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Cross-Spectral Study of the Spatial Relationships in the North Pacific Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Field. Report No. 23

Description: Cross-spectral analysis is used to examine the dependence of the temporal covariation of sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies at pairs of spatially separated points in the North Pacific on (1) the time scale of the variations, (2) the relative displacement of the points and (3) their location within the North Pacific basin. Spatial scales considered here range from 1000 kilometers up to the width of the basin. The study focuses on cross-spectral estimates for the interannual frequency band, 0.125-0.75 yr/sup -1/ although estimates for three other bands spanning higher frequencies are also examined.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Middleton, J.W.
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Palladium Catalyzed Coupling Reactions: Mechanism of Reductive Elimination. Progress Report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980. [Ethane Elimination]

Description: The 1,1-reductive elimination of ethane from three cis-bis(phosphine)-dimethylpalladium complexes, L/sub 2/Pd(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/,CH/sub 3/ and L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/), and three trans analogs (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ and L/sub 2/ = 2,11-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)benzo(c)phenanthrene (TRANSPHOS)) was carried out. The three cis complexes underwent reductive elimination in the presence of coordinating solvents (DMSO, DMF, and THF). The trans complexes which could isomerize to cis (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/CH/sub 3/) did so in polar solvents and then underwent reductive elimination. TRANSPHOS dimethylpalladium would not undergo reductive elimination of ethane. The eliminations from the cis isomers were intramolecular and displayed first order kinetics. Although TRANSPHOS dimethylpalladium(II) would not undergo a 1,1-reductive elimination of ethane, the addition of CD/sub 3/I to a DMSO solution of this complex at 25/sup 0/C rapidly produced CD/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/, implicating a transient palladium(IV) intermediate. E- and Z-bromostyrylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(0) react with methyl lithium in THF at ambient temperature to give the E- and Z- propenylbenzenes, respectively. At -78/sup 0/C, the intermediate E- and Z-styrylmethylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(II) complexes (9a,b) can be isolated. On raising the temperature of solutions of 9a,b in THF, E- and Z-propenylbenzenes are produced. The reductive elimination reaction is intramolecular and first order in dialkylpalladium(II) complex.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Stille, J. K.
open access

Planetary-Wave Behavior and Arctic Air Pollution

Description: An attempt was made to relate episodes of air pollution at Barrow, Alaska, containing vanadium, to the behavior of planetary waves in middle and high latitudes. A stationarity index for planetary waves is defined as the ratio between amplitudes computed from monthly mean maps and the mean amplitudes computed on a daily basis and averaged over the same month, irrespective of phase angle. Longitude-time sections of 500-mb height anomalies at various latitudes are related to vanadium pollution episodes at Barrow.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Reiter, Elmar R.
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Hyatt Rach Pegmatite, Larimer County, Colorado

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on Larimer County pegmatite deposits. Descriptions of the deposits are presented. This report includes tables, maps, photographs, and illustrations.
Date: 1960
Creator: Gilkey, Millard M.
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Novel Concepts in Electrochemical Solar Cells. Third Quarterly Progress Report, November 15, 1979-January 15, 1980. [Molten Salt Electrolytes]

Description: Efforts have been primarily directed toward evaluation of the room temperature molten salt electrolyte in terms of its overall performance for photovoltaic cells. Mass transport processes may prove to be the rate-limiting factor for such electrolytes, unless the concentration of the photo-active redox component can be increased and the solvent viscosity reduced. Acid-base surface chemistry of n-GaAs as occurs in aqueous systems, has been found present and its consequences will be further explored. The selection and optimization of PEC electrolytes is a complex task and we believe that a systems approach would facilitate in identifying the basic electrolyte properties needed. A preliminary analysis reveals that although some of the criteria for an electrolyte are definable precisely, others do require empirical experimentation. It can be concluded that relatively few electrolytes in current use are adequate and it would appear that greater efforts to develop electrolytes would be advantageous. The various types of electrolytes that could be used for PEC's have been identified. Good quality MoSe/sub 2/ single crystals can be grown and short circuit currents greater than previously reported have been achieved in an I/sub 2//I/sup -//Pt cell. A novel technique to produce photo-active films by anodization is being investigated, initially for the formation of polycrystalline MoSe/sub 2/ layers.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: DuBow, J.; Job, R. & Krishnan, R.
open access

Wind Load Reduction for Heliostats

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Peterka, J. A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B. & Cermak, J. E.
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Exploratory Study of Metal Vapor Lasers Operating in the Ultra-Violet at Kilowatt Power Levels. Final Report, June 1, 1975--March 31, 1979

Description: Cw laser action has been extended down to 220 nm. Moreover, cw oscillation has been obtained on twenty additional transitions in the spectral range between 220 and 320 nm. Ultra-violet laser thresholds as low as 2 A have been observed. In comparison, rare gas ion lasers require 20 to 50 A to reach threshold. Metals of interest are sputtered into the discharge giving metal densities of 10/sup 14/ atoms cm/sup -3/ without using external ovens or discharge heating. Recent attempts to scale the output power levels to 1 W cw are presented with particular emphasis on the 780 nm transitions of Cu II and the 840 nm transitions of Ag II.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Collins, G.J.
open access

Milk Production and Distribution in Nine Western States in the 1950s

Description: This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Ward, G. M. & Whicker, F. W.
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Ornithogalum Virens as a Plant Assay for Beta and Gamma Radiation Effects

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute (/sup 60/Co) and chronic (/sup 137/Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation (/sup 32/P), lethality (LD/sub 50/, LD/sub 100/), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD/sub 50/ and LD/sub 100/ for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Herron, V J
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Detection of blockages in process piping Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

Description: The attached reports and proposal summarize the work to date for the revised Ultrasonic Resonance Interferometry system. The most recent set of experiments, to determine the accuracy of the implementation of a new calibration curve to account for the variation of the wave speed with temperature, were never completed due to lack of funding. The general focus of the ongoing work, outlined in the weekly reports, had been improvements in accuracy of the measurement system using software modifications. The future focus of the project, as outlined in the attached proposal, was to incorporate a thermal conductivity probe with the ultrasonic measurement system to allow measurement of fluids which have a bimodal wavespeed vs. molarity relation.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Histand, M.B.
open access

National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Report

Description: Over the past decade or so the evolution and equilibria of persistent decks of stratocumulus climatologically clinging to the edge of summertime subtropical highs has been an issue of increased scientific inquiry. The particular interest in the microphysical structure of these clouds stems from a variety of hypotheses which suggest that anthropogenic influences or biogenic feedbacks may alter the structure of these clouds in a manner which may be climatically significant. Most hypotheses regarding boundary layer influences on climate have been formulated by an examination of the solution space of simple models. The earliest hypothesis of this sort (and the one on the most solid footing) is due to Twomey (1974), who posited that enhanced concentrations of CCN could lead to enhanced droplet reflectivity and enhanced albedos in clouds of modest optical depths. In low lying clouds where the albedo effect dominates, the climate sensitivity to a robust perturbation in cloud albedo may be significant. One of the primary objectives of this current research has been to explore the hypothesis of Twomey. The basic approach was to couple radiative calculations with detailed representations of the droplet spectra. The detailed representation of the droplet spectra was generated by the Large Eddy Simulation-Explicit Microphysics (LES-EM) model coupled to a simple mixed emissivity radiation scheme in order to drive the dynamics. Several simulations were carried out and the resultant microphysical fields were taken from the stationary regime of the turbulent simulation and used to drive a two dimensional radiative model. By comparing the radiative properties of the simulated clouds formed in environments with different CCN concentrations we were able to more accurately quantify the albedo susceptibility of stratocumulus taken to be typical of the FIRE experimental area.
Date: March 9, 1995
Creator: Cotton, W.R.; Stevens, B.; Duda, D.; Richardson, W. & Feingold, G.
open access

Grassland/Atmosphere Response to Changing Climate: Coupling Regional and Local Scales. Final Report

Description: The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the response of grassland ecosystems to atmospheric change at regional and site scales, and to develop multiscaled modeling systems to relate ecological and atmospheric models with different spatial and temporal resolutions. A menu-driven shell was developed to facilitate use of models at different temporal scales and to facilitate exchange information between models at different temporal scales. A detailed ecosystem model predicted that C{sub 3} temperate grasslands wig respond more strongly to elevated CO{sub 2} than temperate C{sub 4} grasslands in the short-term while a large positive N-PP response was predicted for a C{sub 4} Kenyan grassland. Long-term climate change scenarios produced either decreases or increases in Colorado plant productivity (NPP) depending on rainfall, but uniform increases in N-PP were predicted in Kenya. Elevated CO{sub 2} is likely to have little effect on ecosystem carbon storage in Colorado while it will increase carbon storage in Kenya. A synoptic climate classification processor (SCP) was developed to evaluate results of GCM climate sensitivity experiments. Roughly 80% agreement was achieved with manual classifications. Comparison of lx and 2xCO{sub 2} GCM Simulations revealed relatively small differences.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Coughenour, M. B.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Pielke, R. A. & Eastman, J.
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Development of a gas-to-particle conversion model for use in three-dimensional global sulfur budget studies. Final report, 1 August 1991--30 June 1992

Description: A fully-parameterized model for the formation and growth of aerosols via gas-to-particle conversion has been developed and tested. A particularly significant contribution is a new method for the prediction of numbers of particles nucleated using information on the vapor source rate, relative humidity, and preexisting aerosol alone, thus eliminating the need to solve a system of coupled ODEs. Preliminary tests indicate substantial reduction in computational costs, but it is recommended that the BIMODAM model be incorporated into a large-scale model of the sulfur cycle in order to more fully test its computational feasibility.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Kreidenweis, S. M.
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Effects of Vegetation of Radon Transport Processes in Soil: The Origins and Pathways of {Sup 222}Rn Entering Into Basement Structures. Final Report, March 15, 1987--May 15, 1993

Description: The entry rate of {sup 22}Rn into a basement structure was measured continuously. These measurements demonstrated that radon entry did not vanish even when the structure was slightly pressurized. This persistent entry has been determined to be dominated by diffusion through the floor and walls and a combination of diffusion and convection through the floor-wall joint. The highest indoor radon concentrations occurred during calm periods when the pressure differentials between the inside and outside of the structure were small. The objectives of this work were to identify the origins of the radon and investigate the entry pathways. The radon could originate either in the concrete or in the soil surrounding the structure. Entry pathways into the basement were through the concrete floor and walls as well as through the floor-wall joint. The contributions of the origins and entry pathways were determined by continuously measuring the radon entry rate into the basement, using a trace gas system, and the flux density through portions of the floor and walls. Radon entry through the floor-wall joint could be controlled using a baseboard barrier system. Results indicated that, during calm conditions with wind speeds less than 1 m s{sup {minus}1}, 25 % of the radon enters through the floor-wall joint and 75 % enters through the concrete. About 30 % of the radon originated in the concrete floor and walls. A method for in-situ determination of the diffusion length and emanation fraction of radon in concrete was developed. For the concrete used in the structure, the average diffusion length and emanation fraction were 27{plus_minus}4 cm and 0.19{plus_minus}0.02 respectively.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Borak, T. B.
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Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1991--31 March 1992

Description: The limiting role of polycrystallinity in thin-film solar calls has been reduced somewhat during the past year, and efficiencies of both CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells are approaching 15%. Quantitative separation of loss mechanisms shows that individual losses, with the exception of forward recombination current, can be made comparable to their single crystal counterparts. One general manifestation of the extraneous trapping states in that the voltage of all polycrystalline thin-film cells drifts upward by 10--50 mV following the onset of illumination.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Sites, J. R.
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Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

Description: This report describes work to conduct several investigations of thin-film polycrystalline solar cells. (1) An analysis of high-efficiency solar cells fabricated at the University of South Florida showed significant reduction in forward recombination current, and the cells were stable over a 3-month test period. (2) Transient voltage effects were documented in a large number of polycrystalline cells and were attributed to long-lived trapping states sensitive to voltage changes near one-half open-circuit voltage. (3) Collection efficiency and its voltage dependence were carefully calculated. The typical effect on photocurrent at operating voltages is about 2% for CuInSe{sub 2}, and less for other cells.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Sites, J. R.
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Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes. Final report

Description: Assignment of the vibrational modes Of Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}(CHCH{sub 3}) and Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4)} has given fingerprint vibrational spectra for the following species when chemisorbed on metal catalyst surfaces: ethylidene and ethylene bound in a metallacyclopropane mode. The formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes have been shown to involve slippage of the outgoing olefin onto a single osmium, and associative exchange of the olefin from that site. The incorporation of vinylcyclopropane without rearrangement has confirmed the absence of a diradical intermediate. The anomalous stability of the diosmacyclobutane derived from trans-2-butene has proven due to greater destabilization (by the substituent methyls) of the slipped intermediate than of the ground state. Reaction of an osmacyclobutane with 1,3- or 1,2-dienes (allenes) gives 1,2 rather than 1,4 addition to the diosmium unit. Treatment of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) with triflic acid results in the formation of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})OTf. The authors have found that the reaction of an aryl iodine(III) reagent with propargyl stannanes or silanes results in o-iodo propargyl arenes.
Date: April 25, 1994
Creator: Norton, J. R.
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Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes. Progress report, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

Description: We have obtained a neutron diffraction data set for Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}({mu}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). While the structure is still being solved, it is already clear that the hybridization at both of the ethylene carbons is sp{sup 3}. Our first interpretation of our liquid crystal NMR results had suggested a very acute H-C-H angle. We have also obtained {sup 13}C liquid crystal data for Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}({mu}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). Liquid crystal NMR ({sup 13}C as well as {sup 1}H) spectra have been obtained for Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and its solution structure determined, in order to test our methodology on a molecule with a rigid structure. The normal modes of Os(CO){sub 4}({mu}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and its deuterated and {sup 13}C-labelled isotopomers have been completely assigned. A partial vibrational analysis of Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}({mu}-propene), Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}(trans-2-butene), and Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}(1-butene) has been completed. We have prepared Os(CO){sub 4}({mu}-CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}) and its 3,3-dideuterio analog. In the course of this work the reaction of Na{sub 2}Os(CO){sub 4} with a number of 1,3-propanediol derivatives has been examined. 1,3-Propanediol ditosylate afforded much better yields of the osmacycle than did either the ditriflate or diiodide. 2,2-Dideutero-1,3-propanediol ditosylate was used to prepare the deuterium-labelled osmacyclobutane.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Norton, J. R.
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Diosmacycloalkanes as Models for the Formation of Hydrocarbons From Surface Methylenes. Progress Report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

Description: The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of {mu}-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Norton, J. R.
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Capillary discharge extreme ultraviolet lasers. Progress report, December 15, 1991--December 14, 1992

Description: The project objective is to explore the generation of soft X-ray laser radiation in a plasma column created by a fast capillary discharge. The proposed capillary lasing scheme offers the potential for compact, simple and efficient soft X-ray laser sources. For this purpose a compact, fast pulse generator which produces 100 kA current pulses with a risetime of 11 ns was constructed. Initial experiments were conducted in evacuated capillaries, in which the plasma is produced by ablation of the capillary walls. The soft X-ray emission from discharges in polyethylene capillary channels was studied to investigate the possibility of amplification in the 3-2 transition of C VI, at {lambda} = 18.2 nm. Time-resolved spectra in which this transition appears anomalously intense with respect to the 4--2 transition of the same ion were obtained. To date, however, this phenomenoa could not be confirmed as gain, as the intensity of the 18.2 nm line has not been observed to increase exponentially as a function of the capillary length. Encouraging results were obtained by fast pulse discharge excitation of capillaries filled with preionized gas. High temperature (Te > 150 eV), small diameter ({approximately}200 {mu}m) plasma columns were efficiently generated. Fast current pulse excitation of a selected low mass density of uniformly preionized material Mag the capillary was observed to detach rapidly the plasma from the capillary walls, and form a plasma channel of a diameter much smaller and significantly hotter than those produced by a similar current pulse in evacuated capillaries of the same size. Discharges in argon-filled capillaries at currents between 20 and 60 kA produced plasmas with ArX-Ar{sub XIV} line emission, and with spectra that are similar to those of plasmas generated by > I MA current implosions in large pulsed power machines. The characteristic of these plasmas approach those necessary for …
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Rocca, J. J.
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Chemically modified electrodes and related solution studies. Final technical report, January 15, 1991--January 14, 1992

Description: This report is divided into 5 sections: Ru{sub 4}/Fe complexes of tetra(4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine)porphyrin--catalytic epoxidation of olefins; water oxidation catalysis by doubly linked {mu}-oxo ruthenium complexes; polymer films formed by oxidation of transition metal electrodes into solutions of bisbipyridinealkane ligands; polymer films containing [CpMo({mu}-S)]{sub 2}S{sub 2}CHR dinuclear clusters;and conducting polymer films for catalyst incorporation.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Elliott, C. M.
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