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Nuclear Weapons Effects Tests of Blast Type Shelters : A Documentary Compendium of Test Reports
Report describing and comparing the effects of atomic explosions on a variety of family shelters. The structures, test conditions, and instrumentation are described.
Aerial Radiological Monitoring System
From abstract: "This report describes the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS-II) operated by EG&G, Inc., for the Division of Biology and Medicine, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission."
Experimental Radiation Measurements in Conventional Structures: Part 1, Radiation Measurements in Two Two-Story and Three One-Story Typical Residential Structures Before and After Modification
Report discussing the methods, data, and analysis of results for "An experimental study designed to provide a basis for estimating protection against fallout radiation " (p. v) using one- and two-story structures with basements.
Neutron-Field and Induced-Activity Measurements-Operation Bren
From Abstract: "Certain characteristics of the neutron field from this unshielded reactor were measured. The activation of gold, manganese, sulfur, cadmium-covered gold, and cadmium-covered manganese was determined as a function of distance from the reactor and of depth in the ground. The data show how those parameters, important for calculating neutron-induced activity in the soil, vary as a function of the height of the source and the slant range from the source."
Arguello Area (ARMS-II)
No Description Available.
Distribution of Weapons Radiation in Japanese Residential Structures
Report wherein the distribution of neutron and gamma radiation in Japanese-style single and group houses are studied to evaluated radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Mobile Radiological Measuring Unit: Description and Operating Information
From Introduction: "This report contains a description of the MRMU, detailed operating information, emergency procedures, and health physics operating regulations. Also included are parts lists (Appendix A), an electrical system schematic (Appendix B), a hydraulic system schematic ( Appendix C), and EG &G Drawing No. NE-1054, which shows the shell assembly of the multiple-source pig (Appendix D)."
Technical Concept-Operation Henre
From Introduction: "As a result of research accomplished during Operation BREN in 1962, it has been proposed that a monoenergetic point neutron source be constructed and operated on the same tower. The field experiment which would be conducted at this time has been designated as Operation HENRE (High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment)."
Barrier Attenuation of Air-Scattered Gamma Radiation
Report of a study that "was conducted to determine the attenuation provided by vertical and horizontal barriers exposed only to skyshine radiation from cobalt-60 and cesium-137 sources. Materials of steel, aluminum, concrete, and wood were used as barriers" (p. 5).
A Comparative Analysis of Some of the Immediate Environmental Effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Report regarding the medical and environmental effects caused by the nuclear weapons that were detonated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Includes studies of wave overpressure and three tiers of blast lethality.
An Experimental Investigation of the Spatial Distribution of Dose in an Air-Over-Ground Geometry
Report containing results of a study that sought to measure the intensification of radiation at various distances from point sources.
Ichiban: The Dosimetry Program for Nuclear Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - A Status Report as of April 1, 1964
From Abstract: "The approach to the problem has been as fundamental as possible with emphasis on quantitative measurements and calculations of the energy, angular, and spatial distributions of weapons radiations in an air-over-ground geometry. Spatial distributions of dose in various shields, including Japanese dwellings, have been measured. Techniques have been developed in Japan for verifying the location of survivors and accurately describing their shielding environments."
Orlando Area (ARMS-II)
From Abstract: "The data are presented as aeroradioactivity units or areas with similar gamma radiation counting rates at 500 ft., at two map scales: (1) generalized at about 1: 1,000,000 and (2) detailed at 1:250,000. The maximum aeroradioactivity in almost all the area was less than 400 counts/sec. Aerial measurements of ground radioactivity in the ARMS-II Orlando area were consistent with what was expected, considering the geology of the area."
Parr Area (ARMS-II)
From Purpose of Survey: "The ARMS-II Parr area survey was one of many that have been flown for the CETO since the nationwide ARMS program was started (1958). Figure 2 shows the location of the areas survey as of Apr. 1, 1964. The purpose of the program is to measure the present environmental levels of gamma radiation in areas around nuclear facilities and planned nuclear activities."
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Geology of Puerto Rico (ARMS-I)
Report containing an aeroradioactivity survey of Puerto Rico made on behalf of the Division of Biology and Medicine, United States Atomic Energy Commission. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Ground Roughness Effects on the Energy and Angular Distribution of Gamma Radiation From Fallout
Report examining "[t]he effect of ground roughness, or surface irregularities, on the radiation field above ground which had been contaminated with fallout from the explosion in the atmosphere of a nuclear device (Smallboy Event)" (p. v).
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of Parts of Southeastern New York and Southern New England (ARMS-I)
Report concerning "[a]n airborne gamma-radiation survey of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and parts of New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont" (p. 5) made between 1958 and 1960 that indicated that a broad range of radioactivity exists in those areas depending on the type of bedrock. Correlations are drawn between this radioactivity and the geology of the region.
General Correlative Studies - Operation Bren
Report summarizing "the utilization of the Health Physics Research reactor and a Co60 source during Operation BREN" and offers related meteorological data relating radiation emissions.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the National Reactor Testing Station Area, Idaho (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne radioactivity survey that took place in the 10,000 square mile area surrounding the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Geology of the Gnome (Carlsbad) Area, New Mexico and Texas (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne radioactivity survey that took place in the 7,000 square mile area around the GNOME test site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Experimental Radiation Measurements in Conventional Structures: Part 2. Comparison of Measurements in Above-Ground and Below-Ground Structures From Simulated and Actual Fallout Radiation
Report concerning the protection offered against radioactive fallout offered by two types of structures at the Nevada Test Site. Differences between above ground and underground structures are measured and compared to data taken from actual fallout conditions.
Galveston Area (ARMS-II)
No Description Available.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of Parts of East-Central New York and West-Central New England (ARMS-I)
Report concerning "[a]n airborne gamma-radiation survey of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and parts of New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont" (p. 5) made between 1958 and 1960 that indicated that a broad range of radioactivity exists in those areas depending on the type of bedrock. Correlations are drawn between this radioactivity and the geology of the region.
Experimental Evaluation of the Fallout-Radiation Protection Provided by Selected Structures in the Los Angeles Area
Report regarding experiments made to determine the fallout-radiation protection offered by four types of buildings in Los Angeles, California. The first structure was the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology and the University of California at Los Angeles, the second was a fallout shelter, the third was the communications area of the Los Angeles Police Department building, and the fourth was a classroom.
Nuclear Bomb Effects Computer (Including Slide-rule Design and Curve Fits for Weapons Effects)
From Introduction: "The primary purpose of this report is to describe the analytical procedures involved in the design of a circular slide rule and to discuss its usage and limitations in the evaluation of the effects of nuclear weapons."
Fort McClellan Radiological Instruction Area (ARMS-II)
Report documenting the survey of the U. S. Army Chemical Corps Schoo, Radiological Instruction Area, Fort Mclellan, Alabama. This survey measures radiation an d gamma-ray flux in an approximately one square mile area.
Extended- and Point-Source Radiometric Program
Report containing information regarding the airborne radiometric equipment intercalibration exercises undertaken by four government agencies and one private companies.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Georgia Nuclear Laboratory Area, Northern Georgia (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne gamma-radioactivity survey that took place over a 7,000 square mile area around the George Nuclear Laboratory in Dawson County, Georgia. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Operation Plan and Hazards Report - Operation BREN
Report discussing "descriptions of the HPRR and the Co^60 source, their operating procedures, the manner in which they will be used, and possible hazards are included."
Norfolk-Peninsula Area (ARMS-II)
From Introduction: "The ARMS-II Norfolk - Peninsula area survey was one many that have been flown for the CETO since the nationwide ARMS program was started (1958). Figure 2 shows the location of the areas that have been completed to date. The purpose of the program is to measure the present environmental levels of gamma radiation in areas around nuclear facilities and planned nuclear activities."
Technical Concept-Operation Bren
From Abstract: "The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Health Physics Research Reactor is to be attached to a hoist platform on a 1500-ft tower at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The project is a continuation of the studies commenced in 1956 for evaluating the radiation doses of persons exposed to nuclear weapons, especially the residents of Hiroshima and Nagaski, Japan. Measurements will be made of the energy, angular, and spatial distributions of the radiation from the reactor."
Camden-Delaware Valley Area (ARMS-II)
Report regarding an Aerial Radiological Measuring Survey (ARMS) of the Camden-Delaware Valley area that was part of a national program to measure environmental levels of gamma radiation. 6,000 traverse miles were examined around Camden, New Jersey.
Aerial Radiological Monitoring System: Part 2. Performance, Calibration, and Operational Check-Out of the EG&G ARMS-II Revised System
Report describing "the design, installation, and performance of the Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc., Aerial Radiological Monitoring System used in Phase II of the Aerial Radiological Monitoring Survey (ARMS-II)" (p. 5). Contains descriptions and photographs of its components and descriptions of test runs.
Aerial Radiological Monitoring System: Part 3. Electronic Processing of ARMS-II Data
Report detailing the instrumentation and system performance of the Aerial Radiological Monitoring Survey (ARMS-II), a system used "to perform aerial surveys of ground radioactivity. It supplies both geographical position and radioactivity data in digital form, suitable for use with automatic plotting procedures" (p. 5)
Las Vegas Area (ARMS-II)
From Abstract: "An Aerial Radiological Measuring Survey (ARMS) of the Las Vegas area was made for the Civil Effects Test Operations, Division of Biology and Medicine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, by Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc., between May 21 and June 23, 1961. The survey was part of a nationwide program to measure present environmental levels of gamma radiation. Approximately 6000 traverse miles were flown, at an attitude of 500 ft above the ground, in a 100-mile square centered near Las Vegas. The EG&G ARMS-II instrumentation was used in the survey."
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Related Surface Geology of Parts of the Los Angeles Region, California (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne gamma-radioactivity survey that took place in the 2,800 square mile area around the Los Angeles region in California. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Experimental Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Provided by an Earth-Covered Shelter
Report investigating the protection offered by an earth-covered shelter against fallout radiation. Radiation was simulated by pumping a sealed source of Co60 through tubing.
Experimental Evaluation of the Fallout-Radiation Protection Afforded by a Southwestern Residence
Report regarding experiments made to determine the fallout-radiation protection offered by a "single-story stucco and frame house with a heavy shake roof and no basement," (p. 5) which is noted as being popular in the southwestern United States.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Hanford Plant Area, Washington and Oregon (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne gamma-radioactivity survey that took place over a 9,000 square mile area in south-central Washington and north-central Oregon. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area, Tennessee and Kentucky (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne radioactivity survey that took place over a 10,000 square mile area around the Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Knoxville, Tennesse. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Evaluation of the Fallout Protection Afforded by Brookhaven National Laboratory Medical Research Center
Report regarding an experimental study to determine how much protection the Medical Research Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory provided against nuclear fallout. Fallout was simulated by pumping a sealed source of Co60 through tubing.
A Model Designed to Predict the Motion of Objects Translated by Classical Blast Waves
From Introduction: "The purpose of this report is to describe, step by step, the theoretical studies that have resulted in a mathematical model capable of predicting the motion of objects utilizing selected basic blast parameters."
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Savannah River Plant Area, South Carolina and Georgia (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne radioactivity survey that took place in the 10,000 square mile area near Augusta, Georgia. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Comparative Nuclear Effects of Biomedical Interest
Report containing environmental consequences of nuclear explosions with a primary focus on early effects such as exposure to blasts and radiation. Includes definitions of terms, the progression of an explosion, and graphs depicting the relationship between the effects of blasts and the distance of material from Ground Zero.
Methods and Techniques of Fallout Studies Using a Particulate Simulant
From Abstract: "These data are important for personnel protection on a national basis in the event of war and on a local basis in the event of certain types of nuclear accidents. This report discusses the need for such information and suggests methods for obtaining it."
Aerial Radiological Monitoring System: [Part] 1. Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Operation of a Revised System
Report containing an analysis of the Aerial Radiological Monitoring Survey (ARMS) program detailing the feasibility of improvements. Includes suggestions for revisions of the existing ARMS system.
Determinations of Aerodynamic-Drag Parameters of Small Irregular Objects by Means of Drop Tests
Report concerning the results of an experiment that determined the masses and velocities of over 20,000 objects and laboratory animals by simulating the blast winds of nuclear explosions.
AEC Group Shelter
Report regarding the study of an underground group-shelter meant to protect against nuclear blasts, radiation, and fallout. The report presents a design for such a shelter, the minimum requirements that such a shelter should meet, a description of its facilities, illustrations, and an operating manual.
Experimental Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Afforded by Typical Oak Ridge Homes Against Distributed Sources
Report regarding experiments made to determine the fallout-radiation protection offered by several typical homes in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, area.
The Scattering of Thermal Radiation Into Open Underground Shelters
From Introduction: "The elimination of the burn hazard in shelters depends upon a separate, systematic investigation of each suspected agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the contribution made by radiant energy and, if such contribution proved to be significant, to suggest means of eliminating this component."