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Ocean thermal energy. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

Description: This quarterly report includes summaries of the following tasks: (1) OTEC pilot plant conceptual design review; (2) OTEC methanol; (3) management decision requirements for OTEC construction; (4) hybrid geothermal - OTEC (GEOTEC) power plant performance estimates; and (5) supervision of testing of pneumatic wave energy conversion system.
Date: June 30, 1982
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Low-Temperature Carbonization Assays of North American Coals

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on low-temperature carbonization of coal. Methods and results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1957
Creator: Selvig, W. A. & Ode, W. H.
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Titanium Minerals in the Heavy Sand Deposits of Assateague Island, Maryland

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over titanium deposits of Assateague Island, Maryland. As stated in the introduction, "the purpose of this project was to study a typical coastal deposit of beach sands in the Middle Atlantic States, particularly in the area surrounding the Delmarva Peninsula" (p. 1). This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: 1959
Creator: Kuster, W. V.
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Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, October-December 1982

Description: Research progress is reported on developing Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual design activity of the two industry teams that are designing offshore OTEC pilot plants that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway in which tests of a different kind of ocean-energy device, a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber, are being planned. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1982.
Date: December 1, 1982
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Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Allegany County, Maryland

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines investigating the estimated reserves of coking coal in Allegany County, Maryland. The investigation also studied properties of coals and coal blends not widely used for metallurgical coke making. This report includes maps and tables.
Date: May 1953
Creator: Wallace, Joseph J.; Dowd, James J.; Williams, Lloyd; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
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Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Allegany County, Maryland

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines investigating the estimated reserves of coking coal in Allegany County, Maryland. The investigation also studied properties of coals and coal blends not widely used for metallurgical coke making. This report includes maps and tables.
Date: May 1953
Creator: Wallace, Joseph J.; Dowd, James J.; Williams, Lloyd; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
open access

Report of the Nonmetals Division: Fiscal Year 1942

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the operations of the Nonmetals Division during 1942. The work done by the division is discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: November 1942
Creator: Ralston, Oliver C. & Stern, A. George
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Vacuum deposited polycrystalline silicon films for solar cell applications. Quarterly report, September 15-December 31, 1979

Description: Polycrystalline silicon films 14-22 ..mu..m thick and with average grain diameters of 20-40 ..mu..m were deposited by vacuum deposition onto both ceramic and sapphire substrates which were previously coated with a thin (1-2 ..mu..m) TiB/sub 2/ conducting layer. The large grains are the result of an interaction in the initial growth stages between silicon and TiB/sub 2/. SIMS studies of B/Ti/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Ti/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, interactions are reported as part of a continuing investigation of TiB/sub 2/ formation and silicon interactions on the TiB/sub 2/ surface. The increase in grain size has led to an improvement in the open-circuit voltage V/sub oc/, but not to an increase in the short-circuit current J/sub sc/. Capacitance-voltage measurements give results characteristic of an abrupt junction and a build-in voltage V/sub D/ consistent with the measured doping levels. A simple method for measuring the minority carrier diffusion length in the base region L/sub n/ is described. The measurements indicate that there is little change in L/sub n/ between large (20-40 ..mu..m) and small (approx. 5 ..mu..m) grained samples.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Feldman, C.; Arrington, C. H.; Blum, N. A. & Satkiewicz, F. G.
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Ocean thermal energy. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

Description: This quarterly report summarizes work of the following tasks as of March 31, 1982: OTEC pilot plant conceptual design review; OTEC methanol; review of electrolyzer development programs and requirements; financial and legal considerations in OTEC implementation; potential Navy sites for GEOTEC systems; hybrid geothermal-OTEC power plants: single-cycle performance estimates; and supervision of testing of pneumatic wave energy conversion system.
Date: March 30, 1982
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Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

Description: The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.
Date: April 1, 1980
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Vacuum deposited polycrystalline silicon films for solar cell applications. Second quarterly technical progress report. January 1-March 31, 1980

Description: A careful study of a specially formed thin silicon layer on TiB/sub 2/-coated sapphire reveals that the interaction layer of TiSi/sub 2/ is composed of larger grains. Processing steps were developed which lead closer to the goal of fabricating polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic devices completely by vacuum deposition. Both n-type and p-type silicon are now being deposited. New deposition masks were made for depositing the n-regions upon the p-layers. New electrode deposition masks were also made for a direct electroding process to replace the photolithographic process used previously. The TiB/sub 2/ bottom electrode fabrication has been achieved in a single vacuum chamber. Reaction constants and activation energy for TiB/sub 2/ layer formation were determined to be less than those reported by other authors for bulk material. Studies of crystallite growth and interfacial interactions have continued. Major sources of undesirable impurities have been identified and removed from the vacuum chambers. The changes made this quarter have not been incorporated into a completed photovoltaic device.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Feldman, C.; Arlington, III, C. H.; Blum, N. A. & Satkiewicz, F. G.
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Vacuum deposited polycrystalline silicon films for solar cell applications. Quarterly report, 1 April-30 June 1980

Description: Polycrystalline p-type films were vacuum deposited onto TiB/sub 2/ coated alumina and sapphire substrates. Epitaxial layers were also formed on single crystal silicon substrates. Junctions in the layers were created by both gaseous diffusion in a tube furnace and by vacuum deposition. The TiB/sub 2/ vacuum deposited bottom electrodes have resistivities between 30 and 40 ..mu.. ..cap omega..-cm. All-vacuum-deposited solar cells were fabricated for the first time. Efficiencies approaching those in the diffused junction devices were achieved. The n-layers were deposited on the previously deposited p-layer/TiB/sub 2//ceramic sandwiches by vacuum deposition of silicon in a phosphine (PH/sub 3/) atmosphere. Photovoltaic data in diffused junction samples, including efficiency and spectral response measurements, indicate that crystallite size may no longer be the limiting factor in achieving high efficiency; rather, performance is now being limited by the presence of impurities in the vacuum deposition silicon base region.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Feldman, C.; Arrington, III, C. H.; Blum, N. A. & Satkiewicz, F. G.
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Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, January-March 1983

Description: Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983.
Date: March 30, 1983
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Atlantic Coastal Plain. Geothermal energy and the eastern US: a scenario for geothermal energy development

Description: A brief narrative outline is presented of a scenario for the development of the Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrothermal resources for geothermal space heating and cooling. Listed below are the basic assumptions made in the construction of this scenario. Since this scenario is to serve as a planning document, the steps involved in geothermal development are listed and time-phased. The most critical steps in this process are indicated. This scenario summarizes geothermal development in the entire Atlantic Coastal Plain. Separate, more detailed scenarios for each specific resource area are planned as precursors to possible implementation planning.
Date: October 1, 1977
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Geothermal energy development in the Eastern United States. Technical assistance report No. 4. Geothermal space heating: Pittsville Middle/Elementary School, Pittsville, Maryland

Description: A technical evaluation was made to determine whether geothermal energy obtained from a well could be used to space heat the new school building being constructed as well as the existing elementary wing of the Pittsville School. The first part deals with space heating the new school building only; the second part pertains to space heating the new school building together with the new existing wing. An addendum was added for new well and production pump costs. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Briesen, R.V. & Yu, K.
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Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

Description: The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Taylor, R. J. & Green, L. L.
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Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain: a scenario for geothermal energy development

Description: A scenario for the development of potential geothermal resources in the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain states of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida is explained and discussed. A description of the resources and the nature of the potential applications and energy market in this region are given. A ranking of the resources as to their energy content, potential market, etc., is described, and the assumptions and strategy used to generate the scenario are discussed. A more complete report on the detailed aspects involved in the preparation of the development scenario will be issued in the near future.
Date: February 1, 1978
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Environmental assessment of Chalk Point cooling tower drift and vapor emissions

Description: An assessment is provided of selected environmental effects of operating the cooling towers and stacks of Units No. 3 and No. 4 of the Potomac Electric Power Company's generating station at Chalk Point, Maryland. The emphasis is on the magnitude of salt deposition to the area surrounding the cooling tower due to saline water drift. A secondary but important consideration is the magnitude of salt loading due to saline drift from the stack which uses saline river water in scrubbing flue gases. This salt loading together with that of the ambient salt background is assessed for its effects on soils, crops, native vegetation and man-made structures. Other atmospheric effects examined are: enhancement of ground level fogging and icing, enhancement of precipitation, and the flight hazards to aircraft. A numerical model of drift deposition has been developed and validated against the data collected in the Dyed Drift Experiment at Chalk Point. Use of the available data model predictions indicate that with fulltime, full load operation of both 600 MW(e) units significant levels of salt deposition occur only on the plant site within 0.4 km of the source. The predicted maximum salt deposition rates are given. The effects on soils, crops and native vegetation are predicted to be negligible at off-site locations. Significant effects to foliage of dogwood is predicted to occur at the most impacted on-site locations. Corrosion of structures at these locations could be enhanced under conditions of heavy plant operation. Enhancement of ground-level fogging, icing, and precipitation is expected to be negligible for all conditions of plant use. Hazards to aircraft because of restricted visibility, turbulence, and icing of structures and engines are estimated to be very slight and of no consequence.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Davis, E. A.
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Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 December 1979

Description: The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 1979. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1-kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; development of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Rabenhorst, D. W.; Small, T. R. & Wilkinson, W. O.
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Energy programs at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Quarterly report, January--March 1979

Description: Work on developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and storage methods is summarized and divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning, contains reports on the progress of those geothermal-related tasks where effort was concentrated during the quarter. The tasks include an ongoing Atlantic Coastal Plain Geothermal Energy Market Survey, the Delmarva Geothermal Development Prospectus, Evaluation of Federal Strategies for Hydrothermal Developments, and comments on limited tasks performed in support of the major tasks. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, includes reports on a method for quantifying institutional constraints and on institutional and regulatory restraints in New Jersey. The third section, Energy Conservation and Storage Techniques, contains a report on flywheel development.
Date: April 1, 1979
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Review of State Mine Inspector's Reports as They Relate to Accidents from Falls of Roof

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines over state mine inspection reports from 19 U.S. states. The information in the reports includes details of accidents, locations that specific accidents occurred, and proposed remedies for prevention of future accidents. This report includes tables.
Date: April 1929
Creator: Paul, James Washington
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Annual Report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal: Fiscal Year 1941

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the annual report over the research and technology of coal during 1941. As stated in the foreword, "these investigations increase our fund of exact knowledge on the properties and composition of American coals and lead to better methods in mining, preparing, storing, and utilizing coal" (p. 4). This report includes tables, illustrations, photographs, and a map.
Date: November 1941
Creator: Fieldner, Arno Carl & Schmidt, L. D.
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