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High-altitude flight cooling investigation of a radial air-cooled engine

Description: An investigation of the cooling of an 18-cylinder, twin-row, radial, air-cooled engine in a high-performance pursuit airplane has been conducted for variable engine and flight conditions at altitudes ranging from 5000 to 35,000 feet in order to provide a basis for predicting high-altitude cooling performance from sea-level or low altitude experimental results. The engine cooling data obtained were analyzed by the usual NACA cooling-correlation method wherein cylinder-head and cylinder-barrel temperatures are related to the pertinent engine and cooling-air variables. A theoretical analysis was made of the effect on engine cooling of the change of density of the cooling air across the engine (the compressibility effect), which becomes of increasing importance as altitude is increased. Good agreement was obtained between the results of the theoretical analysis and the experimental data.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Manganiello, Eugene J; Valerino, Michael F & Bell, E Barton

High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/16-Scale Model of the D-558 Research Airplane Air-Stream Fluctuations at the Tail of the D-558-1 Airplane

Description: An investigation of the air-stream fluctuations at the tail of the D-558-1 airplane has been made at high speed for the purpose of determining the vertical region in which the horizontal tail may be placed without becoming subject to tail buffeting. The investigation was made for a range of Mach numbers from 0.775 to 0.907, and a range of vertical positions at the tall to include two proposed horizontal-tail positions. The tests were made at two angles of attack, 0,2 deg. and 4.2 deg., representative, of the angles of attack for high-speed level flight and a pull-out condition.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Pendley, Robert E.

Hydrodynamic Qualities of a 1/10-Size Powered Dynamic Model of the XP5Y-1 Flying Boat in Smooth Water: Langley Tank Model 246, TED No. NACA DE 320

Description: The hydrodynamic characteristics of a 1/10-size powered dynamic model of the XP5Y-1 flying boat were determined in Langley tank no. 1. Stable take-offs were possible at all practicable positions of the center of gravity and flap deflections. An increase in gross load from 123.5 to 150.0 pounds (21.5 percent) had only a slight effect on the stable range for take-off. A decrease in forward acceleration from 3.0 to 1.0 feet per second per second had only a very small effect on the stable range for take-off. In general, the landings were free from skipping except at trims below 6 deg where one skip was encountered at an aft position of the center of gravity. The model porpoised during the landing runout at all positions of the center of gravity when landed at trims above 10 deg. Spray in the propellers was light at the design gross load, and was not considered excessive,at a gross load of 136.0 pounds.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Woodward, David R.; Weinstein, Irving & Whitaker, Walter E., Jr.

Interference method for obtaining the potential flow past an arbitrary cascade of airfoils

Description: A procedure is presented for obtaining the pressure distribution on an arbitrary airfoil section in cascade in a two-dimensional, incompressible, and nonviscous flow. The method considers directly the influence on a given airfoil of the rest of the cascade and evaluates this interference by an iterative process, which appeared to converge rapidly in the cases tried (about unit solidity, stagger angles of 0 degree and 45 degrees). Two variations of the basic interference calculations are described. One, which is accurate enough for most purposes, involves the substitution of sources, sinks, and vortices for the interfering airfoils; the other, which may be desirable for the final approximation, involves a contour integration. The computations are simplified by the use of a chart presented by Betz in a related paper. Illustrated examples are included.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Katzoff, S; Finn, Robert S & Laurence, James C

Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee XB-53 Airplane with a Full-Span Leading-Edge Slat in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

Description: An investigation of the low-speed; power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XB-53 airplane equipped with full-span leading-edge slats has been conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. In this investigation it was found that the-full-span leading-edge slat gave about the same maximum lift coefficient as was obtained with the outboard single slotted flap and inboard slat. The stability and control characteristics were greatly improved except near the stall where the characteristics with the full-span slat were considered unsatisfactory because of a loss of directional stability and a slight nosing-up tendency.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Bennett, Charles V.

Investigations of Compression Shocks and Boundary Layers in Gases Moving at High Speed

Description: The mutual influences of compression shocks and friction boundary layers were investigated by means of high speed wind tunnels.Schlieren optics provided a clear picture of the flow phenomena and were used for determining the location of the compression shocks, measurement of shock angles, and also for Mach angles. Pressure measurement and humidity measurements were also taken into consideration.Results along with a mathematical model are described.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Ackeret, J.; Feldmann, F. & Rott, N.

Investigations of effects of surface temperature and single roughness elements on boundary-layer transition

Description: The laminar boundary layer and the position of the transition point were investigated on a heated flat plate. It was found that the Reynolds number of transition decreased as the temperature of the plate is increased. It is shown from simple qualitative analytical considerations that the effect of variable viscosity in the boundary layer due to the temperature difference produces a velocity profile with an inflection point if the wall temperature is higher than the free-stream temperature. This profile is confirmed by measurements. The instability of inflection-point profiles is discussed. Studies of the flow in the wake of large, two-dimensional roughness elements are presented. It is shown that a boundary-layer can separate and reattach itself to the wall without having transition take place.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Liepmann, Hans W & Fila, Gertrude H

Isolated and cascade airfoils with prescribed velocity distribution

Description: An exact solution of the problem of designing an airfoil with a prescribed velocity distribution on the suction surface in a given uniform flow of an incompressible perfect fluid is obtained by replacing the boundary of the airfoil by vortices. By this device, a method of solution is developed that is applicable both to isolated airfoils and to airfoils in cascade. The conformal transformation of the designed airfoil into a circle can then be obtained and the velocity distribution at any angle of attack computed. Numerical illustrations of the method are given for the airfoil in cascade.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Goldstein, Arthur W & Jerison, Meyer

Laboratory Investigation of Two Autopilots for a 4/10-Scale Drop Model of the Grumman F8F-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 2466

Description: Performance investigation and frequency response analyses were con- ducted en two autopilot control systems designed for use in the 0.4-scale model of the Grumman F8F-1 airplane. The first system, based on the action of a displacement gyroscope only, was investigated to find the cause of a small-amplitude pitch oscillation which had been noted in previous flight tests. The results of the investigation conducted revealed that, although the autopilot-model combination was dynamically stable, a hunting oscillation was possible due to a change in autopilot characteristics in a dive. This hunting condition can be eliminated by increasing the gyroscope pickoff dead spot without greatly reducing dynamic stability of the autopilot-model combination.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Teitelbaum, Jerome M. & Seaberg, Ernest C.

Longitudinal Characteristics of a Semispan Model of the Grumman Airplane Design 83 having a Sweptback Wing and of the Model with a Straight Wing as Determined from Wing-Flow Tests at Transonic Speeds, TED No. NACA DE337

Description: An investigation has been made by the NACA wing-flow method to provide information on the relative longitudinal characteristics of a straight and sweptback wing in the transonic speed range. Tests were made of a semispan model of the Grumman airplane design 83 (XFlOF) incorporating a wing swept back 42.5deg with reference to quarter-chord line and also of the model with the swept wing replaced by a straight wing similar to that of the XF9F airplane. The airfoil sections were symmetrical 64l-series, with thickness ratios of 12 percent for the straight wing and 10 percent for the sweptback wing parallel to the stream direction. Measurements were made of normal force, chord force, and pitching moment at various angles of attack with the two wings both with and without the empennage, and with the fuselage alone. The tests covered a range of effective Mach numbers at the wing of the model from 0.65 to 1.10.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Silsby, Norman S. & Kennedy, Robert M.

Method for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data

Description: A method is presented for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data. Material from various sources is combined with some original work into the single complete method described. Multhopp's systems of multipliers are employed to obtain the induced angle of attack directly from the spanwise lift distribution. Equations are developed for obtaining these multipliers for any even number of spanwise stations, and values are tabulated for 10 stations along the semispan for asymmetrical, symmetrical, and antisymmetrical lift distributions. In order to minimize the computing time and to illustrate the procedures involved, simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for symmetrical lift distributions. Similar forms for asymmetrical and antisymmetrical lift distributions, although not shown, can be readily constructed in the same manner as those given. The adaptation of the method for use with linear section lift data is also illustrated. The adaptation has been found to require less computing time than most existing methods.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Sivells, James C & Neely, Robert H

Notes on the theoretical characteristics of two-dimensional supersonic airfoils

Description: The shock expansion method of the NACA TN No. 1143 was used to determine the principal aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional supersonic airfoils. A discussion is given of the effect of thickness ratio, free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, camber, thickness distribution, and aileron deflection. The calculations indicated that the minimum drag of supersonic airfoils is obtained when the maximum thickness is behind the 0.50 chord. The center of pressure obtained for a symmetrical supersonic airfoil was found to be ahead of the 0.50 chord.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Ivey, H Reese

On the Vortex Sound from Rotating Rods

Description: The motion of different bodies imersed in liquid or gaseous media is accompanied by characteristic sound which is excited by the formation of unstable surfaces of separation behind the body, usually disintegrating into a system of discrete vortices(such as the Karman vortex street due to the flow about an infintely long rod, etc.).In the noise from fans,pumps,and similar machtnery, vortexnQif3eI?Yequently predominates. The purpose of this work is to elucidate certain questions of the dependence ofthis sound upon the aerodynamic parameters and the tip speed of the rotating rods,or blades. Although scme material is given below,insufficientto calculate the first rough approximation to the solution of this question,such as the mechanics of vortex formation,never the less certain conclusions maybe found of practical application for the reduction of noise from rotating blades.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Yudin, E. Y.