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Features of Producer-Gas Power-Plant Development in Europe

Description: From Introduction: "Because the limited time available would not permit a careful inspection, much less a detailed study of all the plants visited, the writer has not aimed in this bulletin to present a comprehensive review of producer-gas power-plant development in Europe, or even to give such conclusions as might be drawn from what he saw, but has simply described some interesting features of European practice that attract the attention of even a casual observer."
Date: 1911
Creator: Fernald, R. H.

Newsmap. Monday, September 6, 1943 : week of August 26 to September 2, 208th week of the war, 90th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Germany, Russia, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, New Georgia, New Guinea, Marcus Island. Maps show air offensive in western Europe, New Georgia Is., Russian front. Includes photographs: Army Air Forces report on Warnemunde; Tough customer [Gourmiers, Berber fighting men]; The first wave [Yanks at Rendova I.]. Back: Typical German infantry division. Illustration of a division with descriptive text keyed to the illustration. Regiments described including size, officers and enlisted men, types and numbers of weapons.
Date: September 6, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

An Index of Shale-Oil Patents

Description: From Introduction: "Work on this project was begun early in 1944; and the results with respect to shale oil are reported in this Bulletin. Since this bulletin is only an index to this large repository of ideas relating to the the treatment of shale oil, the material is presented in the form of short notices describing the subject material of each patent, which consist of an abridgment of the patent (if British or Australian) or a typical claim in the case of the United States or foreign patents."
Date: 1948
Creator: Klosky, Simon

Index of Oil-Shale and Shale-Oil Patents, 1946-56: A Supplement to Bulletins 467 and 468: (In Three Parts) [Part 3]. European Patents and Classification

Description: From Introduction: "This part of Bulletin contains 250 European patents that relate to retorting (and distilling underground), refining, and utilization of oil shale and its products. The largest single group, of which the majority was assigned to a single company, relates to fluidized handling shale. The patents are arranged numerically, and alphabetical list of investors and assignees follow them. A classified list of all the patents follows the author index of Part III. Parts I and II were published in 1958."
Date: 1959
Creator: United States. Bureau of Mines.

Survey of Fallout Operations

Description: From Abstract: "The Laboratory has made a survey of fallout operations in the various countries of the world. The source of information has largely been the reports submitted to UNSCEAR forwarding data for their consideration. The abstracts are given in order of type of operation as shown in the table of contents."
Date: July 1, 1962
Creator: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Health and Safety Laboratory.

Turkey: Situation Update

Description: This report briefly discusses recent political, economic, and security issues in Turkey, especially relating to Turkey's relationship with Greece, the European Union, and the United States.
Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol

Agriculture Support Mechanisms in the European Union: A Comparison with the United States

Description: The European Union (EU), comprised of 15 member states (countries), is one of the United States’ chief agricultural trading partners and also a major competitor in world markets. Both heavily support their agricultural sectors, with a large share of such support concentrated on wheat, feed grains, cotton, oilseeds, sugar, dairy, and tobacco. However, the EU provides more extensive support to a broader range of farm and food products. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the EU and United States in 2001 together accounted for nearly two-thirds of all government support to agriculture among the major developed economies. However, EU agricultural spending generally is much higher than in the United States. Information comparing how the U.S. and EU governments support their producers is expected to be of interest to policymakers while negotiations are underway among world trading partners to further reform agricultural trade.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: January 4, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.

European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

Description: This report provides detailed background and legal analysis of the nature of the current European Union embargo on arms exports to China. It also provides detailed background on the European Union’s current Code of Conduct on Arms Exports. A strengthened version of the Code would be one of the control mechanisms that would remain should the EU lift the embargo on arms exports to China. This report also gives information on recent EU arms exports authorized for China. It further summarizes U.S. concerns regarding the lifting of the arms embargo, and notes the prospective timing of EU action on the embargo issue.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Papademetriou, Theresa

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.

European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy

Description: Overall, there are two sets of questions for Congress in examining U.S. policy toward the fate of the EU’s arms embargo on China. What are the implications for U.S. interests in trans-Atlantic relations and China? If U.S. interests are adversely affected, what are some options for Congress to discourage the EU from lifting its arms embargo on China and, if it is lifted, to protect U.S. national security interests in both Asia and Europe? Issues raised by these questions are the subject of this CRS Report.
Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Grimmett, Richard F. & Kan, Shirley A.

Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Description: In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.

Green Payments in U.S. and European Union Agricultural Policy

Description: This report compares current United States and European Union (EU) efforts in the area of green payments. Green payments refer to "payments made to agricultural producers as compensation for environmental benefits that accrue at levels beyond what producers might otherwise achieve under existing market and regulatory conditions" (summary). The report gives an overview of policies, programs, financing, and various other aspects of comparison related to the topic.
Date: November 22, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E. & Zinn, Jeffrey A.

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.

Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Description: In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
Date: March 10, 2006
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.

Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)

Description: The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry

The European Parliament

Description: The 785-member, directly elected European Parliament (EP) is a key institution of the 27-member European Union (EU). Once limited to being a consultative assembly, the EP has accumulated more power over time. Currently, it plays a role in the EU's legislative and budgeting processes, and exercises general supervision over other EU bodies. Ties between the EP and the U.S. Congress are long-standing, and EPCongressional exchanges are expected to continue in the second session of the 110th Congress.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

European Union Englargement

Description: The European Union (EU) views the enlargement process as a historic opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. Although the EU maintains that the enlargement door remains open, "enlargement fatigue" has become a serious issue in Europe and some experts believe that EU enlargement may be reaching its limits. The status of EU enlargement is one of many transatlantic issues likely to be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. This report lists the various nations admitted to the European Union within the past several years and analyzes the enlargement issue in general.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Description: This report describes the European Union (EU), its evolution, governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships, which may be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. It will be updated as events warrant. For more information, see CRS Report RS21344, European Union Enlargement, by Kristin Archick, and CRS Report RL34381, European Union-U.S. Trade and Investment Relations: Key Issues, coordinated by Raymond Ahearn.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

Description: In December 2007, leaders of the European Union (EU) signed the Lisbon Treaty, which seeks to reform the EU's governing institutions and decisionmaking processes to enable a larger EU to operate more effectively. This new treaty represents the latest stage in a reform process begun in 2002 and essentially replaces the proposed EU "constitution" that foundered after French and Dutch voters rejected it in referendums in 2005. In June 2008, Irish voters rejected the Lisbon Treaty, and have thrown its future into doubt. This report provides background information on EU reform efforts and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the second session of the 110th Congress.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

U.S. - EU Poultry Dispute

Description: This report discusses the European Union (EU) refusal to accept U.S. imports of poultry treated with antimicrobial rinses. Prior to 1997, when the prohibition took effect, U.S. exports of broiler and turkey meat to the 15 countries that then constituted the EU were reported to total nearly 32,000 MT with a value of $44.4 million.
Date: February 4, 2009
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.