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Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems
Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich Demonstration Plant Research Centre, Juelich (FZJ) (Germany); Schatz Solar Hydrogen Project, Schatz Energy Research Centre, Humboldt State ...
A Chaotic-Dynamical Conceptual Model to Describe Fluid flow and Contaminant Transport in a Fractured Vadose zone
(1) To determine if and when dynamical chaos theory can be used to investigate infiltration of fluid and contaminant transport in heterogeneous soils and fractured rocks. (2) To introduce a new approach to the multiscale characterization of flow and transport in fractured basalt vadose zones and to develop physically based conceptual models on a hierarchy of scales. The following activities are indicative of the success in meeting the project s objectives: A series of ponded infiltration tests, including (1) small-scale infiltration tests (ponded area 0.5 m2) conducted at the Hell s Half Acre site near Shelley, Idaho, and (2) intermediate-scale infiltration tests (ponded area 56 m2) conducted at the Box Canyon site near Arco, Idaho. Laboratory investigations and modeling of flow in a fractured basalt core. A series of small-scale dripping experiments in fracture models. Evaluation of chaotic behavior of flow in laboratory and field experiments using methods from nonlinear dynamics; Evaluation of the impact these dynamics may have on contaminant transport through heterogeneous fractured rocks and soils, and how it can be used to guide remediation efforts; Development of a conceptual model and mathematical and numerical algorithms for flow and transport that incorporate (1) the spatial variability of heterogeneous porous and fractured media, and (2) the description of the temporal dynamics of flow and transport, both of which may be chaotic. Development of appropriate experimental field and laboratory techniques needed to detect diagnostic parameters for chaotic behavior of flow. This approach is based on the assumption that spatial heterogeneity and flow phenomena are affected by nonlinear dynamics, and in particular, by chaotic processes. The scientific and practical value of this approach is that we can predict the range within which the parameters of flow and transport change with time in order to design and manage the remediation, even when ...
Characterization of a new family of metal transporters
Metal ions are critical nutrients, yet overaccumulation of these same metals can also be toxic. To maintain appropriate intracellular levels, cells require specific metal uptake systems that are subject to precise homeostatic regulation. The long-range goal of our research is to define the molecular mechanism(s) and regulation of metal ion uptake in eukaryotic cells. Integrating genetic, molecular biological and biochemical approaches, we have examined these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both are proven model systems for studying fundamental cellular processes. Our work has focused on the ZIP family of metal transporters which we identified; this family has representatives in bacteria, fungi,plants and animals. IRT1, one of the founding members of the ZIP family, is an essential cation transporter that is expressed in the epidermal cells of iron deficient plant roots and is responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. We now know that t here are 15 ZIP genes in the Arabidopsis genome which can be divided into four different classes, based on their intron/exon arrangements and the similarities among their encoded gene products. The ZIP family members display different substrate specificities for metals and different tissue distributions in Arabidopsis.Moreover, the family members respond differentially to metal deficiencies. For example, IRT1, ZIP6 and ZIP9 mRNA are expressed mainly in the roots of iron deficient plants whereas ZIP4 responds to both iron and zinc deficiency. Work in both yeast and Arabidopsis has addressed substrate specificity as well as how these transporters are regulated in response to metal availability. Our project was broken down into four specific aims. Significant progress was made on all four aims. I have listed the publications which have resulted under the relevant specific aim.
In the United States alone there are 100 million gallons of high-level nuclear wastes (HLWs) in various chemical forms awaiting eventual disposal in geologic repositories. For safety in handling and transport from their present underground storage tanks to their final burial sites, much of the HLWs are being immobilized by vitrification. A further virtue of HLW vitrification is the fact that the glass may serve as an additional, non-geologic barrier to the dispersal of these radio-toxins into the environment. For this reason, one of the criteria for selecting HLW glass compositions has been chemical durability against attack by ground water. While the effects of radiation on chemical durability have therefore been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the possibility that self-irradiation of HLW glasses may lead to modes of chemical decomposition which render them unstable even in the absence of exposure to ground water. The worst-case threat would occur if the HLW glasses were to respond to irradiation in ways analogous to rock salt (NaCl). It has long been known that alkali halides irradiated to
Photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO{sub 2} to useful chemicals or fuels. Development of an effective catalyst for the photocatalytic synthesis requires (i) the knowledge of the surface band gap and its relation to the surface structure, (ii) the reactivity of adsorbates and their reaction pathways, and (iii) the ability to manipulate the actives site for adsorption, surface reaction, and electron transfer. The research tasks accomplished during first six months include setting up a photo-catalytic reactor, optical bench, calibration of gas chromatograph, catalyst preparation, and catalyst screening study. Addition of Pt and Cu on TiO{sub 2} was found to increase the activity of TiO{sub 2} catalysts for the synthesis of methanol and methane. The most active catalysts obtained from this study will be used for mechanistic study. The overall goal of this research is to provide a greater predictive capability for the design of visible light-photosynthesis catalysts by a deeper understanding of the reaction kinetics and mechanism as well as by better control of the coordination/chemical environment of active sites.
Colloidal Agglomerates in Tank Sludge: Impact on Waste Processing
Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes in underground storage tanks is a major remediation activity for the United States Department of Energy. These wastes include a substantial volume of insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Processing these sludges under the proposed processing conditions presents unique challenges in retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification of these waste streams. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerated networks having high viscosities that could clog transfer lines or produce high volumes of low-density sediments that interfere with solid-liquid separations. Under different conditions, these particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that do not settle. Given the wide range of waste chemistries present at Department of Energy sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all treatment procedures. The underlying principle s of colloid chemistry and physics were studied to provide data that would make it possible to predict and eventually control the physical properties of sludge suspensions and sediment layers in tank wastes and other waste processing streams.
Combustion 2000
This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities
Cooled silicon nitride stationary turbine vane risk reduction. Final report
The purpose of this program was to reduce the technical risk factors for demonstration of air cooled silicon nitride turbine vanes. The effort involved vane prototype fabrication efforts at two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers. The efficacy of the cooling system was analyzed via a thermal time/temperature flow test technique previously at UTRC. By having multiple vendors work on parts fabrication, the chance of program success increased for producing these challenging components. The majority of the effort under this contract focused on developing methods for, and producing, the complex thin walled silicon nitride vanes. Components developed under this program will undergo engine environment testing within N00014-96-2-0014.
Determination of Transmutation Effects in Crystalline Waste Forms
The overall goal of this Environmental Management Science Program project was to develop research tools to investigate the effect of transmutation, that is, the radioactive decay of a radioisotope to an isotope of another element, on the stability of a crystalline matrix. This process is an important issue in the assessment of the long-term stability, and hence performance, of a waste form. Most work on radiation effects in waste forms has focused on alpha radiation, which produces more displacements than beta radiation. However, beta radiation results in transmutation, which changes both the valence and the ionic radius of the element undergoing decay. These changes in coordination chemistry may destabilize the waste form and hence permit higher releases of the radionuclide contaminants to the accessible environment. Little is known about the mobility of Cs in pollucite. Only a few studies [1-3] have examined leaching following transmutation or irradiation of pollucite or closely related aluminosilicates. These studies seem to have contradictory results. The results may indicate that prior to radiation-induced amorphization, the accumulated defects may lead to higher leachability of Cs [3], whereas once amorphization occurs, the Cs becomes trapped in the collapsed structure [2]. A more thorough analysis of the effect of accumulated defects from both transmutation and ionization processes on the pollucite structure is needed to assess to the impact on Cs mobility. In this three- year research program, we used cutting-edge experimental approaches to investigate this little-understood issue. The work was a collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We focused on the effects of transmutation on pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), a cesium aluminosilicate that has been proposed for the long-term immobilization of radioactive cesium. In this ceramic waste form, the 137Cs decays to 137Ba, causing barium to build up in the pollucite samples over time. ...
Development of a High Fluence Neutron Source for Nondestructive Characterization of Nuclear Waste
We are addressing the need to measure nuclear wastes, residues, and spent fuel in order to process these for final disposition. For example, TRU wastes destined for the WIPP must satisfy extensive characterization criteria outlined in the Waste Acceptance Criteria, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, and the Performance Demonstration Plan. Similar requirements exist for spent fuel and residues. At present, no nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation is capable of satisfying all of the PDP test cycles (particularly for Remote-Handled TRU waste). One of the primary methods for waste assay is by active neutron interrogation. The objective of this project is to improve the capability of all active neutron systems by providing a higher intensity neutron source (by about a factor of 1,000) for essentially the same cost, power, and space requirements as existing systems. This high intensity neutron source is an electrostatically confined (IEC) plasma device. The IEC is a symmetric sphere that was originally developed in the 1960s as a possible fusion reactor. It operates as DT neutron generator. Although it is not likely that this device will scale to fusion reactor levels, previous experiments1 have demonstrated a neutron yield of 2 x 1010 neutrons/second on a table-top device that can be powered from ordinary laboratory circuits (9 kilowatts). Subsequently, the IEC physics has been extensively studied at the University of Illinois and other locations. We have established theoretically the basis for scaling the output up to 1 x 1011 neutrons/second. In addition, IEC devices have run for cumulative times approaching 10,000 hours, which is essential for practical application to NDA. They have been operated in pulsed and continuous mode. The essential features of the IEC plasma neutron source, compared to existing sources of the same cost, size and power consumption, are: Table 1: Present and Target Operating Parameters for ...
Development of METHANE de-NOX reburning process. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1999
The use of biomass and wood waste solids and sludges as fuel is often hampered by their low heating values and the presence of bound nitrogen that result in inefficient combustion and high NOx emission. Cofiring supplemental fuel through auxiliary burners helps with improving the combustion effectiveness and NOx reduction, but the benefits are limited to the fractional heat input of the auxiliary fuel. Demonstration tests have shown over 60% reduction in NOx, CO and VOC emissions, and a 2% increase in boiler thermal efficiency using only 8 to 13% natural gas.
The effects of fertilization and competition control on carbon and nutrient allocation and physiology in loblolly pine plantation. Quarterly report for the period October - December, 1999
No abstract prepared.
Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems
A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Detailed design of the components to be used to for the circulating bed gasification tests ...
Enhanced Sludge Processing of HLW: Hydrothermal Oxidation of Chromium, Technetium, and Complexants by Nitrate
The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for hydrothermal separation of chromium from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges. Our worked is aimed at attaining a fundamental understanding of chromium speciation, oxidation/reduction and dissolution kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and transport properties under hydrothermal conditions in both simple and complex salt solutions that will ultimately lead to an efficient chromium leaching process.
Evaluation Of Isotopic Diagnostics For Subsurface Characterization And Monitoring : Field Experiments At The Tan And RWMC (SDA) Sites, Ineel
The purpose of this project was to explore and refine applications of isotope measurements for guiding environmental remediation strategies. The isotopic compositions of samples from field sites were analyzed to address both basic scientific issues and site-specific problems. Initial efforts were concentrated on two sites at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). During the final year of the project, the focus of work was shifted to the Hanford site in Washington. The Test Area North (TAN) site at INEEL consists of a 2 km-long plume of mixed wastes containing low-level radionuclides, sewage and chlorinated solvents that were injected into the groundwater between 1955 and 1972. Isotopic measurements of groundwater samples were made to address questions about the source of the groundwater and the regional hydrology at TAN. These data show that there is a significant input to the groundwater from playa lakes that were located west of the TAN site prior to the 1950s (since that time, inflow to the playas has been diverted for agricultural uses). Radiocarbon dates of the playa waters indicate a mean infiltration rate of 3-5 cm/year. These results explain the groundwater flow patterns observed in the plume and provide constraints on transport rates.
During the FY96-FY99 funding cycle we examined the uptake of aqueous strontium onto goethite, kaolinite, and amorphous silica surfaces as a function of pH, total strontium, and temperature. Our overall goal was to produce a mechanistic sorption model that can be used in reaction-transport calculations to predict the mobility and attenuation of radioactive strontium (90Sr) in the environment. Our approach was to combine structural information derived from synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis together with macroscopic uptake data and surface complexation models to clarify the physical and chemical structure of sorbed complexes. We chose to study these solids because of the prevalence of clays and iron hydroxides in natural systems, and because silica colloids probably form beneath leaking tanks at Hanford as caustic waste is neutralized. We have published the spectroscopic work in two papers in the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science [1, 2], and will soon submit at third manuscript to Geochemical Transactions [3] combining the sorption and spectroscopic data with a mechanistic complexation model.
Extraction and Recovery of Mercury and Lead from Aqueous Waste Streams using Redox-Active Layered Materials
The goals of this program have been to develop a series of new compounds that act as redox recyclable heavy metal ion selective materials. This has been a preliminary exploration into the viability of creating materials that act as selective exchange media. We have historically been involved in the separation of ionic pollutants such as radionuclides or toxic heavy metal ions from water by designing extractants with high selectivities and large capacities. We have also recognized that there is a more urgent need to develop processes that allow the target pollutants to be recovered in a minimal volume of secondary waste and that allow the extractants to be reused or recycled. We have been studying redox active transition-metal-containing extractants that undergo reversible electron transfer activation and deactivation as the target ions are extracted and recovered or that undergo efficient, selective ion exchange.
Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV
The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.
The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Annual reports for 1997, 1998, 1999
The Roundtable was created in 1984 to provide a unique forum for dialog among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas regarding issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. These annual reports begin by describing the purpose, structure, and mode of operation of the Roundtable. There follow sections devoted to the council activities, major projects, and follow-up planning, and the activities of the Roundtable working groups. Meeting agendas and publications lists are also included.
High Temperature Condensed Phase Mass Spectrometric Analysis Program
This program (EMSP Project No.60424) was funded by the EM Science Program for the development of an integrated mass spectrometric analysis system (see Figure 1.) capable of analyzing materials from room up to high temperatures, with the practical upper temperature limit to be experimentally determined. A primary objective of the program was the development of techniques to analyze waste materials during vitrification processing to produce waste forms. The sample is heated in the ion formation region of the mass spectrometer. This instrument geometry allows the atoms and molecules that volatilize from the sample as neutrals to be ionized before they have a chance to condense on surfaces that generally are cooler that the sample. In addition, this geometry facilitates more efficient focusing of SIMS and thermal ions into the quadrupole mass analyzer. Instrumental capabilities include the detection of volatilizing neutral species by electron bombardment, ions forming on the surface by surface ionization, and surface species by static SIMS. In addition, the instrument has elemental analysis capability (by dynamic SIMS).
High throughput manufacturing of high efficiency solar cells. Quarterly report
No abstract prepared.
Hydrologic and Geochemical Controls on the Transport of Radionuclides in Natural Undisturbed Arid Environments as Determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements
This project developed low-level analytical methods for the measurement of radionuclides by accelerator mass spectrometry. The contaminant radionuclides potentially measurable by AMS include: 14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 63Ni, 90Sr, 93Zr, 99Tc, 129I, 239Np, 239Pu, and other actinides. We chose to concentrate on 36Cl, 99Tc, 90Sr, and 129I. These nuclides were globally distributed as fallout during the era of atmospheric nuclear testing, and occur today in almost every environment. They also are prominent contaminant nuclides at a variety of DOE sites. There is a need to develop these low-level methods to observe the migration of radionuclides in natural environments. There are at least three advantages of this: (1) the ability to conduct migration studies in locations most like those of concern to public health, e.g., a ''far-field'' environment; (2) migration research does not have to be conducted at sites of multiple contamination, e.g., by VOC's, which can produce hard-to-interpret results; and (3) it becomes unnecessary to collect research samples that are themselves radioactive waste and are therefore difficult to handle and dispose of in the laboratory. Our approach of examining globally distributed, fallout radionuclides provides another advantage: (4) since the nuclides are globally distributed, migration research can be conducted in any chosen environment. Arid environments can be examined for purposes of nuclear waste storage; riverine systems can be examined for the effects of long-range transport; forested or agricultural regions can be examined for the effects of vegetative mediation; even accessible arctic regions could be examined to better understand the fate of radionuclides in remote northern Russia. The innovative aspect of this research project was that it developed methods by which field studies of radionuclide migration could take place virtually anywhere, making the research easier to conduct, less expensive, and better controlled scientifically. Science is still in the process of trying to characterize ...
Carbon tetrachloride has been used extensively within the DOE nuclear weapons facilities. Rocky Flats was formerly the largest volume consumer of CCl4 in the United States using 5000 gallons in 1977 alone (Ripple, 1992). At the Hanford site, several hundred thousand gallons of CCl4 were discharged between 1955 and 1973 into underground cribs for storage. Levels of CCl4 in groundwater at highly contaminated sites at the Hanford facility have exceeded 8 the drinking water standard of 5 ppb by several orders of magnitude (Illman, 1993). High levels of CCl4 at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The level of CCl4 cleanup required at these sites and associated costs are driven by current human health risk estimates, which assume that CCl4 is a genotoxic carcinogen. The overall purpose of these studies was to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl4. Specific research objectives of this project were to: (1) compare the rates of CCl4 metabolism by rats, mice and hamsters in vivo and extrapolate those rates to man based on parallel studies on the metabolism of CCl4 by rat, mouse, hamster and human hepatic microsomes in vitro; (2) using hepatic microsome preparations, determine the role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in CCl4-mediated toxicity and the effects of repeated inhalation and ingestion of CCl4 on these isoforms; and (3) evaluate the toxicokinetics of inhaled CCl4 in rats, mice and hamsters. This information has been used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl4 originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). Another major objective of the project was to provide scientific evidence that CCl4, like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in ...
The growing concerns for the environment and increasingly stringent standards for NO emission have presented a major challenge to control NO emissions from electric utility plants and automobiles. Catalytic decomposition of NO is the most attractive approach for the control of NO emission for its simplicity. Successful development of an effective catalyst for NO decomposition will greatly decrease the equipment and operation cost of NO control. Due to lack of understanding of the mechanism of NO decomposition, efforts on the search of an effective catalyst have been unsuccessful. Scientific development of an effective catalyst requires fundamental understanding of the nature of active site, the rate-limiting step, and an approach to prolong the life of the catalyst. The authors have investigated the feasibility of two novel approaches for improving catalyst activity and resistance to sintering. The first approach is the use of silanation to stabilize metal crystallites and supports for Cu-ZSM-5 and promoted Pt catalysts; the second is utilization of oxygen spillover and desorption to enhance NO decomposition activity. The silanation approach failed to stabilize Cu-ZSM-5 activity under hydrothermal condition. Silanation blocked the oxygen migration and inhibited oxygen desorption. Oxygen spillover was found to be an effective approach for promoting NO decomposition activity on Pt-based catalysts. Detailed mechanistic study revealed the oxygen inhibition in NO decomposition and reduction as the most critical issue in developing an effective catalytic approach for controlling NO emission.
The purpose of this project was to develop an understanding of radiolysis in systems relevant to nuclear wastes stored in tanks at DOE sites such as Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho. Since these wastes are highly heterogeneous systems, determining the effects of particulate matter on the radiolytic yields was the main focus of interest. When translated to site-specific concerns, quantitative modeling of these processes can be developed once the fundamental phenomena are understood. Interpretation of the results and conclusions to specific issues, especially safety concerns, at the sites was a major goal. The results were transferred to site operators as soon as the experimental observations were confirmed to be reliable.
Ionizing Radiation Induced Catalysis on Metal Oxide Particles
This project was conducted to determine if ionizing radiation could be used to catalytically destroy organics over semiconducting metal oxide particles. We focused primarily on the destruction of organic chelating agents, such as EDTA, which are known to hamper the separation of radionucleii (such as Sr or Am) from tank waste using current ion exchange methods. Our objective was to determine if ionizing radiation could be used to destroy the chelating capability of species such as EDTA, either by partially or completely decomposing the organic, in order to free radionucleii for efficient separation. Although a considerable amount of information is available in the open literature on the roles of visible/UV light in photocatalysis, little is known about the processes initiated by ionizing radiation. In this sense, the use of ionizing radiation is both novel, and may find an important niche in the pretreatment of mixed waste. An additional aim of the project was determine the mechanism(s) by which the radiocatalysis effect took place and compare it to what is know from visible and UV photocatalytic processes in the literature. The main outcome of this work is a more thorough evaluation of the use of ionizing radiation in the catalytic remediation of organics (and other problem species) in high-level mixed waste.
This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.
Brookhaven National Laboratory was established in 1947 on the site of the former Army Camp Upton. Brookhaven is a multidisciplinary Laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. Associated Universities, Inc. managed the Laboratory, under contract with the US Department of Energy until April 30, 1998. On March 1, 1998, Brookhaven Science Associates LLC (BSA) was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy to manage the Laboratory. Brookhaven Science Associates has taken responsibility for all aspects of the existing Royalty Use Program from the prior contractor, AUI. This report is limited to FY 1998 activities of the Royalty Use Program that were funded by royalty income from prior fiscal years. Any FY 1998 royalty income allocated in FY 1998 shall be reported in the FY 1999 Royalty Use Program Report.
Mill-designed biobleaching technologies. Quarterly project report for the period ending December 30, 1999
No abstract prepared.
Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Second technical progress report
OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Second technical progress report
Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report
MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.
The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for ...
This report contains the experimental, theoretical and numerical studies performed under Department of Energy (DOE) Agreement Number DE-FG07-96ER14732 entitled ''Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Imaging Subsurface Water.'' DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) complexes and test ranges are situated in widely varying climatic conditions from the desert southwest to the humid east. The mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is to clean up the inventory of inactive DOE sites and facilities, and the goal of the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to deliver technologies to make environmental restoration more efficient and cost effective. In the western United States, where a number of DOE facilities are located, the water table can occur several hundred feet below the surface. The zone between surface and water table is called the vadose zone or unsaturated zone. A characteristic of that zone is that mobility of water and contaminants is greatly reduced compared to rate of movement in the saturated zone. A thick vadose zone lowers the risk and, at least, increases the time before contaminants enter drinking water supplies. The assessment of risk is often performed by modeling of ground water flow and contaminant migration by analytical methods or unsaturated flow models (e.g. Hendrickx et al 1991). Necessary inputs for these models are the hydraulic properties of the different geological formations (e.g. Hendrickx 1990) and the water content distribution in the vadose zone (Freeze and Cherry 1979). Accurate risk assessments for ground water contamination cannot be conducted without actual measurements of the water content distribution in the vadose zone. To date, very few techniques have been developed to provide such information at an acceptable speed and cost. Because soil water contents exhibit a large spatial and temporal variability, the costs of conventional measurement techniques, such as gravimetric ...
Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel
Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and thermochemical modeling of these high temperature systems. The second segment utilized Sandia expertise and ongoing ...
Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)
This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.
Rapid Mass Spectrometric DNA Diagnostics for Assessing Microbial Community Activity During Bioremediation
Changes in pollutant profiles observed in contaminated soils have been attributed to biological activity when in actuality abiotic processes caused pollutant removal.1 This sometimes casual implication of biodegradation is not acceptable, but understandable, because factors which cause the disappearance of pollutants are not always easy to identify. Several pollutant removal or transformation pathways are possible with most pollutants found in soil and these processes may or may not operate independently. Careful evaluation of bioremediation necessitates that all transformation and removal pathways are anticipated so that the pathways are either controlled or monitored but in practice this is generally not possible. The diminution in pollutant oxidation might track with several candidate loss mechanisms and when this occurs the real cause becomes problematic to pin point. Many factors disguise or prevent the effectual tracking of bioremediation processes among which are three general types of problems: (1) The estimate that only about 0.1% or less of the microorganisms living in soils are culturable leads to the conclusion that the possibility for unknown organisms participating in a biodegradation pathway is high. How should these imperceptible microorganisms be tracked? (2) The diversity of the microcosm is large, yet several different genera have been shown to possess the same or very similar enzymes for degrading a pollutant. Cell counts of specific organisms, therefore may not track very well with the rate of loss or conversion of a pollutant. Should groups of organisms possessing similar biochemical reaction capabilities become the focus or is it more useful to track specific organisms? (3) Abiotic processes such as physical processes which transport pollutants away from a contamination site lead sometimes to the counterfactual conclusion that bioremediation occurred when in actuality the pollutant was diluted or dispersed heterogeneously. How do we handle a large number of samples so that significantly representative ...
Rapid Mass Spectrometric DNA Diagnostics for Assessing Microbial Community Activity During Bioremediation
Changes in pollutant profiles observed in contaminated soils have been attributed to biological activity when in actuality abiotic processes caused pollutant removal.1 This sometimes casual implication of biodegradation is not acceptable, but understandable, because factors which cause the disappearance of pollutants are not always easy to identify. Several pollutant removal or transformation pathways are possible with most pollutants found in soil and these processes may or may not operate independently. Careful evaluation of bioremediation necessitates that all transformation and removal pathways are anticipated so that the pathways are either controlled or monitored but in practice this is generally not possible. The diminution in pollutant oxidation might track with several candidate loss mechanisms and when this occurs the real cause becomes problematic to pin point. Many factors disguise or prevent the effectual tracking of bioremediation processes among which are three general types of problems: (1) The estimate that only about 0.1% or less of the microorganisms living in soils are culturable leads to the conclusion that the possibility for unknown organisms participating in a biodegradation pathway is high. How should these imperceptible microorganisms be tracked? (2) The diversity of the microcosm is large, yet several different genera have been shown to possess the same or very similar enzymes for degrading a pollutant. Cell counts of specific organisms, therefore may not track very well with the rate of loss or conversion of a pollutant. Should groups of organisms possessing similar biochemical reaction capabilities become the focus or is it more useful to track specific organisms? (3) Abiotic processes such as physical processes which transport pollutants away from a contamination site lead sometimes to the counterfactual conclusion that bioremediation occurred when in actuality the pollutant was diluted or dispersed heterogeneously. How do we handle a large number of samples so that significantly representative ...
Transition metal oxides are presently the focus of much attention in condensed matter physics because of the diverse phenomena exhibited by these materials. Examples include antiferromagnetism, superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. The origin of these phenomena lies in the strong electron correlations present in these materials which place them between the well understood limits of band insulators and simple metals. The presence of these correlations makes these materials hard to handle theoretically, and there is a need for more detailed experimental work, in particular in regard to the electronic structure and excitations.
Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1
The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.
Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control
This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Sorption of Colloids, Organics, and Metals onto Gas-Water Interfaces: Transport Processes and Potential Remediation Technology
The knowledge gap on vadose zone colloid transport limits predicting contaminant transport at many DOE sites, and remains an outstanding scientific challenge. Although the process of contaminant sorption at mineral surfaces has received much recognition as a major mechanism controlling contaminant behavior in subsurface environments, virtually little attention has been given to the possibility of contaminant sorption at gas-water interfaces, a major interface in the vadose zone. Moreover, little effort has yet been advanced to optimize such interactions for the purpose of facilitating in-situ remediation. Gas-water interfaces, unlike water-solid interfaces, are mobile. Therefore, associations of contaminants with gas-water interfaces can be very important not only in subsurface contaminant distributions, but also in contaminant mobilization, and potentially in remediation. The first objective of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of interactions between contaminants and gas-water interfaces. For surface-active molecules, surface excesses can be determined through the Gibbs equation combined with measuring changes in surface tension with respect to changes in their solution concentration. However, for surface-active colloids, surface tension changes are too small to measure. Until initiation of this research project, there were no techniques available for quantifying sorption of colloids at gas-water interfaces. The second purpose of the proposed research, based on improved understanding gained in the first phase studies, was to develop a sorptive microbubble remediation technique, using surfactant stabilized microbubbles (fine gas-bubbles, 1-15 {micro}m in diameters) for subsurface in-situ remediation.. In the saturated zone, both pump-and-treat, and air sparging remediation methods are ineffective at displacing contaminants in zones that are ''advectively inaccessible''. Stable microbubbles might be able to migrate beyond preferential flow pathways through buoyant rise. Oxygen and nutrient delivery for promoting aerobic degradation of organic contaminants, and surfactant delivery for emulsifying NAPLs are potential benefits of microbubble injection.
Source Signatures of Fine Particulate Matter from Petroleum Refining and Fuel Use
Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732 kW boiler. Particulate matter (PM) emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the <2.5 micron fraction (PM{sub 2.5}) in fact consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As Kedges, and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM{sub 2.5} samples than in the >2.5 micron samples (PM{sub 2.5+}). Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agree fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resemble that of vanadyl sulfate (VO{center_dot}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O). The other metals investigated (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were also present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic is present as an arsenate (As{sup +5}). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM{sub 2.5} fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the LOI ranging from 64 to 87 % for the PM{sub 2.5} fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM{sub 2.5+} fraction. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicates that the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic ...
State Governance of Elementary and Secondary Education
No Description Available.
Superconducting Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for the Pretreatment of Radioactive or Mixed Waste Vitrification Feeds
An open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) process is being considered to separate deleterious elements from radioactive and mixed waste streams prior to vitrification or stabilization. By physically segregating solid wastes and slurries based on the magnetic properties of the solid constituents, this potentially low-cost process may serve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by reducing the large quantities of glass produced from defense-related high-level waste (HLW). Furthermore, the separation of deleterious elements from low-level waste (LLW) also can reduce the total quantity of waste produced in LLW immobilization activities. Many HLW 'and LLW waste' streams at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS) include constituents deleterious to the durability of borosilicate glass and the melter many of the constituents also possess paramagnetism. For example, Fe, Cr, Ni, and other transition metals may limit the waste loading and affect the durability of the glass by forming spine1 phases at the high operating temperature used in vitrification. Some magnetic spine1 phases observed in glass formation are magnetite (Fe,O,), chromite (FeCrO,), and others [(Fe, Ni, Mg, Zn, Mn)(Al, Fe, Ti, Cr)O,] as described elsewhere [Bates-1994, Wronkiewicz-1994] Stable spine1 phases can cause segregation between the glass and the crystalline phases. As a consequence of the difference in density, the spine1 phases tend to accumulate at the bottom of the glass melter, which decreases the conductivity and melter lifetime [Sproull-1993]. Crystallization also can affect glass durability [Jantzen-1985, Turcotte- 1979, Buechele-1990] by changing the chemical composition of the matrix glass surrounding the crystals or causing stress at the glass/crystal interface. These are some of the effects that can increase leaching [Jantzen-1985]. A SRS glass that was partially crystallized to contain 10% vol. crystals composed of spinels, nepheline, and acmite phases showed minimal changes in short term leachability [Jantzen-1985, Hench-1982]. However, Jantzen et k > al. found ...
Strategic Technology Resources, L.L.C. (STR) provided work for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in response to Request for Proposal 005BZ0019-35. The objectives of the work in this project were to: (1) support the completion of the Advanced Reservoir Management (ARM) cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) LA9502037, and (2) support the development of a field demonstration of the LANL-developed Global Weapons Information System (GWIS) model for virtual enterprises. The second objective was contingent upon DOE approval of the Advanced Information Management (AIM) CRADA. At the request of the LANL Technical Representative, the project was granted a no-cost extension to November 30, 1999. As part of the project, STR provided managerial support for the ARM CRADA by: (1) assessing the data resources of the participating companies, (2) facilitating the transfer of technical data to LANL, (3) preparing reports, (4) managing communications between the parties to the ARM CRADA, and (5) assisting with the dissemination of information between the parties to technical professional societies and trade associations. The first phase of the current project was to continue to engage subcontractors to perform tasks in the ARM CRADA for which LANL expertise was lacking. All of the ARM field studies required of the project were completed, and final reports for all of the project studies are appended to this final report. The second phase of the current project was to support the field demonstration of the GWIS model for virtual enterprises in an oilfield setting. STR developed a hypertext Webpage that describes the concept and implementation of a virtual enterprise for reservoir management in the petroleum industry. Contents of the hypertext document are included in this report on the project.
TRUPACT-II Operating and Maintenance Instructions
The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II) Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP, the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. TRUPACT-II C of C number 9218 states, ''... each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' It further states, ''... each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the application.'' Chapter 9 of the TRUPACT-II SARP charges the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) with assuring that the TRUPACT-II is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. To meet this requirement and verify consistency of operations when loading and unloading the TRUPACT-II on the trailer, placing a payload in the packaging, unloading the payload from the packaging, or performing maintenance, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (U.S. DOE/CAO) finds it necessary to implement the changes that follow. This TRUPACT-II maintenance document represents a change to previous philosophy regarding site specific procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II. This document details the instructions to be followed to consistently operate and maintain the TRUPACT-II. The intent of these instructions is to ensure that all users of the TRUPACT-II follow the same or equivalent instructions. Users may achieve this intent by any of the following methods: (1) Utilizing these instructions as is, or (2) Attaching ...
Two-Phase Reaction Turbine. Technical progress report for the period July-December 1999
During the initial part of this period the concentrated effort was placed on getting comprehensive analysis and design of the turbine prototype. This was in order to be able to initiate its fabrication as needed for its building, assembling and timely testing. In the second part of this period the effort was placed on design and other considerations needed to acquire the test rig within the limited budget based on subsequent grant from the DOE.
A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams. Results of Inspection Tests on Nine Coal-Derived Distillation Cuts in the Jet Fuel Boiling Range
This report describes the assessment of the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuel (180-300 C) distillation fraction of nine direct coal liquefaction products and compares those properties to the corresponding specifications for aviation turbine fuels. These crude coal liquids were compared with finished fuel specifications specifically to learn what the refining requirements for these crudes will be to make them into finished fuels. The properties of the jet fuel fractions were shown in this work to require extensive hydrotreating to meet Jet A-1 specifications. However, these materials have a number of desirable qualities as feedstocks for the production of high energy-density jet fuels.
This report presents the results of the bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-09, HTI Run Number 227-106, conducted under the DOE Proof-of-Concept Option Program indirect coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-09 was conducted using two types of Chinese coal, Shenhua No.2 and Shenhua No.3, and had several goals. One goal was to study the liquefaction performance of Shenhua No.2 and Shenhua No.3 with respect to coal conversion and distillate production. Another goal of Bench Run PB-09 was to study the effect of different GelCatw formulations and loadings. At the same time, the space velocity and the temperature of the fmt reactor, K-1, were varied to optimize the liquefaction of the two Chinese coals. The promoter-modified HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst was very effective in the direct liquefaction of coal with nearly 92% maf coal conversion with Shenhua No.3 and 93% maf coal conversion with 9 Shenhua No.2. Distillate yields (CQ-524 C)varied from 52-68% maf for Shenhua No.3 coal to 54-63% maf for Shenhua No.2 coal. The primary conclusion from Bench Run PB-09 is that Shenhua No.3 coal is superior to Shenhua No.2 coal in direct liquefaction due to its greater distillate production, although coal conversion is slightly lower and C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} light gas production is higher for Shenhua No.3. The new promoter modified GelCat{trademark} proved successful in converting the two 9 Chinese coals and, under some conditions, producing good distillate yields for a coal-only bench run. Run PB-09 demonstrated significantly better performance of China Shenhua coal using HTI's coal direct liquefaction technology and GelCat{trademark} catalyst than that obtained at China Coal Research Institute (CCRI, coal conversion 88% and distillate yield 61%).
This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.