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Electromagnetic Compatibility and Interference Metrology

Description: From abstract: The material included in this report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EMI) metrology to be offered jointly by the staff of the Fields Characterization Group (723.03) and the Interference Characterization Group (723.04) of the Electromagnetic Fields Division (723). The purpose of this short course is to present a review of some of the radiated EMC/EMI measurement methods, to which the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) at Boulder, Colorado, has made significant contributions during the past two decades.
Date: July 1986
Creator: Ma, Mark T. & Kanda, M.

Interactive FORTRAN Programs for Micro Computers to Calculate the Thermophysical Properties of Twelve Fluids (MIPROPS)

Description: From abstract: The thermophysical and transport properties of selected fluids have been programmed in FORTRAN 77 which is available for micro computers. The input variables are any two of P, p, T (pressure, density, and temperature) in the single phase regions, and either P or T for the saturated liquid or vapor states. The output is pressure, density, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacities (Cp and Cv), speed of sound and, in most cases, viscosity, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant.
Date: May 1986
Creator: McCarty, Robert D.

Linear Gain: Standard Antennas Below 1000 MHz

Description: Abstract: Gain and antenna parameters related to input impedance are calculated using a computer program called HVD6. This program uses well documented equations to compute these parameters for gain-standard antennas used in relative-gain or gain-transfer measurements at frequencies below 1000 MHz. The utility of this program is that it calculates gain patterns and input impedances for linear dipoles above perfect or imperfectly conducting plane ground and in free space, and for monopoles on perfectly conducting plane ground. Examples are included to illustrate the use of the program. Uncertainties in the calculated parameters are estimated to be less than those of the measured parameters.
Date: May 1986
Creator: FitzGerrell, R. G.

A Statistical Characterization of Electroexplosive Devices Relevant to Electromagnetic Compatibility Assessment

Description: Abstract: Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are electrically fired explosive initiators used in a wide variety of applications. The nature of most of these applications requires that the devices function with near certainty when required and remain inactive otherwise. Recent concern with pulsed electromagnetic interference (EMI) and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) made apparent the lack of methodology for assessing EED vulnerability. A new and rigorous approach for characterizing EED firing levels is developed in the context of statistical linear models and is demonstrated in this paper. We combine statistical theory and methodology with thermodynamic modeling to determine the probability that an EED, of a particular type, fires when excited by a pulse of a given width and amplitude. The results can be applied to any type of EED for which the hot-wire explosive binder does not melt below the firing temperature. Included are methods.for assessing model validity and for obtaining probability plots, called "Firing Likelihood Plots". A method of measuring the thermal time constant of an EED is given. This parameter is necessary to evaluate the effect of a train of pulses. These statistical methods are both more general and more efficient than previous methods for EED assessment. The results provide information which is crucial for evaluating the effects of currents induced by impulsive electromagnetic fields of short duration relative to the EEDs thermal time constant.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Friday, Dennis S. & Adams, John W.

A Study of Techniques for Measuring the Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Materials

Description: Abstract: Shielding effectiveness relates to a material's ability to reduce the transmission of propagating fields in order to electromagnetically isolate one region from another. Because a complex material's shielding capability is difficult to predict, it often must be measured. A number of measurement approaches are studied including the use of a shielded room, coaxial transmission line holders, time domain signals, the dual TEM cell, and an apertured TEM cell in a reverberation chamber. In each case, we consider the system's frequency range, test sample requirements, test field type, dynamic range, time required, analytical background, and present data taken on a common set of materials.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Wilson, Perry F. & Ma, Mark T.

Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis

Description: Abstract: Tables of important data for use in the analytical chemistry laboratory are provided. These tables contain information for use in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and wet chemical techniques. Tables relating to safe practice in the analytical laboratory are also included.
Date: April 1986
Creator: Bruno, Thomas J. & Svoronos, Paris D. N.

Design, Evaluation, and Use of a Reverberation Chamber for Performing Electromagnetic Susceptibility/Vulnerability Measurements

Description: Abstract: This report presents the results of work at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, to carefully evaluate, document, develop (when necessary), and describe the methodology for performing radiated susceptibility/vulnerability measurements using a reverberation chamber. The report describes the reverberation chamber theory of operation, construction, evaluation, functional operation, and use for performing immunity measurements. It includes an estimate of measurement uncertainties derived empirically from test results and from comparisons with anechoic chamber measurements. Finally, it discusses the limitations and advantages of the measurement technique to assist potential users in determining the applicability for this technique to their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurement needs.
Date: April 1986
Creator: Crawford, M. L. & Koepke, Galen H.

Automated Measurement of Frequency Response of Frequency-Modulated Generators Using the Bessel Null Method

Description: From abstract: This paper describes a Bessel null technique to measure the frequency response of a frequency-modulated rf carrier and a program to automate frequency response measurements of signal generators with output frequencies from 0.450 to 2000 MHz. The measurements obtained using this technique are more precise than those obtained by a highly trained technician using a manual system.
Date: March 1986
Creator: Major, J. R.; Livingston, E. M. & Adair, Robert T.

Finline Diode Six-Port: Fundamentals and Design Information

Description: Abstract: The preliminary design and testing of a planar circuit six-port with diode detectors is described. The planar circuit medium was chosen to be finline, and all preliminary work was done in WR-42 waveguide (18-26.5 GHz). The finline substrate was alumina, and initially commercial beam-lead diodes were bonded to the finline metalization. The goal is to design an integrated circuit which could be fabricated on one chip (with diode detectors) and used as part of a six port network analyzer in the waveguide bands above 18 GHz. Initial designs proved to b unsatisfactory because of high losses and reflections. Most of the problems have b en solved, and a usable integrated finline circuit is a good possibility for a millimeter wave six-port.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Weidman, Manly P.

Site Attenuation

Description: Abstract: Site attenuation is a measure of performance of an open test site used at frequencies below about 1 GHz for antenna calibration and equipment emission and susceptibility testing. These sites typically consist of a large, obstruction-free ground plane and the hemisphere above it. Site attenuation of an ideal site is calculated and compared to data measured using the 30 m by 60 m NBS ground screen.
Date: November 1985
Creator: FitzGerrell, R. G.

Design of the National Bureau of Standards Isotropic Magnetic Field Meter (MFM-10) 300 kHz to 100 MHz

Description: From introduction: In this report the following will he discussed: (1) design consideration of the broadband magnetic field sensor, (2) overall design of the magnetic field meter, (3) performance of the meter, (4) calibration and operating procedures, (5) alignment and adjustment procedures, and (6) summary and conclusions.
Date: October 1985
Creator: Cruz, J. E.; Driver, L. D. & Kanda, Motohisa

A Radio-Frequency Power Delivery System: Procedures for Error Analysis and Self-Calibration

Description: Abstract: An expression is developed for net power delivered to a load in terms of the indicated forward and reflected power and the system S-parameters and reflection coefficients. The dual directional coupler is treated as nonideal with power reflections assumed between all ports. The system itself is used to evaluate the major S-parameter terms in net power computation, and uncertainty in the computed power is derived from origins in the power meter readings and incompletely known S-parameters.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Kanda, Motohisa & Orr, R. David

A Near-Field Array of Yagi-Uda Antennas for Electromagnetic Susceptibility Testing

Description: Abstract: In electromagnetic susceptibility testing of electronic equipment, the ideal incident field is a plane wave. To approximate this condition, a seven-element array of Yagi-Uda antennas has been constructed and tested at a frequency of 500 MHz. The element weightings are determined by a near-field synthesis technique which optimizes the uniformity of the field throughout a rectangular test volume in the near field of the array. The amplitude and phase of the electric field have been measured throughout the test volume with a short dipole probe, and the agreement with the theory is excellent.
Date: June 1985
Creator: Hill, David A. & Koepke, Galen H.

Tables of Industrial Gas Container Contents and Density for Oxygen, Argon, Nitrogen, Helium, and Hydrogen

Description: Abstract: Custody transfer tables are presented for oxygen, argon, nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen. The tables are based on standard reference data previously compiled by the National Bureau of Standards. Two sets of tables are provided for each fluid. Tables in engineering units cover the range -40 to 130*F with pressures from 100 to 10,000 prig. Tables in SI units (density versus pressure and temperature) cover the range 200 to 370 K with pressures from 0.5 to 70 MPa. The tables in engineering units are designed to provide a means of determining the volume of gas at standard conditions contained in a tank given the volume of the tank and the pressure and temperature of the gas within the tank. The publication also includes four examples of use of the tables in calculating tank quantities.
Date: June 1985
Creator: Younglove, Ben A. & Olien, Neil A.

Transparent Metrology of Signal to Noise Ratios of Noisy Band-Limited Digital Signals

Description: From abstract: I propose the use of a template method for quantitative, correct, and transparent measurement of signal power to additive noise power ratios (SNR) of digital signals and systems under full operating conditions. Outer guard chips of digital templates hold intersymbol interference fixed on inner target chips in realizations of the respective template patterns in traffic. The proposed template method needs to be developed and proven as a potentially valuable metrology capability; it can be especially important for real time online performance assessment and monitoring of digital communication systems.
Date: June 1985
Creator: Halford, Donald

VOR Calibration Services

Description: from Introduction: The National Bureau of Standards has designed, constructed, and evaluated a standard for the support of very-high-frequency omnidirectional range (VOR) air navigation aids. The standard consists of two instruments: (1) a digital waveform signal generator for the composite VOR audio waveform, and (2) a standard phasemeter based on time series analysis of this waveform. Experimental results, a statistical analysis of them, and the principal software listings are included.
Date: April 1985
Creator: Larsen, Neil T.; Vecchia, Dominic F. & Sugar, George R.

Possible Estimation Methodologies for Electromagnetic Field Distributions in Complex Environments

Description: Abstract: The problem of measuring and characterizing complicated multiple-source, multiple-frequency electromagnetic environments is becoming more important and more difficult as electrical devices proliferate. This paper outlines three general approaches to the problem which are currently under investigation at the National Bureau of Standards. The three approaches are: 1) a statistical treatment of the spatial distribution of electromagnetic field intensities, 2) a numerical computation using a finite-difference (or lattice) form of the electromagnetic action functional, and 3) use of a directional probe to scan a volume. All three methods are still in the development stage, but each appears promising.
Date: March 1985
Creator: Kanda, Motohisa; Randa, J. & Nahman, N. S.

A Theory of Mutual Impedances and Multiple Reflections in an N-Element Array Environment

Description: Abstract: A general theoretical approach is formulated to describe the complex electromagnetic environment of an N-element array. The theory reveals the element-to-element interactions and multiple reflections within the array. From the formulation, it is found that the interaction between an excited element and an open-circuited element can be viewed as the sum of terms describing all possible signal paths within the array environment which start from the radiating element and terminate on the element under observation. Within all paths except the most direct one, multiple reflections between subgroups of elements take place. The resulting solution is highly structured and recursive and is discussed in detail in the text. Illustrative examples are provided to facilitate understanding of these ideas.
Date: February 1985
Creator: Muth, Lorant A.

An Error Analysis for the Use of Presently Available Lunar Radio Flux Data in Broadbeam Antenna-System Measurements

Description: From introduction: Simple, precise expressions for lunar diameter, average brightness temperature, flux density, and shape factor are presented. An analysis of the relationship between these parameters and corresponding errors are included. For broadbeam (HPBW>d) antennas, results show that flux density and shape factor can be determined with errors less than 13 percent and 0.4 percent respectively at frequencies below 10 GHz. Extension of the analysis to higher frequencies is indicated.
Date: February 1984
Creator: Daywitt, William C.

Theory of Near-Field Phased Arrays for Electromagnetic Susceptibility Testing

Description: From introduction: The feasibility of using a near-field array for electromagnetic susceptibility testing is studied. The basic objective is to control the element weightings such that a plane wave is generated within the test volume. The basic theory is developed for arbitrary array geometries, and numerical results are obtained for finite planar arrays. A general near-field array synthesis technique is developed, and the technique minimizes the mean square error in the test volume while constraining the array excitations. The constraint prevents large excitations and is useful in minimizing the fields outside the test volume. The basic idea looks promising, but some practical considerations, such as bandwidth and angular scanning limitations, require further theoretical and experimental investigation.
Date: February 1984
Creator: Hill, D. A.