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What are we aiming at? : a forest conservation program.
Describes the need for a postwar program to increase timber production. Discusses the need for regulated conservation practices, incentives for responsible private forest management, and an increase in public forest land area.
It could happen again.
Describes the importance of soil conservation practices and their effect on wheat production.
Reducing damage to trees from construction work.
Describes the damage often inflicted upon trees during construction projects, and explains how to plan projects accordingly to avoid these problems.
Our remaining land : we can use it and save it.
Discusses the condition of the remaining productive land in the United States and the risk of losing it to soil erosion. Describes conservation efforts including the use of land standards in conservation planning.
Dust storms come from the poorer lands.
Describes the different classifications of land and the effect soil erosion has on the quality of land and its future for crop production. Contains the results of an extensive study.
Use the land and save the soil.
This bulletin briefly answers the questions: "What is soil and water conservation?" and "How does the Soil Conservation Service help farmers and landowners?"
Taming runaway waters
Describes the damage caused and the economic impact of floods and fast-moving water. Discusses the role of soil and water management programs in flood control.
Forest and flame in the Bible.
A collection of biblical passages supporting the protection of forests, with descriptive text provided by the author.
Windbreaks and shelterbelts for the Plains states.
Describes the monetary and physical benefits to farms and orchards when windbreaks and shelterbelts are used.
Conservation farming in the Slope-Hettinger Soil Conservation District, North Dakota.
Reports the results of a soil conservation survey and makes the case for increased conservation efforts. Provides information on identifying land types and suggests simple methods of soil conservation.
Visual materials on soil and water conservation.
An annotated list of films about soil and water conservation. Includes information about the films' suitability for use in elementary and secondary schools.
From the dust of the earth.
Describes how the things people enjoy in everyday life come from the soil, either directly or indirectly, and the value of participating in soil conservation.
Wood chips for the land.
Describes how farmers and ranchers can use wood chips to prevent soil erosion, as bedding for livestock, and as a way to make soil richer for producing crops.
Your soil, crumbly or cloddy?
Describes the importance of good soil tilth and methods for improving soil.
The soil that went to town.
Describes the problem of soil erosion and methods for its prevention, in an elementary story format.
Contour-furrow irrigation.
Describes how farmers can use contour-furrow irrigation as a means of preventing soil erosion and maintaining even watering of crops.
Grass crops in conservation farming.
Describes the success of grassland improvement methods as demonstrated by experiment stations, agricultural technicians, farmers, and ranchers.
Know your watersheds.
Describes the necessity of water in everyday life, the water cycle, and provides suggestions for the management of watersheds.
Managing the small forest
A guide to the basic principles of forest management, for use by small forest owners.
Controlling the Japanese beetle.
Describes the characteristics of the Japanese beetle, the damage it causes to plants, and methods of control.
Algae in water supplies: an illustrated manual on the identification, significance, and control of algae in water supplies.
A manual designed to help "water analysts and others who deal with the many problems and effects associated with the presence of algae in water supplies."
Managing farm fields, wetlands, and waters for wild ducks in the South.
Provides instructions for establishing ponds and marshes in order to attract wild ducks to farmlands. Discusses the recreational benefits of watching and hunting ducks.
Facts about wind erosion and dust storms on the Great Plains.
Describes the history and conditions of drought, wind erosion, and dust storms in the Great Plains; discusses long-range conservation programs and emergency measures.
The church and agricultural progress.
Describes the role of agriculture in the United States from a Christian perspective.
Making land produce useful wildlife.
Discusses the benefits of biological balance on ranches and farms. Describes ways to allow wildlife to flourish for the purposes of hunting, trapping, fishing and other recreation.
Fifty Birds of Town and City
A book depicting 50 common birds in U.S. towns and cities, with illustrations.
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
Global Climate Change: The Role for Energy Efficiency
This report reviews the role of energy efficiency in federal policies to curb CO2 emissions. In particular, it discusses targets for CO2 reductions, projected energy efficiency impacts, strategies for measuring impacts, and legislative proposals that would affect support for energy efficiency programs.
Global Climate Change
This report discusses different perspectives used to consider issues related to the global climate change and issues related to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Agreement.
Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases
This report discusses global climate change and the possibility that human activities are releasing gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), at rates that could affect global climate change.
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections
No Description Available.
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs.
White House Conference on Cooperative Conservation
In August 2004 President George W. Bush signed the Executive Order titled "Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation" which directs Federal agencies that oversee environmental and natural resource policies and programs to promote cooperative conservation in full partnership with states, local governments, tribes and individuals. The executive order directed the Chairman of the White House Council on Environmental Quality to convene a White House Conference on Cooperative Conservation. The Departments of the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency co-hosted the event. Some of the Key Conference Outcomes includes: -Expand state, tribal, and local communities' role in cooperative conservation -Ensure cooperative approach to use of public lands -Measure and monitor results of cooperative conservation -Encourage and reward leadership, innovation and technology -Improve certainty and incentives for stakeholders -Accelerate cooperative conservation as a way of doing business
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description Available.
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 109th Congress
This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 109th Congress. Action in the second session has focused on appropriations bills; the first session focused on omnibus energy policy bill H.R. 6, H.R. 3, and several appropriations bills. For each bill listed in this report, a brief description and a summary of action are given, including references to committee hearings and reports. Also, a selected list of hearings on renewable energy is included. This report supplements the tracking of issues that appear in CRS Issue Brief IB10020 and CRS Issue Brief IB10041.
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Global Climate Change and Wildlife
Recently projected climate changes could have widespread effects on wildlife species. These effects might be positive or negative, depending on the species. Some effects might include extinction, range shifts, mismatches in phenology (timing of pollination, flowering, etc.), and population changes. If the effects of climate change are widespread, there is uncertainty on how wildlife will adapt. Some suggest that evolution and migration will enable species to adapt, whereas others contend that adaptation will be minimal because of limited habitat, and changes in climate that may occur may rapidly than adaptation can respond.
Global Climate Change: Status of Negotiations
In December 2007, the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held their 13th annual meeting in Bali, Indonesia, and began the process of working toward an agreement/treaty that would succeed the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC when it expires in 2012. The Protocol includes a mandate for a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 developed/industrialized nations to an average of some 5% below their 1990 levels over the commitment period 2008-2012. The broad array of these issues, briefly discussed in this report, has been described by some as comprising perhaps the most complex negotiations ever undertaken internationally.
Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected?
At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. While CO2 emissions associated with human activities continue to rise -- and may be worthy of alarm because of their influence on climate change -- any short-term comparisons between actual emissions and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios miss the mark. This report analyzes this issue and the issues associated with IPCC scenarios and trajectories. It also describes the importance of monitoring CO2 emissions and analyzing the factors and forces behind increasing CO2 emissions.
U.S. Climate Change Science Program
The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) integrates federal research on climate and global change, as sponsored by thirteen federal agencies and overseen by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Council on Environmental Quality, the National Economic Council and the Office of Management and Budget. During the past thirteen years the United States, through the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), has made the world's largest scientific investment in the areas of climate change and global change research -- a total investment of almost $20 billion. A nation and the global community, as indicated in the vision statement, empowered with the science-based knowledge to manage the risks and opportunities of change in the climate and related environmental systems.
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section.
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers attracts congressional attention because its projects can have significant local and regional economic benefits and environmental effects, in addition to their water resource development purposes. This report provides an overview of the Corps civil works program. It covers the congressional authorization and appropriation process, the standard project development process, and other Corps activities and authorities. It also includes an Appendix on the evolution of Corps civil works missions and authorities and a description of the limits on the Corps' role in levee accreditation and improvements for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
Biomass Feedstocks for Biopower: Background and Selected Issues
The production of bioenergy - renewable energy derived from biomass - could potentially increase national energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and contribute to rural economic growth. This report provides analyses of commonly discussed biomass feedstocks and their relative potential for power generation. Additional biopower issues - feedstock accessibility, the biomass power plant carbon-neutrality debate, and unintended consequences of legislative activities to promote bioenergy - are also discussed.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened concerns about the region's future. Issues such as Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues
This report focuses on the mandated minimum usage requirements - referred to as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) - whereby a minimum volume of biofuels is to be used in the national transportation fuel supply each year. It describes the general nature of the biofuels RFS and its implementation, and outlines some of the emerging issues related to the sustainability of the continued growth in U.S. biofuels production needed to fulfill the expanding RFS mandate, as well as the emergence of potential unintended consequences of this rapid expansion. This report does not address the broader public policy issue of how best to support U.S. energy policy.
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response
The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, and the resulting oil spill began a cascade of effects on the coastal areas of the Gulf and on the wealth of species that inhabit those areas. This report addresses the importance of wetlands in general, the ecology of the coastal wetlands in the Gulf, impacts of oil spills on wetland habitats, response options, the implications of hurricane season for the spill's impacts, and cleanup and recovery issues. The emphasis is on the nearshore environment, although a few species found in deeper waters will be mentioned. In addition, some lessons from past spills such as the Exxon Valdez in Alaska will be discussed, along with issues that may arise as response and recovery transition to restoration of the Gulf.
International Climate Change: A Negotiations Side-by-Side
This report discusses various cooperative international efforts to address the issue of global climate change. The two major international agreements discussed in a side-by-side comparison are the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the 2010 Copenhagen Accord. The report discusses how many observers are hoping that initiatives carried out under the Copenhagen Accord may help bridge divides between the various tracks and economic groupings established under the Kyoto Protocol.
Litigation Seeking to Establish Climate Change Impacts as a Common Law Nuisance
This report discusses recent legislative initiatives seeking to establish climate change impacts as a common law nuisance. The report explains what private and public nuisances are, the issues faced by policymakers when litigating a climate-change/nuisance suit, and also discusses five climate-chance/nuisance suits that are now or formerly active, as a basis of comparison. The report also explores arguments of those both for and against addressing the complex issue of climate change through common law suits.
Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management
The nation's energy choices embody many tradeoffs. Water use is one of those tradeoffs. The energy choices before Congress represent vastly different demands on domestic freshwater. The energy sector's water consumption is projected to rise 50% from 2005 to 2030. This rising water demand derives from both an increase in the amount of energy demanded and shifts to more water-intense energy sources and technologies. This report discusses this issue as well as related issues that may arise for the 112th Congress.