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Analysis of Photonic Networks for a Chip Multiprocessor Using Scientific Applications

Description: As multiprocessors scale to unprecedented numbers of cores in order to sustain performance growth, it is vital that these gains are not nullified by high energy consumption from inter-core communication. With recent advances in 3D Integration CMOS technology, the possibility for realizing hybrid photonic-electronic networks-on-chip warrants investigating real application traces on functionally comparable photonic and electronic network designs. We present a comparative analysis using both synthetic benchmarks as well as real applications, run through detailed cycle accurate models implemented under the OMNeT++ discrete event simulation environment. Results show that when utilizing standard process-to-processor mapping methods, this hybrid network can achieve 75X improvement in energy efficiency for synthetic benchmarks and up to 37X improvement for real scientific applications, defined as network performance per energy spent, over an electronic mesh for large messages across a variety of communication patterns.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Kamil, Shoaib A.; Hendry, Gilbert; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Lee, Benjamin G.; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob et al.

Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

Description: Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: 1. Direct air/particulate “smart” sampling 2. Selective, continuous real-time (~1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS 3. Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Kevin Kyle, Manuel Manard, Stephan Weeks

Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

Description: Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: National Security Technologies, LLC

The Development of a Rebust Accelerometer-Based Start of Combustion Sensing System

Description: The development of modern combustion systems increasingly relies on detailed knowledge of the combustion event. As the limits of combustion are approached, tight control of combustion leads to improved emissions and higher efficiencies, while retaining and even improving engine reliability and durability. While developing a novel HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) technology for large natural gas engines, Westport found that there was no reliable cost-effective technology to monitor the combustion event. As a result, Westport began working on developing a solution based on commercially available knock sensors. While initially developed around HCCI, Westport has identified that numerous other forms of combustion (high EGR systems, Homogeneous Charge Direct Injection, etc) will require combustion sensors. This requirement is also reflected in the development of other technologies in this field. However, the potential low system cost and the lack of intrusion into the cylinder head area are significant benefits for the Westport approach. Previous work by Westport has proven the method on two different large compression ignition gas engines. The objective of the current work is to improve the robustness of this technology; particularly, to identify and reduce the sensor-to-sensor and engine-to-engine variations.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Huang, Jim & Mumford, David

Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

Description: This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Gardner, John; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd & Seifert, Gary

A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

Description: Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of stratigraphic information in the development of HSUs is important to assure individual HSUs ...
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Prothro, Lance; Drellack, Sigmund, Jr. & Mercadante, Jennifer

MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

Description: This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Gerstmann, Joseph

Power Systems Development Facility

Description: In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Services, Southern Company

Preferred orientation of ettringite in concrete fractures

Description: Sulfate attack and the accompanying crystallization of fibrous ettringite [Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 26H{sub 2}O] cause cracking and loss of strength in concrete structures. Hard synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to quantify the orientation distribution of ettringite crystals. Diffraction images are analyzed using the Rietveld method to obtain information on textures. The analysis reveals that the c axes of the trigonal crystallites are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the fracture surfaces. By averaging single-crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, it is possible to estimate the elastic anisotropy of ettringite aggregates.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Lutterotti, Luca et al.

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

Description: The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Lucero, Andrew

Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

Description: This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Baldick, Ross; Boutsika, Thekla; Hur, Jin; Joung, Manho; Wu, Yin & Zhong, Minqi

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

Description: The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Hill, Gerald; Nemeth, Kenneth; Garrett, Gary & Sams, Kimberly

The Role of Natural Organic Matter and Mineral Colloids in the Transport of Contaminants through Heterogeneous Vadose-Zone Environments

Description: Our research was guided by a key objective of the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP), which is to improve conceptual and predictive models for contaminant movement in complex vadose zone environments. In this report, increases in the understanding of colloidcontaminant interactions, colloid mobilization, and colloid deposition within unsaturated soils are cited as requisite needs for predicting contaminant fate and distribution in the vadose zone. We addressed these needs by pursuing three key goals: 1. Identify the mechanisms that govern OM and mineral-colloid reaction and transport in heterogeneous, unsaturated porous media; 2. Quantify the role of OM and mineral colloids in scavenging and facilitating the transport of contaminants of concern to DOE; and 3. Develop and test a mathematical model suitable for simulating the movement of OM- and colloid-associated contaminants through heterogeneous, unsaturated porous media.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Saiers, James & Ryan, Joseph

Thenature of marbled Terra Sigillata slips: a combined mu XRF and mu XRD investigation

Description: In addition to the red terra sigillata production, the largest Gallic workshop (La Graufesenque) made a special type of terra sigillata, called 'marbled' by the archaeologists. Produced exclusively on this site, this pottery is characterized by a surface finish made of a mixture of yellow and red slips. Because the two slips are intimately mixed, it is difficult to obtain the precise composition of one of the two constituents without contamination by the other. In order to obtain very precise correlation at the appropriate scale between the color aspect and the element and mineralogical phase distributions in the slip, combined electron microprobe, x-ray micro spectroscopies and micro diffraction on cross sectional samples were performed. The aim is to discover how potters were able to produce this unique type of terra sigillata and especially this slip showing an intense yellow color. Results show that the yellow component of marbled sigillata was made from a titanium-rich clay preparation. The color is related to the formation of a pseudobrookite (TiFe2O5) phase in the yellow part of the slip, the main characteristics of that structure being considered nowadays as essential for the fabrication of stable yellow ceramic pigments. Its physical properties such as high refractive indices and a melting point higher than that of most silicates widely used as ceramic colorants are indeed determinant for this kind of applications. Finally, the red parts have a similar composition (elementary and mineralogical) to the one of standard red slip.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Leon, Yoanna; Sciau, Philippe; Goudeau, Philippe; Tamura, Nobumichi; Webb, Sam & Mehta, Apurva

Theoretical Studies of Nucleation Kinetics and Nanodroplet Microstructure

Description: The goals of this project were to (1) explore ways of bridging the gap between fundamental molecular nucleation theories and phenomenological approaches based on thermodynamic reasoning, (2) test and improve binary nucleation theory, and (3) provide the theoretical underpinning for a powerful new experimental technique, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) from nanodroplet aerosols, that can probe the compositional structure of nanodroplets. This report summarizes the accomplishments of this project in realizing these goals. Publications supported by this project fall into three general categories: (1) theoretical work on nucleation theory (2) experiments and modeling of nucleation and condensation in supersonic nozzles, and (3) experimental and theoretical work on nanodroplet structure and neutron scattering. These publications are listed and briefly summarized in this report.
Date: January 31, 2009
Creator: Wilemski, Gerald

Afghanistan Security: Lack of Systematic Tracking Raises Significant Accountability Concerns about Weapons Provided to Afghan National Security Forces

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (Defense), through its Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A) and with the Department of State (State), directs international efforts to train and equip Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). As part of these efforts, the U.S. Army Security Assistance Command (USASAC) and the Navy spent about $120 million to procure small arms and light weapons for ANSF. International donors also provided weapons. GAO analyzed whether Defense can account for these weapons and ensure ANSF can safeguard and account for them. GAO reviewed Defense and State documents on accountability procedures, reviewed contractor reports on ANSF training, met with U.S. and Afghan officials, observed accountability practices, analyzed inventory records, and attempted to locate a random sample of weapons."
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

The African Development Bank Group

Description: This report discusses the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group, which is a regional development bank (RDB) "dedicated to combating poverty and improving the lives of people of the continent." It comprises three lending facilities: the market rate facility, the AfDB; a concessional lending facility, the African Development Fund; and a trust fund established by Nigeria to lend to low-income African countries. The Bank has 53 African members, as well as 24 non-regional members, including the United States.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.


Description: The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: LA, NELSEN

Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Coalbed Methane Development in the Powder River Basin - Use of Coalbead Methane Produced Water for Cropland Irrigation

Description: Water quality is a major concern with regard to development of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Large quantities of water are being produced and discharged as a by-product in the process of releasing natural gas from coal. Current practices of discharging large volumes of water into drainage channels or using it to irrigate cropland areas has the potential to elevate salinity and sodicity in soils. Elevated salinity affects the ability of plants to uptake water to facilitate biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and plant growth. Elevated sodicity in irrigation water adversely affects soil structure necessary for water infiltration, nutrient supply, and aeration. Salinity and sodicity concentrations are important in that a sodic soil can maintain its structure if the salinity level is maintained above the threshold electrolyte concentration. In this study, cropland soil and CBM water were treated with gypsum and sulfur. Changes in soil chemistry among different treatments were monitored using a split plot experiment. The CBM water used for irrigation had an EC of 1380 {micro}S cm{sup -1} and SAR of 24.3 mmol{sup 1/2} L{sup -1/2}. Baseline and post treatment soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm within each study plot, analyzed, and characterized for chemical parameters. Comparisons between Spring 2004 and Fall 2004 soil chemistry data after one irrigation season (using the equivalent of 1 month of irrigation water or {approx}12 inches) indicated that irrigating with Piney Creek water or a 50:50 blend of Piney Creek water and CBM water did not cause SAR values to increase. A combination of using a gypsum amendment to the soil along with a gypsum injection and sulfur burner treatment to the irrigation water resulted in the lowest SAR value in the first soil horizon among treatments irrigated solely with CBM produced water. The ...
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Morris, Jeff

Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Description: This report discusses U.S. policy and legislation in response to Pyongyang's human rights record. North Korea's systematic violation of its citizens' human rights and the plight of North Koreans trying to escape their country have been well documented in multiple reports issued by governments and other international bodies.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma

Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

Description: The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S. & Systems, Energy

Debt Management: Treasury's Cash Management Challenges and Timing of Payments to Medicare Private Plans

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "A timing difference between cash in- and outflows poses challenges for the Department of the Treasury. Increased volatility of monthly cash flows may lead to unexpected short-term debt issuance and hence increased borrowing. While Social Security payments made at the start of the month will diminish gradually in coming years, start-of month payments to Medicare plan sponsors for Medicare Advantage and Part D benefits are projected to grow. As requested, this report (1) describes how Treasury, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and plan sponsors operate under the current payment schedule; (2) identifies timing options; and (3) describes potential implications for Treasury, CMS, and Medicare. GAO analyzed Treasury cash flows, and interviewed Treasury, CMS officials, and plan sponsor representatives."
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

Description: Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas et al.