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Temperatures in Spark Plugs Having Steel and Brass Shells

Description: This investigation was conducted at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Brass has often been assumed superior to steel for spark plug shells because of its greater heat conductivity. The measurements described in this report prove the contrary, showing that the interior of a spark plug having a brass shell is from 50 degrees to 150 degrees c. (90 degrees to 270 degrees f.) hotter than that of a similar steel plug. Consistent results were obtained in both an aviation and a truck engine, and under conditions which eliminated all other sources of difference between the plugs. It is to be concluded that steel is to be preferred to brass for spark plug shells. This report embodies the results of measurements taken of electrodes and a comparison of brass and steel insulators of spark plugs while they were in actual operation. The data throw considerable light upon the problem of the proper control of temperatures in these parts.
Date: January 1, 1919
Creator: Cragoe, C S

The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing

Description: From Introduction: "The object of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of various types of wings having sufficient depth to entirely inclose the wing bracing, and also to provide data for the further design of such sections. Results of the investigation of the following subjects are given: (1) effect of changing the upper and lower camber of thick aerofoils of uniform section; (2) effect of thickening the center and thinning the tips of a thin aerofoil; (3) effect of adding a convex lower surface to a tapered section; (4) effect of changing the mean thickness with constant center and tip sections; and (5) effect of varying the chord along the span."
Date: 1920
Creator: Norton, F. H.

Carbureting conditions characteristics of aircraft engines

Description: Tests were conducted at the altitude laboratory erected at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the changes in engine performance with changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure at various levels above the earth's surface, with special reference to (a) the variables affecting the functioning of the carburetor and (b) the changes in performance resulting from variables in the carburetor itself. This report constitutes a concise statement of the difficulties to be encountered in this branch of carburetion.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Tice, Percival S

Development of air speed nozzles

Description: Report describes the development of a suitable speed nozzle for the first few thousand airplanes made by the United States during the recent war in Europe, and to furnish a basis for more mature instruments in the future. Requirements for the project were to provide a suitable pressure collector for aircraft speed meters and to develop a speed nozzle which would be waterproof, powerful, unaffected by slight pitch and yaw, rugged and easy to manufacture, and uniform in structure and reading, so as not to require individual calibration.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Zahm, A F

Effect of altitude on radiator performance

Description: As an airplane rises to high altitudes the decrease in the density and the temperature of the air have important effects on the performance of the radiator. This report gives the results of a study of the effect of reduced pressure and temperature upon the capacity of airplane radiators. A method is presented by which the performance of a radiator at an altitude may be estimated for a particular speed of the airplane at a particular altitude.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: James, W S & Parsons, S R

Experimental research on air propellers II

Description: This report is a continuation of NACA Technical Report 14. It presents the results of an experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers which was divided into five parts, as follows: (1) Tests under conditions of flight on 16 model propellers of different forms, sections, or pitch ratios from those of Technical Report 14; (2) Tests under conditions of flight on one model propeller of variable pitch; (3) Tests under conditions of flight on three sets of right and left hand model propellers in series; (4) Tests on 12 model propellers to determine brake effect or negative thrust at negative slip; (5) Standing thrust and power tests of 67 model propellers.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Durand, William F & Lesley, E P

Experimental research on air propellers III

Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of propellers that examined the influence of the following characteristics: (1) nominal pitch ratio 1.3 combined with a certain number of the more common or standard forms and proportions; (2) driving face slightly rounded or convex; (3) change in the location of the maximum thickness ordinate of the blade section; (4) pushing forward the leading edge of the blade, thus giving a rounded convex surface on the leading side of the driving face. (5) a series of values for the constant "angle of attack" in forming propellers with radially increasing pitch. In accordance with these purposes tests were carried out on 28 propellers.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P

Fabric fastenings

Description: The study of aeronautical fabrics has led to a consideration of the best methods of attaching and fastening together such materials. This report presents the results of an investigation upon the proper methods of attaching fabrics to airplane wings. The methods recommended in this report have been adopted by the military services.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Walen, E D & Fisher, R T

The ferrosilicon process for the generation of hydrogen

Description: Report describes the generation of hydrogen by the reaction between ferrosilicon, sodium hydroxide, and water. This method known as the ferrosilicon method is especially adapted for use in the military field because of the relatively small size and low cost of the generator required to produce hydrogen at a rapid rate, the small operating force required, and the fact that no power is used except the small amount required to operate the stirring and pumping machinery. These advantages make it possible to quickly generate sufficient hydrogen to fill a balloon with a generator which can be transported on a motor truck. This report gives a summary of the details of the ferrosilicon process and a critical examination of the means which are necessary in order to make the process successful.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Weaver, E R; Berry, W M; Bohnson, V L & Gordon, B D

Fuselage stress analysis

Description: Report analyzes the stresses in a fuselage of the built-up type in which the shear is taken by diagonal bracing wires. Tests are conducted for landing, flying, and thrust loads.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, Edward P. & Miller, Roy G.

The general theory of blade screws including propellers, fans, helicopter screws, helicoidal pumps, turbo-motors, and different kinds of helicoidal blades

Description: Report presents a theory which gives a complete picture and an exact quantitative analysis of the whole phenomenon of the working of blade screws, but also unites in a continuous whole the entire scale of states of work conceivable for a blade screw. Chapter 1 is devoted to the establishment of the system of fundamental equations relating to the blade screw. Chapter 2 contains the general discussion of the 16 states of work which may establish themselves for a blade screw. The existence of the vortex ring state and the whirling phenomenon are established. All the fundamental functions which enter the blade-screw theory are submitted to a general analytical discussion. The general outline of the curve of the specific function is examined. Two limited cases of the work of the screw, the screw with a zero constructive pitch and the screw with an infinite constructive pitch, are pointed out. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of the propulsive screw or propeller. (author).
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: De Bothezat, George

Glues used in airplane parts

Description: This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and presents the results of investigations conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service on the manufacture, preparation, application, testing and physical properties of the different types of glues used in wood airplane parts.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Allen, S W & Truax, T R

Head resistance due to radiators

Description: Part 1 deals with the head resistance of a number of common types of radiator cores at different speeds in free air, as measured in the wind tunnel at the bureau of standards. This work was undertaken to determine the characteristics of various types of radiator cores, and in particular to develop the best type of radiator for airplanes. Some 25 specimens of core were tested, including practically all the general types now in use, except the flat plate type. Part 2 gives the results of wind tunnel tests of resistance on a model fuselage with a nose radiator. Part 3 presents the results of preliminary tests of head resistance of a radiator enclosed in a streamlined casing. Special attention is given to the value of wing radiator and of the radiator located in the open, especially when it is provided with a properly designed streamlined casing.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Kleinschmidt, R V & Parsons, S R