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ANL/HIWAY: an Air Pollution Evaluation Model for Roadways

Description: This report describes a computer program, called ANL/HIWAY, for estimating air quality levels of nonreactive pollutants produced by vehicular sources. It is valid for receptors at distances of tens to hundreds of meters, at an angle, downwind of the roadway, in relatively uncomplicated terrain. It may be used by planners to analyze the effects of a proposed roadway on adjacent air quality. The ANL/HIWAY model expands the evaluation capabilities of the EPA/HIWAY dispersion model. This report also serves as a user's manual for running the ANL/HIWAY PROGRAM. All command structures are described in detail, with sample problems exemplifying their use.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Concaildi, George A.; Cohen, Alan S. & King, Richard F.

Ceramic Coatings for Components Exposed to Coal-Gas Environments : a Review

Description: The corrosive and erosive environments at high temperatures and pressures in coal gasifiers impose severe requirements on the alloys of fabrication. A concise review of the application of ceramic coatings to resist coal-gas environments has been conducted. The purpose of this review is to explore suitable ceramic or cermet materials that may resist or retard the degradation of metal components and to summarize the state of the art of various methods of producing such coatings.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Swaroop, Robert

Computers, Health Records, and Citizen Rights

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over studies on the benefits of computerized record-keeping. Medical records were chosen for the studies, and they also focus on patient privacy and rights. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Westin, Alan F.; Baker, Michael A.; Annas, George J.; Silberberg, Richard; Broder, Jamie; Isbell, Florence et al.

Decomposition of Calcium Sulfate : a Review of the Literature

Description: One of the important issues related to fluidized bed combustion of fossil fuels is the subsequent handling and/or treatment of the partially sulfated lime material removed from the combustor. One alternative would be to regenerate the sulfated additive to recover the sulfur, which would be stored for use, and lime that would be recycled for reuse in the combustor. It is the purpose of this report to review the development of regeneration technology which has progressed rather slowly as compared with the technology relative to the fluidized bed combustion process. The review covers research efforts specifically directed toward the regeneration of sulfated limestones plus those studies which have been made to investigate the decomposition of naturally occurring minerals of calcium sulfate. The report reviews basic thermodynamic and kinetic studies as well as laboratory, bench, and pilot scale process development studies. No attempt has been made in the review to evaluate the engineering, environmental, or economic merits of regeneration of the various regeneration schemes.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Swift, W. M.; Panek, Allen; Smith, G. W.; Vogel, G. J. & Jonke, A. A.

Experimental Study of the Neutronics of the First Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmark Assembly (GCFR Phase 1 Assembly)

Description: The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Phase I Assembly is the first in a series of ZPR-9 critical assemblies designed to provide a reference set of reactor physics measurements in support of the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant designed by General Atomic Company. The Phase I Assembly was the first complete mockup of a GCFR core ever built. A set of basic reactor physics measurements were performed in the assembly to characterize the neutronics of the assembly and assess the impact of the neutron streaming on the various integral parameters. The analysis of the experiments was carried out using ENDF/B-IV based data and two-dimensional diffusion theory methods. The Benoist method of using directional diffusion coefficients was used to treat the anisotropic effects of neutron streaming within the framework of diffusion theory. Calculated predictions of most integral parameters in the GCFR showed the same kinds of agreements with experiment as in earlier LMFBR assemblies.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Bhattacharyya, S. K.

Final Report on Test L4, a Loss-of-Flow Experiment

Description: The behavior of FTR-type, mixed-oxide, pre-irradiated "high-power-structure" fuel during a simulation of an FTR loss-of-flow accident was studied in the Mark-IIA integral TREAT loop. Analysis of the data leads to a postulated scenario (sequence and timing) of events in this test. This scenario is presented, together with the calculated timing of events obtained by use of SAS code.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Eberhart, James G.; Lo, R. & Barts, E. W.

Gasification of Chars Produced Under Simulated in situ Processing Conditions

Description: This effort is being directed toward support studies for the national endeavor on in situ coal gasification. This task involves the investigation of reaction-controlling variables and product distributions for the gasification of both coals and chars utilizing steam and oxygen. Included in this task is the investigation of the effects of using brackish water as the water supply. The high-pressure char gasification system has been received from the manufacturer and is currently undergoing testing. The types of experiments that would be most useful in their studies have been discussed with two of the three laboratories carrying out field tests of in-situ gasification.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Fischer, J.; Lo, R.; Young, J. & Jonke, A. A.

High-240Pu Sector Experiments in ZPPR Assembly 4

Description: The complete high-plutonium-240 fuel experiment in ZPPR assembly 4 is reviewed. Results of criticality, enrichment, small-sample perturbation, sodium void, uranium-238 Doppler, control rod substitution and reaction rate measurements are presented. Comparison of these measured values with calculated results are included where possible. The relationship between the ZPPR high-plutonium-240 fuel experiments and the results obtained in previous critical experience is considered.
Date: December 1976
Creator: McFarlane, Harold F. & Beck, C. L.

High-Performance Batteries for Off-Peak Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: July-September 1976

Description: Quarterly report describing the research and management efforts of the program at ANL on lithium-aluminum/metal sulfide batteries. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy storage applications.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Nelson, P. A.; Ivins, R. O.; Yao, N. P.; Battles, J. E.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C. et al.

Instrumentation for Automatic Cycling of Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide Secondary Cells

Description: In the development of lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide secondary cells at Argonne National Laboratory, an instrumentation system was necessary to automatically operate experimental cells over extended periods of times. The system described in this report provides the capability for control of cell cycling and recording of data without the need for constant attendance by research personnel. In these tests, electrical performance, power, energy storage capacity cycle-life and cell lifetimes are determined by repetitive charging and discharging of the cells.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Olsen, W. F. & Slaweki, M. A.

Light-Water-Reactor Safety Research Program

Description: Progress report on water-reactor-safety heat-transfer and flow problems. Covering the following research and development areas: loss-of-coolant accident research, transient fuel response and fission-product release program, mechanical properties of zircaloy containing oxygen, and steam-expulsion studies.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Numerical Integration of Large Deflection Elastic-Plastic Axisymmetric Shells of Revolution

Description: The improvement in the method of large deflection elastic-plastic analysis of shells and other structures appears to have continued interest. With the development in this work an improved numerical suppression scheme is now available for the large deflection elastic-plastic analysis of axisymmetric shells of revolution subjected to symmetric loadings. Quasi-linearization of Sander's non-linear shell equations is presented for the first time. With these quasi-linearized equations the suppression scheme has been developed to solve non-linear boundary-value problems. This suppression scheme has been used in conjunction with a Newton-Raphson method to improve a stable convergence process at the yield surface in elastic-plastic problems. Results presented indicate the accuracy of this numerical scheme. It appears to be possible to extend this method for more complicated situations.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Ahmed, Habib Uddin

Benchmark Testing of the Finite-Strain Version of the LIFE-III Fast-Reactor-Element Code

Description: A collection of benchmark problems is used to test the finite-strain formulation of the LIFE-III fast-reactor fuel-element code. Analytical solutions for thick-wall cylinders loaded by internal and external pressure, valid for arbitrarily large strains, are presented for a linear viscous material. Similar problems are formulated for a nonlinear material, and numerical solutions are obtained using the Runge-Kutta method for the integration of an ordinary differential equation. These solutions are then compared with the corresponding solutions obtained using the LIFE-III code. With a proper choice of the number of spatial regions and time steps, good agreement is obtained between the two sets of solutions. The results indicate that the structural-analysis portion of the revised LIFE-III is valid for large strains.
Date: November 1976
Creator: Shack, W. J.; Jankus, V. Z. & Billone, Michael C.

Laboratory Studies for Separation of Solids from Synthoil Gross Product : Parts 1 and 2

Description: PART 1. A variety of surfactants and agglomerating agents have been added to coal-liquefaction product (from the SYNTHOIL process) to determine the effectiveness of these agents in decreasing the viscosity of the product or inducing agglomeration of suspended solids in the product (and consequently facilitating the removal of solids from the product). More than two dozen additives were tested; however, only two of the additives caused a small reduction in the viscosity of the coal-liquefaction product. PART 2. A variety of organic solvents have been added to coal-liquefaction product (from the SYNTHOIL process) to determine the effectiveness in promoting the precipitation of suspended solids in the product. High-temperature settling of the product in the absence of foreign solvent does not appear to be a promising mechanism for solids removal from this product. However, the promoter-solvent de-ashing scheme has been demonstrated to be a potentially attractive solids-liquid separation method, and kerosene has been found to be an effective promoter solvent for the SYNTHOIL gross product.
Date: November 1976
Creator: Huang, H. & Fischer, J.

PTA-1: A Computer Program for Analysis of Pressure Transients in Hydraulic Networks, Including the Effect of Pipe Plasticity

Description: The computer program PTA-1 performs pressure-transient analysis of large piping networks using the one-dimensional method of characteristics applied to a fluid-hammer formulation. The effect of elastic-plastic deformation of piping on pulse propagation is included in the computation. The program is particularly oriented toward the analysis of the effects of a sodium/water reaction on the intermediate heat-transport system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, but may be applied just as usefully to other pulse sources and other piping systems. PTA-1 is capable of treating complex piping networks and includes a variety of junction types. Pipe friction and nonlinear velocity terms are included in the formulation. The program requires a minimum of input-data preparation and is designed to be easily used and modified. This report contains the governing equations, program structure, input requirements, program listing, and other information for PTA-1.
Date: November 1976
Creator: Youngdahl, C. K. & Kot, C. A.

Calculated Burnups and Fluences for Experimental Fuel Elements Irradiated in EBR-II Runs 5-55B

Description: A procedure is described for calculation of burnups and fluences at any point in a subassembly in EBR-II runs 5-55B. The calculations are performed by the BRN program package and require data generated for any element in the highly inhomogeneous fueled experimental subassemblies is the most important application of the pointwise capability. Tables allow calculation of burnup and fluences for any element in such a subassembly.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Kucera, D. A. & Meneghetti, D.

Cracking and Healing Behavior of UO2 as Related to Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction : Interim Report, July 1976

Description: A direct-electrical-heating apparatus has been designed and fabricated to investigate those nuclear-fuel-related phenomena involved in the gap closure-bridging annulus formation mechanism that can be reproduced in an out-of-reactor environment. Prototypic light-water-reactor uranium dioxide fuel-pellet temperature profiles have been generated utilizing high flow rates (approximately 700 liters/min) of helium coolant gas, and a re-circulating system has been fabricated to permit tests of up to 1000 h. Simulated light-water-reactor single- and multiple-thermal-cycle experiments will be conducted on both unclad and ceramic (fused silica) clad uranium dioxide pellet stacks. A laser dilatometer is used to measure pellet dimensional increase continuously during thermal cycling. Acoustic emissions from thermal-gradient cracking have been detected and correlated with crack length and crack area. The acoustic emissions are monitored continuously to provide instantaneous information about thermal-gradient cracking. Post-test metallography and fracture-mechanics measurements are utilized to characterize cracking and crack healing.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Kennedy, C. R.; Yaggee, F. L.; Voglewede, J. C.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wrona, B. J.; Ellingson, W. A. et al.

Environmental Pollutants and the Urban Economy : Phase 1. Final Report, June 1972-October 1975

Description: Costs and benefits of various urban air pollution control policies have been examined in Phase 1 of the Environmental Pollutants and the Urban Economy study being conducted jointly by Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago. The need for sound economic evaluation of air quality regulations is evidenced by the resistance of many industries to pollution control policies based solely on the technical feasibility of achieving public health-related standards. For many firms that emit air pollutants, the cost of not complying with some regulations is significantly less than the cost of compliance. This final report on the Phase 1 research presents highlights of what has been learned, the mechanisms developed for transferring results to users, a bibliography of documents produced during the project, and a collection of correspondence, articles, and evaluation illuminating the use of project work by others.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Fission-Product Releases to the Primary System of EBR-II, January 1974-March 1975

Description: Seven releases of fission products occurred in EBR-II from January 1974 to March 1975 - - five from mixed-oxide elements and two from sodium-bonded driver-fuel elements. Four releases were from elements that contained a xenon tag, which aided considerably in locating three of the elements; data from the fourth element allowed estimation of changes of tag composition with reactor exposure. Rapid release of fission from two breached mixed-oxide elements caused the reactor to trip because of increased delayed-neutron activity, the first time such behavior has been observed. Identification of a subassembly of Mark-1A driver-fuel elements was complicated by multiple failure of its untagged elements during the diagnosis period. Several of these elements had some exposed fuel in the core, which was the likely cause of increasing delayed-neutron signals from the subassembly.
Date: October 1976
Creator: So, B. Y. C.; Lambert, J. D. B.; Johnson, D. L.; Ebersole, E. R. & Brunson, G. S.