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Investigation of Three Design Modifications of the NACA Injection Impeller in an R-3350 Engine

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of three design modifications of the original NACA injection impeller on the performance of an R-3350 engine. Different methods of injecting the fuel into the impeller air stream were studied and evaluated from the individual cylinder fuel-air ratios and the resulting cylinder temperatures. Each impeller was tested for a range of engine powers normally used in flight operation. The relatively simple design of the original injection impeller produced approximately the same mixture- and temperature-distribution characteristics as the modified impellers of more complex design. None of the modifications appreciably affected the manifold pressure, the combustion-air flow, nor the throttle angle required to maintain a given engine power,.
Date: September 9, 1946
Creator: Hickel, Robert O. & Michel, Donald J.

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Oil-System Performance of XR-4360-8 Engine in XTB2D-1 Airplane

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics and the oil delivery critical altitude of the oil-cooler installation of an XTB2D-1 airplane. The investigation was made with the propeller removed end with the engine operating at 1800 brake horsepower, an altitude of 15,000 feet (except for tests of oil-delivery critical altitude), oil-cooler flap deflections from -20 degrees to 20 degrees and inclinations of the thrust axis of 0 degrees, 1.5 degrees, and 6 degrees. At an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and with the propeller operating, the total-pressure recovery coefficient at the face of the oil cooler varied from 0.84 to 1.10 depending on the flap deflection. With the propeller removed, the best pressure recovery at the face of the oil cooler was obtained at an inclination of the thrust axis of 1.5 degrees. Air-flow separation occurred on the inner surface of the upper lip of the oil-cooler duct inlet at an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and on the inner surface of the lower lip at 6 degrees. Static pressure coefficients over the duct lips were sufficiently low that no trouble from compressibility would be encountered in level flight. The oil-delivery critical altitude at cruising power (2230 rpm, 1675 bhp) was approximately 18,500 feet for the oil system tested.
Date: September 4, 1946
Creator: Conrad, E. William

Flight Investigation of the Knock-Limited Performance of a Triptane Blend, a Toluene Blend, and 28-R Fuel in an R-1830-75 Engine

Description: Knock-limited performance data were obtained for three fuels on an R-1830-75 engine in a B-24D airplane at engine speeds of 1800, 2250, and 2600 rpm, a spark advance of 25 degrees B.T.C., and carburetor-air temperatures of 85 F for 1800 and 2250 rpm and 100 F for 2600 rpm. The test fuels were a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 20 percent triptane (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL/gal), a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 15 percent toluene (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL / gal), and 28-R fuel. The knock-limited manifold pressure of the toluene blend depreciated more in the lean region than the triptane blend or 28-R fuel. The knock-limited brake horsepower for the triptane blend varied from 16 to 25 percent higher than 28-R in the lean region and 18 to 30 percent higher in the rich region. The knock-limited brake horsepower of the toluene blend was approximately 15 percent higher than that of 28-R in the rich region and varied from 2 to 10 percent higher in the lean region. Knock limits of the triptane blend and 28-R fuel tested in the R-1830-75 engine agreed with limits for the same fuels determined with the R-1830-94 engine for engine speeds of 1800 and 2250 rpm.
Date: September 3, 1946
Creator: Blackman, Calvin C.

Investigation of Dive Brakes and a Dive-Recovery Flap on a High-Aspect-Ratio Wing in the Langley 8-Foot High-Speed Tunnel

Description: The results of tests made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a solid brake, a slotted brake, and a dive-recovery flap mounted on a high aspect ratio wing at high Mach numbers are presented. The data were obtained in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel for corrected Mach numbers up to 0.940. The results have been analyzed with regard to the suitability of dive-control devices for a proposed high-speed airplane in limiting the airplane terminal Mach number by the use of dive brakes and in achieving favorable dive-recovery characteristics by the use of a dive-recovery flap. The analysis of the results indicated that the slotted brake would limit the proposed airplane terminal Mach number to values below 0.880 for altitudes up to 35,000 feet and a wing loading of 80 pounds per square foot and the dive-recovery flap would produce trim changes required for controlled pull-outs at 25,000 feet for a Mach number range from 0.800 to 0.900. Basic changes in spanwise loading are presented to aid in the evaluation of the wing strength requirements.
Date: August 28, 1946
Creator: Mattson, Axel T.

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms: August 23, 1946 to September 4, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: This report presents the results obtained from gust and draft velocity measurements within thunderstorms for the period August 23, 1946 to September 4, 1946 at Orlando, Florida. These data are summarized in tables I end II and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. In several of the surveys, indications of ambient air temperature were obtained from photo-observer records. These data are summarized in table III.
Date: January 30, 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms August 21, 1946 to August 22, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: Tables I and II of this report summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm flights 25 and 26 of August 21, 1946 and August 22, 1946, respectively. These dta were evaluated from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from motion-picture records of the instrument and include all cases in which variations in the instrument indications were noted during the present flights.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.

Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration. Model with Wing Flaps Deflected 15 Degrees, TED No. NACA 2387

Description: A flight test was conducted at the Flight Test Station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallops Island, Va., to determine the longitudinal control and stability characteristics of a 0.5-scale model of the Fairchild Lerk Pilotless aircraft with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 15 degrees. The data were obtained by the use of a telemeter and also by radar tracking. The results show an increase of effectiveness of the longitudinal control in producing normal accelerations up to a Mach number of 0.75 where this effectiveness gradually decreased becoming negative at a Mach number of 0.89. Previous tests with wing flaps undeflected an increase in effectiveness up to Mach number of 0.93 where a sudden loss of control occurred. The model was dynamically stable throughout the speed range. The data confirmed the drag increase at the critical Mach number for large angles of attack is indicated in high-speed wind-tunnel tests.
Date: January 1946
Creator: Stone, David G.

Flight Measurements of Lateral and Directional Stability and Control Characteristics of the Grumman F8F-1 Airplane

Description: This paper presents the results of flight tests to determine the lateral and directional stability and control characteristics of the Grumman F8F-1 airplane with three vertical-tail configurations. The data presented herein have no bearing on the performance characteristics of the airplane, which were not measured but which were considered to be exceptionally good. The conclusions reached regarding the lateral and directional stability and control characteristics may be summarized as follows: 1. It was found that the directional stability was poor with the production vertical tail. Addition of a 12-inch extension to the vertical fin and rudder produced a desirable improvement in directional stability and control characteristics. However, further enlargement of the vertical tail would be required to make the directional stability satisfactory in all respects. 2. There was a tendency for the rudder control force to overbalance at large angles of right sideslip with the modified vertical tails. There was no such tendency with the production tail configuration which included a dorsal fin. It was concluded that the dorsal fin should have been retained on the modified vertical tails. 3. The aileron control characteristics were better than those of many comparable airplanes which have been tested. However, the ailerons did not satisfy the Navy requirements for satisfactory flying qualities with regard to either control forces or rolling effectiveness. 4. The power of the rudder trimming tab proved to be inadequate and the tab should be enlarged and/or be provided with an increased deflection range.
Date: January 1945
Creator: Crane, H. L. & Reeder, J. P.

Effect of Rivet Holes on the Ultimate Strength Developed by 24S-T and Alclad 75S-T Sheet in Incomplete Diagonal Tension

Description: Strength tests were made of a number of 24S-T and Alclad 75S-T aluminum-alloy shear webs to determine the effect of rivet or bolt holes on the shear strength. Data were obtained for webs which approached a condition of pure shear stress as well as for webs with well-developed diagonal tension. The rivet factor, (pitch minus diameter) divided by pitch, was varied from approximately 0.81 to 0.62. These tests indicated that the shear stresses on the gross section were nearly constant for all values of the rivet factor investigated if the other properties of the web were not changed.
Date: 1943
Creator: Levin, L. Ross & Nelson, David H.

Investigation of the Characteristics of a High-Aspect-Ratio Wing in the Langley 8-Foot High-Speed Tunnel

Description: An investigation of the characteristics of a wing with an aspect ratio of 9.0 and an NACA 65-210 airfoil section has been made at Mach number up to 0.925. The wing tested has a taper ratio of 2.5:1.0, no twist, dihedral, or sweepback, and 20-percent - chord 37.5-percent-semispan plain ailerons. The results showed that serious changes in the normal-force characteristics occurred when the Mach number was increased above 0.74 at angles of attack between 4 deg. and 10 deg. and above 0.80 at 0 deg. angle of attack.Because of small outboard shifts in the lateral center of load, the bending moment at the root for conditions corresponding to a 3g pull-out at an altitude of 35,000 feet increased by approximately 5% when the Much number was increased beyond 0.83 the negative pitching moments for the high angles of attack increased, whereas those for the low angles of attack decreased with a resulting large increase in the negative slope of the pitching-moment curves. A large increase occurred in the values of the drag coefficients for the range of lift coefficients needed for level flight at an altitude of 35,000 feet when the Mach number was increased beyond a value of 0.80. The wakes at a station 2.82 root chords behind the wing quarter-chord line extended approximately a chord above the wing chord line for the angles of attack required to recover from high-speed dives at high Mach numbers.
Date: August 28, 1940
Creator: Whitcomb, Richard T.