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Reactor Engineering Division Quarterly Report, June 1, 1949 - August 31, 1949
Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory covering the quarterly report from the Reactor Engineering Division. A summary of reactor programs, designs, development, and experiments are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Flow-Regime Transitions at Elevated Pressures in Vertical Two-Phase Flow
Two-phase flow-regime transitions at elevated pressures for a single-component, trichloromonofluoromethane, were investigated for forced-circulation, upward flow in a vertical, rectangular conduit with internal dimensions of 0.380 by 1.050 inches.
A Study of Convective Magnetohydrodynamic Channel Flow
Analysis of a class of steady magnetohydrodynamic channel flow problems when natural, as well as forced, convection is important.
The Expulsion of Liquid from a Rapidly Heated Channel
Report documenting experiments in order to determine the "behavior of a partially confined liquid in contact with a rapidly heated surface" (p. 7). These liquids include water, methanol, ethylene bromide, and acetone.
A Multiple-Source Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Model
Report documenting the development phase of a multiple-source, urban atmospheric dispersion model that describes environmental transients.
Gas-Cooled Reactors in the USA: A Survey and Recommendation
Report that provides "an understanding of the status of gas-cooled reactors as used for unclassified applications" and determining "phases of advanced research and development needed in the field and from these to recommend a program for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors" (p. 5).
Self-Sustained Hydrodynamic Oscillations in a Natural Circulation Two-Phase-Flow Boiling Loop
Analysis of a class of steady magnetohydrodynamic channel flow problems when natural, as well as forced, convection is important.
The Relative Thermal Conductivities of Liquid Lithium, Sodium, and Eutectic NaK, and the Specific Heat of Liquid Lithium
Report discussing the relative thermal conductivities of liquid lithium, sodium, and eutectic NaK, and the specific heat of liquid lithium, as well as the methods and materials used to determine this information.
Uses of Advanced Pulsed Neutron Sources. Report of a Workshop Held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 21-24, 1975
This report contains the conclusions that were drawn by nine panels of scientists in the fields of Biology; Chemical Spectroscopy; Chemical Structures of Crystalline Solids; Chemical Structures of Disordered Solids and Inhomogeneous Systems; Dynamics of Solids, Liquids, Glasses, and Gases; Magnetism; Neutron Sources; and Radiation Effects. The nine panel reports describe the applications found in these scientific areas, accompanying them with conceptual instruments designed for the measurements and with calculations to establish feasibility.
Ion Replacement Program Annual Report: 1993
Annual report of the Ion Replacement Electrorefining Program at Aronne National Laboratory describing their research and activities. There are three key accomplishments highlighted for the year: (1) identification of a suitable sodium(beta){double_prime}-alumina/molten salt electrolyte system that functions reproducibly at 723 K, (2) actual separation of dysprosium and lanthanum in experiments, and (3) the identification of a metal alloy, Li{sub x}Sb, as an alternative ion replacement electrode.
Proceedings of the Third Post-Accident Heat Removal Information Exchange November 2-4, 1977, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois
Papers presented at the third Post-Accident Heat Removal Information Exchange concerning heat distribution and criticality considerations, particulate-bed phenomena, pool heat transfer and melt-front phenomena, behavior of heated concrete and sodium-concrete interactions, design-related studies, gas bubbling and boiling effects, and materials interactions at high temperatures and experimental methods.
Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report: Part 3, Ecology, January-December 1978
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological and Environmental Research Division regarding activities related to ecology. This report includes studies on the effects of sulfur dioxide on Midwestern grain crops and the addition of the new research vessel, the Ekos.
Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report: Part 4, Atmospheric Physics, January-December 1978
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological and Environmental Research Division regarding activities related to atmospheric chemistry. This report includes studies on dispersion of pollutants to the surface of water near shorelines and steam fog and the exchange of gases across an air-water interface.
Reactor Physics Studies in the Steam Flooded GCFR-Phase 2 Critical Assembly
A possible accident scenario in a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) is the leakage of secondary steam into the core. Considerable analytical effort has gone into the study of the effects of such an accidental steam entry. The work described in this report represents the first full scale experimental study of the steam-entry phenomenon in GCFRs. The reference GCFR model used for the study was the benchmark GCFR Phase II assembly, and polyethylene foam was used to provide a very homogeneous steam simulation.
Separation of Metal Ions by Anion Exchange in Mixtures of Hydrochloric Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid
Distribution coefficients were determined for the adsorption of more than 40 elements on anion-exchange resins from mixtures of HCl (0.1 to 12M) and HF (0.1-8M). Two resins, Dowex 1 x 10, 200 to 400 mesh and Dowex 1 x 4, 100 to 200 mesh, were used. Distribution coefficients were also determined for the adsorption of many elements on both resins from 0.1 to 12M HCl and 0.1 to 12M HF. Anion exchange in the presence of HF was found useful for separating impurities from various materials for their subsequent determination, and specific procedures used in our spectrochemical laboratory for this purpose are outlined. The results of a literature search on the use of anion exchange in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride-containing media are presented in an extensive bibliography.
Prevention of Significant Deterioration: Implications for Energy Research and Development
This report examines the implications of thee Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 concerned with provisions designed to prevent the significant deterioration of air quality in areas of the nation where the ambient air is cleaner than the minimum levels required to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The legislation will affect the economic competitiveness of alternative fuel cycles for the generation of power and will have implications for the future siting of all new major sources of emissions. This paper examines the potential effects of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) legislation on energy technologies and industrial facilities and, in particular, the possible effects on energy research and development programs of the Department of Energy (DOE).
High-Performance Batteries for Electric-Vehicle Propulsion and Stationary Energy Storage, Progress Report: October 1977-September 1978
Annual report discussing the research, development, and management activities of the programs on high-temperature batteries.
Decommissioning Alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant
The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively.
FX2-TH : A Two-Dimensional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics Code with Thermal-Hydraulic Feedback
FX2-TH is a two-dimensional, time-dependent nuclear reactor kinetics program with thermal and hydraulic feedback. The neutronics model used is multi-group neutron diffusion theory. The following geometry options are available: x, r, x-y, r-z, theta-r, and triangular. FX2-TH contains two basic thermal and hydraulic models: a simple adiabatic fuel temperature calculation, and a more detailed model consisting of an explicit representation of a fuel pin, gap, clad, and coolant. FX2-TH allows feedback effects from both fuel temperature (Doppler) and coolant temperature (density) changes. FX2-TH will calculate a consistent set of steady state conditions by iterating between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics until convergence is reached. The time-dependent calculation is performed by the use of the improved quasistatic method. A disk editing capability is available. FX2-TH is operational on IBM system 360 or 370 computers and on the CDC 7600.
Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1977
Annual report on the activities of the division of biological and medical research at Argonne National Laboratory.
Design of a Tunable High-Q Superconducting Notch Filter
The design of a tunable high-Q superconducting notch filter is presented. The filter is designed to be manufactured from high Tc superconductors (Nb3S, Nb3Ge) made by high-rate magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrates. The geometry of the various elements, holder materials for the cryostat, studies relating to the preparation of suitable high Tc materials, and the photo-etching procedures for the filter elements are discussed.
Liquid-Liquid Contact in Vapor Explosion
The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture).
Advanced Fuel Cell Development: Progress Report for July-September 1978
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities focuses on the development of electrolyte structures that have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long term stability, and on developing methods of synthesis amenable to mass production.
Energy Level Structure and Transition Probabilities in the Spectra of the Trivalent Lanthanides in LaF₃
Two types of correlations with experimental results are reported. For even-f-electron systems, a center of gravity was computed based on the energies of the observed states, and calculated optimized sets of atomic energy level parameters. For odd-electron systems complete crystal field calculations were performed in which parameters of both the atomic and crystal-field parts of the interaction were adjusted to experimental data. The result is a set of eigenvectors for all the ionic states in each configuration. Spectroscopic results for all lanthanides doped into LaF3 (In³⁺ +/:LaF3) except Pm³⁺ and Eu³⁺ are reported.
Cryogenic Distillation: a Fuel Enrichment System for Near-Term Tokamak-Type D-T Fusion Reactors
The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.
Theoretical Evaluation of Thermal Imaging for Detection of Erosive Wear of Internally Refractory-Lined Transfer Lines
Infrared scanning has potential use in detecting erosive wear (thickness change) of the refractory surface of large-diameter steel pipes internally lined with refractory concrete, which are typical of those used in coal-conversion processes. An analytical study was conducted to determine the viability of this method. Heat-transfer models were developed to predict surface-temperature distributions on the outer metal surface for various erosive-wear conditions on the inner surface, assuming uniform inner-surface temperature. Variables investigated included thermal conductivity of the refractory concrete, thermal contact resistance between the steel shell and the refractory, outer-surface convective coefficient, outer-surface radiative properties, and refractory-lining thickness and composition. The study used two- and three-dimensional heat-transfer models and various well-defined rectangular cavities on the inner surface. Temperature resolution, and thus calculation of cavity sizes from surface-temperature profiles, is better when the convective coefficient is small and the interfacial contact resistance is uniformly low. The presence of dual refractory-concrete liners using a layer of insulating concrete between the hot-face lining and the steel shell, together with thick steel (t > 25 mm), tends to smear temperature patterns and reduce the temperature gradient so that calculation of cavity shapes becomes impractical.
Disposal of Radioactive Sodium Waste
Operation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) will result in production of various quantities of radioactive sodium waste. Two methods have been developed and tested on a small scale for converting this sodium waste to inert compounds suitable for disposal. The first method is direct oxidation of the sodium after dispersal in a silica matrix. The sodium is mixed with silica and oxidized in a rotary drum reactor. The product is suitable for making glass when other stabilizing compounds are added. The second method is reaction of elemental sodium with molten sodium hydroxide at 450 degrees C and subsequent injection of steam into the melt to convert the reaction products (Na2O and NaH) to additional sodium hydroxide. The reactions are smooth and easily controlled with little danger of run-away reactions. The end product is molten sodium hydroxide which can be cast into drums for further treatment or disposal. The advantages of these two methods over more conventional aqueous processes are the elimination of aqueous wastes and the elimination of minimization of gaseous effluents.
IPNS: a National Facility for Condensed Matter Research
This report has been prepared to present a summary description of the Intense Pulsed Neutron System (IPNS). The principal purpose of the document is to assemble the relevant information in a concise and integrated format so that the scientific community and others interested can obtain an accurate impression of the IPNS facilities and their intended purpose. The background and technology for pulsed neutron sources are summarized.
Numerical Methods for a Porous Medium Equation
The degenerate parabolic equation has been used to model the flow of gas through a porous medium. Error estimates for continuous and discrete time finite element procedures to approximate the solution of this equation are proved and a new regularity result is described.
Feasibility of Underground Storage/Disposal of Noble Gas Fission Products
The quantities of krypton-85 that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the krypton-85 released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of krypton-85 by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of krypton-85 as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of krypton-85 injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces.
Theory and Application of a Quasi-Eulerian Fluid Element for the STRAW Code
Two-dimensional finite-element models for the treatment of the nonlinear, transient response of fluids and structures are described. The fluid description is quasi-Eulerian, so that the mesh can move independently of the material, and it includes a new finite-element up-winding scheme. The structural description is based on a co-rotational formulation in which the coordinate system is embedded in the elements, which is applicable to arbitrarily large rotations. The interface between the fluid and structure permits relative sliding, but because of the description of the quasi-Eulerian fluid, the nodes of the fluid and structure can be allowed to remain contiguous. Modeling procedures for treating the various aspects of subassemblies, such as the narrow fluid channels, the fuel bundles which are immersed in the coolant, and the axial flow are developed. Calculations are made for a symmetric 7-subassembly cluster and compared to experimental results. In addition, the application to a 19-subassembly cluster is described.
Fluctuation Analysis of Fast Reactor Safety Experiments in TREAT
Statistical fluctuations of measured signals about their mean are related to physical processes in fuel-failure experiments. Signal variance, correlation, and spectral density are shown to be sensitive measures to instrument response characteristics, of flow-blockage formation, and of boiling phenomena. This sensitivity is demonstrated by a series of examples that use test data from the E6, E7, and L5 experiments. A mathematical model of the Mark-II loop is developed to predict both the mean and the fluctuation behavior of measured test parameters. The analysis is extended to include signal forecasting by the ARIMA time-series model. Techniques that are used to identify the model and to estimate the model parameters are discussed in detail. It is shown that departure of real-time data from the on-line forecasts is a powerful tool for the rapid detection of off-normal conditions. A description of the experiments and the data-reduction process is given in the Appendices.
ICEPEL Analysis of and Comparison with Simple Elastic-Plastic Piping Experiments
The results of simple elastic-plastic piping experiments for straight pipes and single-elbow loop systems are interpreted and evaluated. The experiments are also analyzed by the ICEPEL piping code, and the analytical results are compared against the experimental data.
The Current Status of Fusion Reactor Blanket Thermodynamics
The available thermodynamic information is reviewed for three categories of materials that meet essential criteria for use as breeding blankets in deuterium-tritium (D-T) fueled fusion reactors: liquid lithium, solid lithium alloys, and lithium-containing ceramics. The leading candidate, liquid lithium, which also has potential for use as a coolant, has been studied more extensively than have the solid alloys or ceramics.
Analysis of Nonlinear Fluid Structure Interaction Transient in Fast Reactors
A generalized Eulerian method is described for analyzing the fluid transients and the structural response in nuclear reactors under the postulated accident conditions. The phenomena considered are the wave propagation, slug impact, sodium spillage, bubble migration, and the fluid-structure interaction. The basic equations and numerical formulation are presented in detail. Sample calculations are given to illustrate the analysis. It is shown from the results that the implicit, iterative method used is unconditionally stable and is especially suitable for problems involving large material distortions.
Investigations of Materials Compatibility Relevant to the EBR-2 System : FY 1978
This report is the ninth in a series of yearly reports on investigations of components of the EBR-II reactor plant and out-of-reactor experiments in which materials or techniques are tested before being used in the EBR-II reactor systems. Wide ranges of materials, circumstances, and evaluation techniques are involved. Therefore, each investigation is reported separately.
EBR-2 Fisson-Product-Source Test No. 1
A fission-product source (FPS) was irradiated in EBR-II to provide data for calibrating the facility's fuel-element rupture detector (FERD), which is a delayed-neutron monitor, and germanium-lithium argon-scanning system (GLASS), a fission-gas-activity monitor. A metal alloy source, Ni-3.2 wt.% uranium, provided quantitative recoil release of the fission-product nuclides. The source alloy, in tubular form, was irradiated as core-region segments of 18 capsules in the FPS subassembly. The irradiation showed that the response of the FERD was linear with increasing reactor power. The magnitude of the FERD signal was dependent on local fission rate for the FPS and the flow path of the sodium carrying the delayed-neutron emitters. The relatively high fission-gas activity released by the FPS allowed accurate calibration of the GLASS under several modes of operation and provided data for verifying a gas-release model for the reactor.
Results of UO₂ Diagnositic Tests for Run Beyond Cladding Breach in EBR-2
Pre-defected uranium dioxide fuel elements were irradiated in EBR-II to determine the response of the fission-product-monitoring systems. In particular, the tests were performed to indicate whether the amount of oxide fuel exposed to the primary sodium could be estimated by monitoring, with the fuel-element-rupture detector (FERD), delayed neutrons (DN's) emitted from bromine and iodine isotopes in the sodium. Elements with defect areas of 0.005 and 0.20 cm sq. were irradiated consecutively in April and June 1977. Post-irradiation examination of the elements showed that an unexpectedly large amount of uranium dioxide/sodium chemical reaction occurred in the element with the 0.20-cm sq. defect.
Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction for Different Heats of Type 304 Stainless Steel by Linear-Damage Rule, Strain-Range Partitioning Method, and Damage-Rate Approach
The creep-fatigue life results for five different heats of Type 304 stainless steel at 593 degrees C (1100 degrees F), generated under push-pull conditions in the axial strain-control mode, are presented. The life predictions for the various heats based on the linear-damage rule, strain-range partitioning method, and damage-rate approach are discussed. The appropriate material properties required for computation of fatigue life are also included.
Bilinear Cyclic Stress-Strain Parameters for Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steel
The bilinear cyclic stress-strain parameters for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel are described. The bilinear properties of solution-annealed and aged Type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) and solution-annealed Type 3l6 stainless steel (heat 8092297) under cyclic-loading conditions at a strain rate of 8.6 x 10⁵ s⁻¹, total strain range between 0.2 and 0.8 percent, and temperatures from 22 to 593 degrees C were determined. The dependence of bilinear parameters on maximum strain epsilon and temperature is discussed.
An Ultrasonic Scanner for Stainless Steel Weld Inspections
The large grain size and anisotropic nature of stainless steel weld metal make conventional ultrasonic testing very difficult. This paper evaluates a technique for minimizing the coherent noise in stainless steel weld metal. The method involves digitizing conventional A-scan traces and averaging them with a minicomputer. Results are presented for an ultrasonic scanner which interrogates a small volume of the weld metal while averaging the coherent ultrasonic noise.
Second Mechanized In-Service Inspection of EBR-2 Steam Generator
The second mechanized ultrasonic inspection of evaporation EV-702, part of the EBR-II steam-generator system, was completed in March 1978. The 2 1/2 Cr-1 Mo duplex tubes were inspected from the bore (water) side for flaws and changes in wall thickness and for evaluating the condition of the braze between the tubes. An addition to this second inspection was the use of an ultrasonic probe to search for circumferential flaws. The inspection equipment was thoroughly checked and routinely calibrated, using a reference standard containing electrical-discharge-machined notches. Notches as small as 1.6 mm long by 0.25 mm deep were readily detected.
ATLAS: a Proposal for a Precision Heavy Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory
The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting radiofrequency technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of approximately 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approximately 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.
Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs Progress Report: April-June 1978
Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research. This report includes studies on advanced solvent extraction techniques focused on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes, extraction kinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in the presence of uranium, and dispersion of uranium and plutonium by fires.
Simple Procedure for Predicting Long-Term Average Performance of Nonconcentrating and of Concentrating Solar Collectors
The Liu and Jordan method of calculating long term average energy collection of flat plate collectors is simplified (by about a factor of 4), and generalized to all collectors, concentration and non-concentrating. The only meteorological input needed are the long term average daily total hemispherical insolation H/sub h/ on a horizontal surface and, for thermal collectors the average ambient temperature. The collector is characterized by optical efficiency, heat loss (or U-value), heat extraction efficiency, concentration ratio and tracking mode. An average operating temperature is assumed. Interaction with storage can be included by combining the present model with the f-chart method of Beckman, Klein and Duffie. Formulas and examples are presented for five collector types: flat plate, compound parabolic concentrator, concentrator with E.-W. tracking axis, concentrator with polar tracking axis, and concentrator with two axis tracking. The examples show that even for relatively low temperature applications and cloudy climates (50 degrees C in New York in February), concentrating collectors can outperform the flat plate. The method has been validated against hourly weather data (with measurements of hemispherical and beam insolation), and has been found to have an average accuracy better than 3% for the long term average radiation available to solar collectors. The suitability of this method for comparison studies is illustrated by comparing in a location independent manner the radiation availability for several collector types or operating conditions: two axis tracking versus one axis tracking; polar tracking axis versus east-west tracking axis; fixed versus tracking flat plate; effect of ground reflectance; and acceptance for diffuse radiation as function of concentration ratio.
Chemical Engineering Division Research Highlights
Report on electrochemical energy development, including development of advanced, high-temperature lithium/metal sulfide batteries for vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage.
Failure of a High-Power Pin in a Simulated $3 /s Top Accident: Test E6 Final Report
This report describes the Fuel Dynamics Test E6 and analyzes the test data. A cluster of six fresh FTR-type fuel pins surrounding a previously irradiated pin was tested to failure in a simulated $3/s FFTF accident.
Metallographic and Fractographic Observations of Posttest Creep-Fatigue Specimens of Weld-Deposited Type 308 CRE Stainless Steel
Type 308 CRE stainless steel weld specimens were subjected to metallographic and fractographic analysis after failure in elevated temperature (593 degrees C) creep-fatigue tests. The failure mode for specimens tested under continuous-cycle fatigue conditions were predominantly transgranular. When the test cycle was modified to include a hold time at the maximum tensile strain, the failure mode became predominantly inter-phase. Sigma phase was observed within the delta-ferrite regions of the weld. However, the presence of sigma phase did not appear to affect the failure mode.
Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: April-June 1978
Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division, including studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials for use in coal-conversion processes as well as studies of erosive wear, nondestructive testing, corrosion, refractory degradation, and failure analysis.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1978
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving the components of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.