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The Franchise System of Distribution
This report discusses the franchising system of distribution and its growing popularity among small business owners. Legal challenges to franchising under anti-trust laws are also discussed.
Ocean Resources and Potentials
This report discusses the oceans resources and their potential use for food, minerals, drugs, and recreation. Plans for a formal federal research group devoted to oceanography and ocean resource research are also discussed.
Organized Crime in the United States: Selected References, June 1967-June 1969
This report provides a bibliography of sources published between June 1967 and June 1969 related to organized crime in the United States divided by material type (books and documents, Congressional Record, magazine articles, and newspaper articles).
Poverty in the United States 1968-1969: Selected References
This report provides a list of resources published in 1968 or 1969 related to poverty in the United States.
Criminal Procedure: Brief Summaries of Major Decisions of the "Warren Court" Relating to the Rights of Persons Accused of Crime
This report discusses Supreme Court decisions made during the tenure of Earl Warren as Chief Justice from 1953 to 1969 related to criminal procedure and the rights of the accused.
Negotiations for Strategic Arms Limitation Talks: A Chronology, January 1964-September 1969
This report provides a chronological listing of events from January 1964 to September 1969 related to strategic arms limitation talks (SALT) between the Soviet Union and the United States.
The Office of Economic Opportunity in 1969: A Chronology of Events
This report provides a chronological listing and discussion of legislative measures related to the activities of the Office of Economic Opportunity in 1969.
Military Justice: A Summary of its Legislative and Judicial Development
This report discusses the military justice system and legislation and judicial decisions regarding it.
Economic Integration in Latin America: An Annotated Bibliography, 1959-1969
This report provides a bibliography of sources related to economic integration in South America which were published between 1959 and 1969.
The National Democratic Party (NPD) in Western Germany: Its Background and Present Status
This report discusses the history of radical nationalistic movements in Germany and the creation and influence of the National Democratic Party (NDP) in West Germany, a right-wing nationalistic political party.
Migrant Labor Law and Relations: Selected References, 1960-1969
This report provides a bibliography of sources related to migrant labor law and relations that were published between 1960 and 1969.
Federal Government Health, Education, and Welfare Programs of Assistance to American Indians Residing on Federal Reservations
This report lists and describes federal health, education, and welfare programs available to Native Americans living on federal reservations.
The "Monday Holiday Law" and Special National Observances
This report discusses the new "Monday Holiday Law" which was passed in 1968 and took effect Jan. 1, 1971 which switched federal observances of holidays such as President's Day and Veterans Day to Mondays and instituted Columbus Day as a federal holiday. It also lists special observances proclaimed by the President in 1969.
Major Legislation Affecting Older Americans from 1960 Through 1969
This report discusses major legislation affecting older Americans that was passed from 1960 to 1969.
Economic Aspects of Farm Program Payment Limitations
This report discusses government farm payments and their economic impact as well as rates of payment for 1968 and proposed legislation regarding them.
Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process
This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party states of such military items.
Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the new defense strategy, which was unveiled by senior Department of Defense (DOD) leadership based on a review of potential future security challenges, current defense strategy, and budgetary constraints. This strategy will rebalance the Army's global posture and presence, emphasizing where potential problems are likely to arise, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. It focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and with the United States.
Central Asia's Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the internal and external security concerns of the Central Asian states. Security concerns faced by the states include mixes of social disorder, crime, corruption, terrorism, ethnic and civil conflict, border tensions, water and transport disputes, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and trafficking in illegal narcotics and persons.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: Fact Sheet
This report provides figures that show total net discretionary appropriations for Department of Homeland Security (DHS) broken down by component, and ordered from largest to smallest by FY2016 enacted funding level.
The Controlled Substances Act: Regulatory Requirements
This report highlights certain non-criminal regulatory requirements of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The CSA and its implementing regulations establish a framework through which the federal government regulates the use of controlled substances for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes, and prevents these substances from being diverted for illegal purposes.
The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment, Accountability, and Congressional Oversight
This report provides background information and selected views on the role of the appointments made by President Barack H. Obama to his Administration or by Cabinet secretaries to their departments. Additionally, it discusses some of the constitutional concerns that have been raised about presidential advisors.
Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) policy for disposing of items via the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS); this method is used for government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. The report focuses on DRMS background, as well as the most recent DRMS policy modifications.
Encryption: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses encryption, which is a process to secure information from unwanted access or use. Encryption uses the art of cryptography to change information which can be read (plaintext) and make it so that it cannot be read (ciphertext).
Gangs in Central America
This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
GAO Bid Protests: Trends, Analysis, and Options for Congress
This report provides an overview of the time frames and procedures in a Government Accountability Office (GAO) bid protest, including (1) what issues can be protested with GAO; (2) who can file or be a party to a GAO protest; (3) the procedures for bringing and resolving GAO protests; (4) the time frames involved in GAO protests; (5) the automatic stay of contract award or performance triggered by a GAO protest, as well as the basis for agency overrides of automatic stays and judicial review of agency override determinations; (6) the basis and effects of GAO decisions; and (7) reconsideration and "appeal" of GAO decisions.
The Help America Vote Act and Election Administration: Overview and Issues
This report discusses the Help America Vote Act (HAVA; P.L. 107-252) enacted in 2002. It provides background information about HAVA and its provisions, the Election Assistance Commission (EAC), funding for the agency and for state programs to improve elections, and a number of enduring election administration issues.
Housing Issues in the 113th Congress
This report begins by providing an overview of the current state of housing markets (both homeownership and rental) and the mortgage market in order to provide context for the policy issues that have been active during the 113th Congress. It then provides a brief description of issues that the 113th Congress has been considering. These issues are broadly divided into two categories: issues related to homeownership and housing finance, and issues related to housing assistance for low-income households
Individual Mandate Under ACA
Report describing the individual mandate requirements of the Afordable Care Act, as well as penalties for not meeting these requirements and exemptions granted for hardships.
Information Warfare: Russian Activities
This report discusses Russia's engagement in activities that some may describe as Information Warfare (IW): the range of military and government operations to protect and exploit the information environment.
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations.
Juvenile Justice: Legislative History and Current Legislative Issues
This report will analyze the current federal legislation that impacts the state juvenile justice systems. Although the report provides some background information on the evolution of juvenile justice in the United States, the main focus of the report is the major federal legislation that impacts the states juvenile justice systems, including the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).
Members Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the Members Representational Allowance (MRA) for running their congressional offices and examines spending patterns in recent years. Information is provided on total spending and spending for various categories, including personnel compensation; travel; rent, utilities, and communications; printing and reproduction; other services; supplies and materials; equipment; and franked mail. The data collected demonstrate that, despite variations when considering all Members, many Members allocate their spending in a similar manner, and spending allocation patterns have remained relatively consistent over time.
Millennium Challenge Corporation
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that demonstrate positive performance in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. MCC issues include the level of funding to support MCC programs, the impact of budget reductions on MCC programs, the rate of program implementation, the results of MCC compacts, and procurement and corruption concerns.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues (and costs) for Congress concerning the U.S. Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Report containing the information regarding the Navy's Ohio replacement program, including its budget and Congressional issues.
New U.S.-Japan Defense Guidelines Deepen Alliance Cooperation
This report discusses the U.S.-Japan alliance, which has evolved in response to changes in Japanese defense policies and the regional security environment in East Asia.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
Northern Ireland's Snap Assembly Elections: Outcome and Implications
This report discusses the snap elections for Northern Ireland's Assembly, its regional legislature.
Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and Status
This report discusses funding for war-related activities, which has been largely provided through supplemental appropriation acts and/or designated as an "emergency" or "overseas contingency operation/global war on terror" (OCO/GWOT) requirement.
Qatar and its Neighbors: Disputes and Possible Implications
This report discusses Qatar disputes with the governments of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt.
Reauthorization of the Perkins Act in the 115th Congress: Comparison of Current Law and H.R. 2353
This report highlights the key provisions in H.R. 2353 and explains the major differences between it and current law.
Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes the temporary charitable tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and are being considered for extension. The report also discusses the economic impact of these charitable tax provisions.
Rejection of Collective Bargaining Agreements in Chapter 11 Bankruptcies: Legal Analysis of Changes to 11 U.S.C. Section 1113 Proposed in H.R. 3652 -- The Protecting Employees and Retirees in Business Bankruptcies Act of 2007
This report discusses the bill that prescribes the parameters of offers that may be made by the debtor in negotiations as well as the requirements that must be met before a court can approve rejection. The bill also provides an absolute right of all employees to strike if their collective bargaining agreements (CBA), is modified or rejected.
Russia's Parliamentary Elections
This report discusses Russia's last parliamentary elections. On September 18, 2016, Russians will go to the polls to elect the State Duma.
Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings for Supreme Court Nominations: Historical Overview and Data
This report discusses the Supreme Court nomination to the Senate, and the Judiciary Committee that assumes the principal responsibility for investigating the background and qualifications of each Supreme Court nominee.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009 (P.L. 111-117).
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues
This report discusses the United States as the direct investor abroad and the largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the world.
U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview
Two major U.S. trade remedies are antidumping (AD) law, which combats the sale of imported products at less than their fair market value, and countervailing duty (CVD) law, which aims to offset foreign government subsidization of imported goods. This report discusses these two law's impact on U.S. foreign relations.