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Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth.

Description: Portrait of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, Queen Elizabeth [later known as Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother], Consort of King George VI of England. She wears six strands of pearls, a tiara, and an embroidered dress with three decorations attached to it. One decoration is the Family Order of King George VI, which features a portrait of the King. The decoration on her left breast is the Garter Star, which features St. George's cross.
Date: [c.1937]
Creator: Wilding, Dorothy, 1893-1976.

Contribution to the aerodynamics of rotating-wing aircraft

Description: The chief defect of the investigations up to now was the assumption of a more or less arbitrary "mean" drag coefficient for a section of the blade. This defect is remedied through replacement of the constant coefficient by a function of higher order which corresponds to the polar curve of the employed profile. In that way it is possible to extend the theory to include the entire range from "autogyro" without power input to the driven "helicopter" with forward-tilted rotor axis. The treatment includes the twisted rectangular blade and a non-twisted tapered blade. Proceeding from the air flow and stresses on a section of the blade, the formulas for torque, axial and normal thrust of a linearly twisted rectangular blade, and a non-twisted tapered blade, are derived.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Sissingh, G

The Effect of Streamlining the Afterbody of an N.A.C.A. Cowling

Description: The drag and the power cost associated with the changing of the nose of a nacelle from a streamline shape to a conventional N.A.C.A. cowling shape was investigated in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot tunnel. Full-scale propellers and nacelles were used. The increment of drag associated with the change of nose shapes was found to be critically dependent on the afterbody of the nacelle. Two streamline afterbodies were tested. The results fo the tests with the more streamlined afterbody showed that the added drag due to the open-nose cowling was only one-fourth of the drag increase obtained with the other afterbody. The results of this research indicate that the power cost, in excess of that with a streamline nose, of using an N.A.C.A. cowling in front of a well-designed afterbody to enclose a 1,500-horsepower engine in an airplane with a speed of 300 miles per hour amounts to 1.5 percent of the engine power. If the open-nose cowling is credited with 1 percent because it cools the front of the cylinders, the non-useful power cost amounts to only 0.5 percent of the engine power.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Stickle, George W.; Crigler, John L. & Naiman, Irven

Liquefied gas for the household.

Description: Describes the benefits of using liquefied gas as a means of power in the home, how it is measured and distributed, and its comparative costs.
Date: December 1939
Creator: Senner, Arthur H. (Arthur Henry) & Holbrook, Helen S. (Helen Shepard), b. 1882.

Local instability of columns with I-, Z-, channel, and rectangular-tube sections

Description: Charts are presented for the coefficients in the formulas for the critical compressive stress at which cross-sectional distortion begins in thin-wall columns of I-, Z-, channel, and rectangular-tube sections. The energy method of Timoshenko was used in the theoretical calculations required for the construction of the charts. The deflection equations were carefully selected to give good accuracy. The calculation of the critical compressive stress at stresses above the elastic range is briefly discussed in order to demonstrate the use of the formulas and the charts in engineering calculations. Two illustrative problems are included.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Stowell, Elbridge Z. & Lundquist, Eugene E.

Modern methods of testing

Description: After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Seeber, F

Observations in flight of the region of stalled flow over the blades of an autogiro rotor

Description: The flow over the inner halves of the rotor blades on a Kellet YG-1B autogiro was investigated in flight by making camera records of the motion of silk streamers attached to the upper surfaces of the blades. These records were analyzed to determine the boundaries of the region within which the flow over the blade sections was stalled for various tip-speed ratios. For the sake of comparison, corresponding theoretical boundaries were obtained. Both the size of the stalled area and its rate of growth with increasing tip-speed ratio were found to be larger than the theory predicted, although experiment agreed with theory with regard to shape and general location of the stalled area. The stalled region may be an important factor in both the rotor lift-drag ratio and the blade flapping motion at the higher tip-speed ratios. The method of study used in this paper should be useful in further studies of the problem, including the reduction of the size of the region.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr & Gustafon, F B

Pressure-distribution measurements on a rectangular wing with a partial-span split flap in curved flight

Description: Pressure-distribution tests were made on the 32-foot whirling arm of the Daniel Guggenheim Airship Institute of a rectangular wing of NACA 23012 section to determine the rolling and the yawing moment due to angular velocity in yaw. The model was tested at 0 and 5 degree pitch; 0, +/- 5, and +/- 10 degrees yaw; and with no flap and with split flaps 25, 50 and 75 percent of the wing span and deflected 60 degrees. The results are given in the form of span load distributions and as calculated moment coefficients. The experimental values of rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients were in fairly close agreement with theory.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Rokus, Frank G

Profile-Drag Investigation of an Airplane Wing Equipped with Rubber Inflatable De-Icer

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has made profile-drag measurements in flight of a wing which was equipped with a rubber inflatable de-icer and to which various stimulated ice formations were attached. Tuft observations at the stalling speed of the wing with the various drag conditions were made in order to determine the influence on the maximum lift coefficient. The de-icer installation caused an increase of from 10-20% in the profile drag of the plain wing and reduced CL(sub max) about 6%. Simulated ice, when confined to the leading-edge region of the de-icer, had no measurable influence upon the profile drag at the cruising speed. This ice condition, however, reduced the value of CL(sub max) to about three-fourths that of the plain wing. Simulated ice in the form of a ridge along the upper and lower de-icer cap-strips increased the profile drag by about 360% at cruising speed. This condition reduced the CL(sub max) to approximately one-half that of the plain wing value.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A. & Jones, Alun R.

A recurrence formula for shear-lag problems

Description: The analysis of the bending action in box beams with appreciable shear deformation of the flanges becomes very difficult in the general case of variable cross section and loading. This paper presents a convenient method of solving the problem by the familiar method of dividing the beam into a number of bays that can be assumed to have constant cross section and loading. Application of formerly derived shear-lag formulas leads to a general equation closely analogous in form to the well-known three-moment equation. A numerical example and two comparisons between calculation and experimental results are included.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Stress concentration around an open circular hole in a plate subjected to bending normal to the plane of the plate

Description: An aluminum-alloy plate containing an open circular hole of diameter large compared with the thickness of the plate was subjected to bending forces normal to the plane of the plate. Deflection and strain measurements were taken for two different loads. Stress concentrations occurred at the edge of the hole and the maximum stresses were tangential to the hole at the ends of the transverse diameter. The maximum stress at the edge of the hole was 1.59 times the computed stress on the net section and 1.85 times the computed stress in a solid plate of the same dimensions subjected to the same bending forces. The maximum deflections were about 20 percent greater than the corresponding deflection for a solid plate of the same size subjected to the same bending forces. The smallest edge distance was equal to 2-1/2 times the diameter of the hole and the stress concentration on this side of the hole was the same as on the side where the edge distance was about 4-1/2 diameters. A theoretical analysis of the problem shows that, for an aluminum plate of infinite width, the stress concentration at the edge of the hole would be 1.87 times the stress in a solid plate, which is substantially the same relation obtained for the plate tested.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Dumont, C

The effect of compressibility on the pressure reading of a Prandtl pitot tube at subsonic flow velocity

Description: Errors arising from yawed flow were also determined up to 20 degrees angle of attack. In axial flow, the Prandtl pitot tube begins at w/a approx. = 0.8 to give an incorrect static pressure reading, while it records the tank pressure correctly, as anticipated, up to sonic velocity. Owing to the compressibility of the air, the Prandtl pitot tube manifests compression shocks when the air speed approaches velocity of sound. This affects the pressure reading of the instrument. Because of the increasing importance of high speed in aviation, this compressibility effect is investigated in detail.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Walchner, O

The effect of the slipstream on an airplane wing

Description: The conditions which must be met at the slipstream boundary are developed, after which it is shown with the aid of the reflection method how these limiting conditions may be complied with in the case of an airfoil in a propeller slipstream in horizontal flow as well as for the propeller in yaw and with allowance for the slipstream rotation. In connection herewith, it is shown how the effective angles of attack and the circulation distribution with due regard to slipstream effect can be predicted and what inferences may be drawn therefrom for the distribution of lift, drag, and pitching moment.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Franke, A & Weinig, F

Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

Description: Engine and airplane performance data have been gathered from various sources and analyzed to determine indications of the most economical methods of flight operation from a consideration of fuel expenditure. The analysis includes the influence of such facts as fuel-air ratio, engine speed, engine knock, altitude, cylinder cooling, spark timing, and limits of cruising brake mean effective pressure. The results indicate that the cheapest power is obtained with approximately correct mixture at low engine speed and highest permissible manifold pressure. If more power is desired, the methods of obtaining it are, in order of fuel economy: (a) increasing the engine speed and maintaining safe cylinder temperatures by cooling; (b) retarding the spark or cooling further to permit higher manifold pressure; and, (c) riching the mixture. The analysis further shows that the maximum time endurance of flight occurs at the air speed corresponding to minimum thrust horsepower required and with minimum practicable engine speed. Maximum mileage per pound of fuel is obtained at slightly higher air speed. The fuel-air ratio should be approximately the theoretically correct ratio in both cases. For an engine equipped with a geared supercharger, as in the example presented, and with knock as the limiting condition, a comparison of operation at sea level and at 6,000 feet shoes flight at altitude to be more economical on the basis of both range and endurance.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Reuter, George

The enlarged N.A.C.A. tank, and some of its work

Description: The most conspicuous of the features of the enlarged N.A.C.A. tank are derived directly from those of the original tank and owe their present form not only to the reasons for their first use but also to the experience obtained with them. As in the original tank, there are: 1) A basin of great length (new 2,880 feet); 2) Rails made of structural H beams, without machining; 3) A towing carriage of very high speed (now 80 mph maximum); 4) Rubber tires on all the wheels, pneumatic on the running wheels and solid on the guide wheels.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Truscott, Starr

An Investigation of the Prevention of Ice on the Airplane Windshield

Description: An investigation has been completed on several methods for the prevention and removal of ice on an airplane windshield. Tests were made on the use of electric heating, hot-air heating, and an alcohol-dispensing, rotating wiper blade. The results showed that vision through the airplane windshield could be maintained during severe icing conditions by the use of heat. When put in operation prior to the formation of ice on the windshield, the rotating wiper blade prevented the formation of ice. A combination system that employs the use of heated air and a rotating wiper blade would appear to give protection against the formation of ice on the windshield exterior, prevent frost on the interior, and provide for the removal of rainfall.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A.

Photoelastic analysis of three-dimensional stress systems using scattered light

Description: A method has been developed for making photoelastic analyses of three-dimensional stress systems by utilizing the polarization phenomena associated with the scattering of light. By this method, the maximum shear and the directions of the three principal stresses at any point within a model can be determined, and the two principal stresses at a free-bounding surface can be separately evaluated. Polarized light is projected into the model through a slit so that it illuminates a plane section. The light is continuously analyzed along its path by scattering and the state of stress in the illuminated section is obtained. By means of a series of such sections, the entire stress field may be explored. The method was used to analyze the stress system of a simple beam in bending. The results were found to be in good agreement with those expected from elementary theory.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Weller, R & Bussey, J K

Pressure-distribution investigation of an N.A.C.A. 0009 airfoil with a 50-percent-chord plain flap and three tabs

Description: Pressure-distribution tests of an N.A.C.A. 0009 airfoil with a 50-percent-chord plain flap and three plain tabs, having chords 10, 20, and 30 percent of the flap chord, were made in the N.A.C.A. 4- by 6- foot vertical tunnel. The tests supplied aerodynamic section data that may be applied to the design of horizontal and vertical tail surfaces. The results are presented as resultant-pressure diagrams for the airfoil with the flap and the 20-percent-chord tab. Plots are also given of increments of normal-force and hinge-moment coefficients for the airfoil, the flap, and the three tabs. The experimental results and values computed by analytical methods are in good agreement for small flap and tab deflections. The results of the tests indicated that the effectiveness of all three tab sizes in reducing flap hinge moments decreased with increasing flap deflection.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Street, William G & Ames, Milton B