National Facility for Condensed Matter Research

Description: This report has been prepared to present a summary description of the Intense Pulsed Neutron System (IPNS). The principal purpose of the document is to assemble the relevant information in a concise and integrated format so that the scientific community and others interested can obtain an accurate impression of the IPNS facilities and their intended purpose. The background and technology for pulsed neutron sources are summarized.
Date: November 1978
Creator: Carpenter, J. M.; Price, D. L. & Swanson, N. J.

Numerical Methods for a Porous Medium Equation

Description: The degenerate parabolic equation has been used to model the flow of gas through a porous medium. Error estimates for continuous and discrete time finite element procedures to approximate the solution of this equation are proved and a new regularity result is described.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Rose, Michael Edward

Feasibility of Underground Storage/Disposal of Noble Gas Fission Products

Description: The quantities of krypton-85 that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the krypton-85 released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of krypton-85 by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of krypton-85 as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of krypton-85 injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Winar, R. M.; Trevorrow, L. E. & Steindler, M. J.

Theory and Application of a Quasi-Eulerian Fluid Element for the STRAW Code

Description: Two-dimensional finite-element models for the treatment of the nonlinear, transient response of fluids and structures are described. The fluid description is quasi-Eulerian, so that the mesh can move independently of the material, and it includes a new finite-element up-winding scheme. The structural description is based on a co-rotational formulation in which the coordinate system is embedded in the elements, which is applicable to arbitrarily large rotations. The interface between the fluid and structure permits relative sliding, but because of the description of the quasi-Eulerian fluid, the nodes of the fluid and structure can be allowed to remain contiguous. Modeling procedures for treating the various aspects of subassemblies, such as the narrow fluid channels, the fuel bundles which are immersed in the coolant, and the axial flow are developed. Calculations are made for a symmetric 7-subassembly cluster and compared to experimental results. In addition, the application to a 19-subassembly cluster is described.
Date: 1978
Creator: Kennedy, J. M. & Belytschko, Ted B.

Fluctuation Analysis of Fast Reactor Safety Experiments in TREAT

Description: Statistical fluctuations of measured signals about their mean are related to physical processes in fuel-failure experiments. Signal variance, correlation, and spectral density are shown to be sensitive measures to instrument response characteristics, of flow-blockage formation, and of boiling phenomena. This sensitivity is demonstrated by a series of examples that use test data from the E6, E7, and L5 experiments. A mathematical model of the Mark-II loop is developed to predict both the mean and the fluctuation behavior of measured test parameters. The analysis is extended to include signal forecasting by the ARIMA time-series model. Techniques that are used to identify the model and to estimate the model parameters are discussed in detail. It is shown that departure of real-time data from the on-line forecasts is a powerful tool for the rapid detection of off-normal conditions. A description of the experiments and the data-reduction process is given in the Appendices.
Date: November 1978
Creator: Doerner, R. C.; Meek, C. C.; Hurt, R. F. & Pekarsky, M. I.

The Current Status of Fusion Reactor Blanket Thermodynamics

Description: The available thermodynamic information is reviewed for three categories of materials that meet essential criteria for use as breeding blankets in deuterium-tritium (D-T) fueled fusion reactors: liquid lithium, solid lithium alloys, and lithium-containing ceramics. The leading candidate, liquid lithium, which also has potential for use as a coolant, has been studied more extensively than have the solid alloys or ceramics.
Date: April 1979
Creator: Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R. M. & Maroni, V. A.