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Fast-Neutron and Gamma Spectrum and Dose in Beryllium Oxide

Description: This report follows a series of tests run to determine the shielding properties of beryllium oxide, conducted at the Battelle Lid-Tank Shielding Facility. Neutron and gamma penetrations through and behind beryllium oxide were measured.
Date: January 11, 1961
Creator: Klingensmith, Raymond W.; Jung, Richard G.; Lindgren, William A.; Epstein, Harold M. & Chastain, Joel W., Jr.

Effects of Ternary Additions on Aluminum-35 w/o Uranium Alloys

Description: Abstract: "The effects of a number of ternary additions on the constitution, casting, and fabricating characteristics and the physical properties of aluminum-35 w/o uranium were investigated. Initial investigations were concerned with the effects of 3 w/o ternary additions on the microstructure and press-forging characteristics of the alloy. It was found that additions of this magnitude often introduced extrinsic phases in the alloy. At the 3 w/o level, additions of germanium, silicon, tin or zirconium inhibited the formation of UAl4 and thereby increased the content of the aluminum matrix in the alloy. It was also noted that these additions decreased the pressures required for extruding, and the tin addition also improved the homogeneity of cast shapes. Lead and palladium also improved the homogeneity of the cast material; however, neither of these was an effective inhibitor of UAl4 and free lead was detected in the alloy to which lead had been added at the ternary. From these studies it appears that tin and zirconium are as effective as silicon in enhancing the fabricating characteristics of aluminum-35 w/o uranium alloys, and may prove superior when evaluated on the bases of casting qualities and recycling characteristics."
Date: October 27, 1959
Creator: Daniel, Norman E.; Foster, Ellis L. & Dickerson, Ronald F.

Centrifugal Casting of Aluminum-Uranium Alloys

Description: "Centrifugal-casting techniques were investigated as a method of producing hollow cylindrical extrusion billets of aluminum-35 w/o uranium. Among the variables evaluated were melt temperature, mold and pouring-spout configurations, mold speed, and method of pouring. With the equipment employed it was found that the best castings were produced stilizing a pouring temperature of 2400 F, a heavy-walled steel cylinder rotating between 700 to 900 rpm for the mold and bottom-pouring technique employing a retractable pouring spout. Sound, nonporous billets 26 in. long and 5 in. in diameter were produced with a yield after machining of over 75 per cent of the original charge. The major losses occurred in the pouring spout-and-cup assembly. This loss is relatively unaffected by the casting length; and, therefore, coatings of greater length than 26 in. should results in even greater recoveries.
Date: July 20, 1959
Creator: Daniel, Norman E.; Foster, Ellis L. & Dickerson, Ronald F.

The Effect of Fabrication Variables on the Structure and Properties of UO₂-Stainless Steel Dispersion Fuel Plates

Description: From introduction: "This report deals with a part of the research and development studies which preceded the manufacture of fuel elements for the Gas Cooled Reactor Experiment (GCRE)." The studies evaluate the effects of varying the type and size of UO2 particles, stainless steel matrix powders, blending procedures, compacting pressures, sintering times, temperatures and atmospheres, roll-cladding temperatures and reduction rates, total cold reduction, and heat-treating times and temperatures has been made for UO2 stainless steel dispersion fuel elements."
Date: February 18, 1959
Creator: Paprocki, Stan J.; Keller, Donald L. & Cunningham, G. W.

Further Studies with the GCRE Critical-Assembly

Description: This report follows ciritical-assembly studies on: the effect on reactivity caused by changes in axial reflector materials; the effect on reactivity and the power perturbation caused by fast safety control-blade guides; the effect of changes in fuel-element material composition; the effect of changes in fuel-elements spacing designed to produce uniform radial power-generation rates.
Date: December 29, 1958
Creator: Dingee, David A.; Ballowe, William C.; Egen, R. A.; Jankowski, Francis J. & Chastain, Joel W.

GCRE Critical-Assembly Studies

Description: This report follows critical-assembly studies made to provide engineering and physics data to aid in developing the Gas Cooled Reactor Experiments.
Date: September 10, 1958
Creator: Dingee, David A.; Ballowe, William C.; Klingensmith, Raymond W.; Egen, R. A.; Jankowski, Francis J. & Chastain, Joel W.

Development of Cermet Fuel Elements

Description: Abstract: "Fabrication techniques for making metal-ceramic fuel elements containing 60 to 90 volume per cent of UN or UO2 in a Type 302B stainless steel matrix was investigated. A hot press-forging procedure was most successful for fabricating fuel cores with a density of 90 per cent of theoretical or better. This procedure consisted of sealing the cold-pressed core compacts in stainless steel picture-frame packs, heating to 1900 F, and pressing to a total reduction in thickness of 35 per cent. A pressure of approximately 50 tsi ores used. Specimens produced by this method were evaluated on the basis of their microstructure, modules if rupture, electrical conductivity, and resistance to thermal shock. Microscopic and macroscopic examination showed the presence of a continuous metal skeleton even in specimens containing 90 volume per cent fuel. The modulus of rupture at room temperature varied from 22,500 psi for a specimen cnotaining 63 volume per cent UO2. Both the electrical conductivity and resistance to thermal shock of UO2 were improved by the addition of a small volume of metal. Gas-pressure-bonding techniques appear promising for clodding these cores into composite elements."
Date: August 11, 1958
Creator: Paprocki, Stan J.; Keller, Donald L.; Cunningham, G. W. & Kizer, Donald E.

Examination of Factors Affecting the Quality of Vacuum Induction-Melted Uranium

Description: The following report examines primarily water and air factors that affect the quality of vacuum induction-melted uranium, yet follows experiments with other factors such as graphite and zirconium crucibles under dry and wet conditions, usage of hydrogen, oxygen, CO and other subject admitted to determine pressure-time relationships and residual gas compositions, as well as a study of water-gas reaction within the furnace.
Date: July 3, 1958
Creator: Endebrock, Roy W.; Foster, Ellis L. & Dickerson, Ronald F.

Examination of Factors Affecting the Quality of Vacuum Induction-Melted Uranium

Description: The following report examines primarily water and air factors that affect the quality of vacuum induction-melted uranium, yet follows experiments with other factors such as graphite and zirconium crucibles under dry and wet conditions, usage of hydrogen, oxygen, CO and other subject admitted to determine pressure-time relationships and residual gas compositions, as well as a study of water-gas reaction within the furnace.
Date: July 3, 1958
Creator: Endebrock, Roy W.; Foster, Ellis L. & Dickerson, Ronald F.

The Cladding of Delta-Phase Zirconium Hydride

Description: Abstract: A study has been made of the cladding of solid and powdered delta-phase zirconium hydride is both red and flat shapes with stainless steel. The program included investigations of metallurgical bonding, both with and without the sore of metallic barrier materials. Types 304 and 347 stainless steel were used for cladding material. The intermediate barrier-layer materials used were niobium, molybdenum, a combination of copper and molybdenum, and a combination of copper and niobium. The pressure-bonding techniques, involving the use of gas pressure at elevated temperatures, was employed in this study. Variable times and temperatures with a constant pressure of 10,000 poi were utilized by produce bonding. In this study, the best results were archived is cladding delta-phase zirconium hydride directly with Types 304 or 347 stainless steel. Good bonds were obtained by pressure bonding at 1600 F for 3 or 4 hr subsequent to pressure bonding at 1900 F for 1 to 2 hr at a pressure of 10,000 poi. Partial bonding was achieved between niobium and zirconium hydride and molybdeum and girconium hydride.
Date: December 27, 1957
Creator: Paprocki, Stan J.; Hodge, Edwin S. & Boyer, Charles B.

Delta-Phase Zirconium Hydride as a Solid Moderator

Description: Abstract: "In a study of the preparation and properties of delta-phase zirconium hydride it was found that large, sound bodies of the hydride can be prepared by direct combination of the elements if the rate of the reaction is retarded by limiting the supply of available hydrogen. Specimens up to 1-in. diameter were prepared using this technique. Because delta phase zirconium hydride does not readily form eutectics with iron-and nickel-base alloys below 1800 F these materials may be utilized for clodding the hydride. Delta-phase zirconium hydride is unaffected by exposure to liquid NaK or to nitrogen gas at temperatures below 1000 F. The hot hardness of delta-phase zirconium hydrid is about 130 kg per mm-2 at room temperature and 40 kg per mm-2 at 1500 F. The mean coefficient of thermal expansion (68 to 1337 F) is 6.5 x 10^-6 per deg F. The thermal conductivity varies from 5.7 Btu/(ft)(hr)(F) at 300 F to 5.1 Btu/(ft)(hr)(F) at 1300 F."
Date: December 18, 1957
Creator: Vetrano, James B.

High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Thin Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy Sheet

Description: Abstract: "The oxidation resistance of thin sheets of iron-28 w/o chromium-2.67 to 10.0 w/o alloys, nominally 0.004, 0.006, 0.008, 0.012, and 0.016 in. thick, was determined by exposure in static air for 100 hr at 2100 and 2300 F. A minimum of 3.67 and 9.37 w/o aluminum was necessary to prevent excessive oxidation of 0.004-in.-thick sheet material at 2100 and 2300 F, respectively. Correspondingly, specimens of lower aluminum content and greater thickness withstood the oxidation attack. Oxidation of iron-chromium-aluminum alloys appeared to be related to the diffusion of aluminum to surfaces of the sheet to form an adherent protective layer of Al2O3."
Date: October 22, 1957
Creator: Jablonowski, Edward J.; Shober, Frederic R. & Dickerson, Ronald F.

Evaluation of Reactor Core Materials for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Experiment

Description: From introduction: "On February 1, 1956, Batelle was awarded a contract by the Army Reactor Branch (ARB) to select, develop, and test core materials which could be used successfully in conducting a Gas Cooled Reactor Experiment (GCRE). The prime objective of the GCRE would be to evaluate small portable reactor systems for military application...The present report is concerned with the GCRE activities at Batelle during approximately the 7 months' period following the first report of this series, BMI-1133. It is primarily concerned with a detailed evaluation of the reference materials as well as of the impact of one material upon the other."
Date: July 11, 1957
Creator: Keller, Donald L.

New Beta Heat-Treating Salt Baths for Reducing Hydrogen Pickup by Uranium Rods

Description: The following report summarizes the results of the laboratory-scale work and pilot-plant scale work of a salt-batch composition that reduces the hydrogen pickup by uranium rods during the beta heat treatment, and the study of the influence of humidity over the salt bath on hydrogen pickup.
Date: June 18, 1957
Creator: Lortscher, Lawrence L.; Sense, Karl A. & Filbert, Robert B., Jr.

A Tracer Study of the Transport of Chromium in Fluoride Fuel Systems

Description: The following report follows an experimental study that was made on the mass transport of chromium in polythermal inconel-fluoride fuel systems, followed by the technique of adding radioactive chromium-51 to the system as either CrF3 in the salt or as elemental chromium in the solid phase.
Date: June 18, 1957
Creator: Price, Robert B.; Sunderman, Duane Neuman; Pobereskin, Meyer & Calkins, George D.

Fabrication of Dispersed Uranium Fuel Elements Using Powder-Metallurgy Techniques

Description: Abstract: "Fabrication techniques for producing dispersion fuel elements with cores of 30 volume per cost of UC, U2Tl, U3Si, or U6Ni dispersed in Zircology 2 and 30 volume per cent of UC or UN dispersed in Type 18-8 stainless steel have been investigated. Roll-clad plate-type elements of all these compositions may be fabricated by powder-metallurgy methods in such a manner that good core-to-cladding bonds and cores with uniform dispersions of discrete uranium-composed particles are obtained. From the standpoint of fabricability, elements containing UC is Zircology 2, UC in stainless steel, and UN in stainless steel are the most promising. The UN in stainless steel has the best corrosion resistance in 680 F degassed water; however, UC in stainless steel has the best resistance to corrosion in 700 F NaK."
Date: May 6, 1957
Creator: Paprocki, Stan J.; Keller, Donald L. & Cunningham, G. W.

Characterization of Inclusion in Dingot Uranium

Description: Abstract: The nonmetallic inclusions in both as-reduced and fabricated dingot uranium have been studied for comparison with those in ingot uranium. Special attention was paid to the hydride for the purpose of determining the amount and distribution in the various types of uranium. The types and distribution of other inclusions were also studied. It was found that the dingot uranium was of a higher quality than ingot uranium and was comparable to as-reduced derby uranium on the basis of over-all inclusion count. The hydrogen content in dingot uranium, however, was found to be appreciably higher than in either ingot or derby uranium.
Date: January 11, 1957
Creator: Cheney, Donald M. & Dickerson, Ronald F.

Aqueous Corrosion of Uranium Fuel-Element Cores Containing 0 to 20 w/o Zirconium

Description: Abstract: A description is given of the design and operation of a windowed autoclave system employed in the study of corrosion by pressurized hot water. The device has been used to obtain time-lapse motion pictures of the swelling and rupture of deliberately defected zirconium-clad uranium specimens. A method is described by which corrosion rates were calculated from pressure and temperature measurements. A typical set of pictures taken during a test is presented, and corrosion rates are reported for uranium-0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 w/o zirconium alloys subjected subjected to 600 F water.
Date: January 7, 1957
Creator: Grieser, Daniel R. & Simons, Eugene M.