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2013 Proceedings of the Eight Annual Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research Workshop
Today's cyberspace is a powerful, virtual environment enabled by our global digital infrastructure that provides a bright landscape for commerce, science, education, communication, and government. The future of America's prosperity hinges on rebalancing cyberspace to mitigate threats and maximize benefits, ensuring security and privacy in a constantly changing adversarial environment. Recognizing this great need, we requested original paper submissions in four general areas derived from the Federal Cybersecurity R&D program thrusts: Designed-In-Security (DIS) Builds the capability to design, develop, and evolve high-assurance, software-intensive systems predictably and reliably while effectively managing risk, cost, schedule, quality, and complexity. Tailored Trustworthy Spaces (TTS) Provides flexible, adaptive, distributed trust environments that can support functional and policy requirements arising from a wide spectrum of activities in the face of an evolving range of threats--recognizing the user's context and evolves as the context evolves. Moving Target (MT) Enables us to create, analyze, evaluate, and deploy mechanisms and strategies that are diverse and that continually shift and change over time to increase complexity and cost for attackers, limit the exposure of vulnerabilities and opportunities for attack, and increase system resiliency. Cyber Economic Incentives (CEI) Develops effective incentives to make cybersecurity ubiquitous, including incentives affecting individuals and organizations.
Analysis of Inter-Vehicle Communication Using Network Simulator
Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) could be an important component of next-generation Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). It provides wireless connectivity among traveling vehicles to exchange real-time road condition and traffic information to support safe driving and traffic management. IVC system can be considered as a special form of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). The MANET and IVC are both hot issues for researches. However, there are few domestic literatures combining the two topics. Most of them are discussed separately. Thus, the studies on architecture and protocols of mobile ad-hoc network have great value for establishing vehicular networks. The simulating method is an available way to assess the performance of networks. This paper has a specific description about the network simulator NS-2 . Under the basic of simulating practices, the design method and procedure for MANET simulation are summarized in detail. In this report, two simple IVC scenarios are implemented on NS-2. The quantitative metrics like network throughput, delay and packet-loss are used to assess the performance of MANET for IVC under different vehicular speeds, transport layer protocols and routing protocols. The results indicate that MANET can be used for IVC well. The different speeds and protocols should be chosen based on specific IVC scenarios.
Crop Physiology
In this chapter, we review the physiology of switchgrass from seed dormancy till the effects of water and nutrients stress on grown plants. These characteristics are presented and discussed mainly at the canopy and whole-plant level with emphasis on the agro-physiology of the species in view of the possible contribution of crop physiology to agricultural development. Switchgrass is noted for the variable degrees of seed dormancy regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors that determine the successful seedling establishment. Plant growth rates are determined by temperature while the reproductive phase is controlled mainly by photoperiod. There is also evidence that some physiological attributes, such as photosynthesis, transpiration, and water use efficiency differ between tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid ecotypes. But despite these differences, in general switchgrass combines important attributes of efficient use of nutrients and water with high yields thanks to its ability to acquire resources from extended soil volumes, especially at deep layers. Moreover at canopy level, resources capture and conservation are determined by morpho-physiological characteristics (C{sub 4} photosynthetic pathway, stomatal control of transpiration, high leaf area index, low light extinction coefficient) that enhance radiation use efficiency and reduce carbon losses. However, specific information on switchgrass physiology is still missing, in particular deeper understanding of physiological principles controlling the water and nutrients acquisition mechanisms and allocation under suboptimal growing conditions. The physiology of tillering and root respiration are also factors that need further investigation.
Design and Implementation of a Scalable Membership Service for Supercomputer Resiliency-Aware Runtime
As HPC systems and applications get bigger and more complex, we are approaching an era in which resiliency and run-time elasticity concerns become paramount. We offer a building block for an alternative resiliency approach in which computations will be able to make progress while components fail, in addition to enabling a dynamic set of nodes throughout a computation lifetime. The core of our solution is a hierarchical scalable membership service providing eventual consistency semantics. An attribute replication service is used for hierarchy organization, and is exposed to external applications. Our solution is based on P2P technologies and provides resiliency and elastic runtime support at ultra large scales. Resulting middleware is general purpose while exploiting HPC platform unique features and architecture. We have implemented and tested this system on BlueGene/P with Linux, and using worst-case analysis, evaluated the service scalability as effective for up to 1M nodes.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 1, Pages 1 to 975, January 2 - January 31, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 12, Pages 9716 to 9958, Supplement (May - June 2013)
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States - current understanding and future scenarios
No Description Available.
Low Temperature Carburization
No Description Available.
Modeling for Integrating Science and Management
Modeling relationships between land-management practices and resulting changes in carbon, nitrogen, albedo, and other factors is complex. Even so, such modeling can be used to integrate scientific knowledge and provide a bridge between scientific understanding and policy. Yet, too often decision makers have a poor understanding of the underlying models and thus may misinterpret the implications. More often, decision makers diminish model results as fictitious, for they do not recognize the validity or extent of the underlying science. Decision makers should understand that the modeling process (1) involves formalizing hypotheses concerning relationships among components of human, biophysical, and ecological systems and (2) fosters exploration of implications of those hypotheses. To be most helpful for decision making, developing a model requires documentation of the model components and implications including all assumptions, input and output variables, and methods used to calibrate and validate the model as well as to identify sensitivities and uncertainties. There is no one modeling approach that meets the diverse needs of decision makers regarding land and carbon issues. As with all scientific explorations, new learning typically results in improved understanding, new questions, and revised hypotheses about the way the system works. Decision makers need to realize that models cannot provide specific predictions any more than models are to be believed. Instead, modeling enhances understanding of a system by requiring a formal statement of what is known and not known. The advantages and cautionary principles involved in using models for decision making are discussed. Because land change is a local or regional process and many questions about the effect of these changes are at the global scale, there are still gaps in modeling land change and its effects. The chapter concludes with opportunities to improve modeling of land change and the carbon cycle so that the scientific understanding and ...
Nanotechnologies to enable high-performance superconductors for energy applications
No Description Available.
Plant Cell Walls: Basics of Structure, Chemistry, Accessibility and the Influence on Conversion - Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals
This book is focused on the pretreatment of biomass, a necessary step for efficient conversion of the plant cell wall materials to fuels and other products. Pretreatment is required because it is difficult to access, separate, and release the monomeric sugars comprising the biopolymers within the biomass that can be further upgraded to products through chemical processes such as aqueous phase reforming or biological routes such as fermentation of the sugars to ethanol This resistance to degradation or difficulty to release the monomers (mostly sugars) is commonly referred to as recalcitrance. There are many methods to overcome plant recalcitrance, but the underlying cause of the recalcitrance lies in the complex combination of chemical and structural features of the plant cell walls.
Soybean Oil Derivatives for Fuel and Chemical Feedstocks
Plant based sources of hydrocarbons are being considered as alternatives to petrochemicals because of the need to conserve petroleum resources for reasons of national security and climate change. Changes in fuel formulations to include ethanol from corn sugar and methyl esters from soybean oil are examples of this policy in the United States and elsewhere. Replacements for commodity chemicals are also being considered, as this value stream represents much of the profit for the oil industry and one that would be affected by shortages in oil or other fossil fuels. While the discovery of large amounts of natural gas associated with oil shale deposits has abated this concern, research into bio-based feedstock materials continues. In particular, this chapter reviews a literature on the conversion of bio-based extracts to hydrocarbons for fuels and for building block commodity chemicals, with a focus on soybean derived products. Conversion of methyl esters from soybean triglycerides for replacement of diesel fuel is an active area of research; however, the focus of this chapter will not reside with esterification or transesterification, except has a means to provide materials for the production of hydrocarbons for fuels or chemical feedstocks. Methyl ester content in vehicle fuel is limited by a number of factors, including the performance in cold weather, the effect of oxygen content on engine components particularly in the case of older engines, shelf-life, and higher NOx emissions from engines that are not tuned to handle the handle the enhanced pre-ignition conditions of methyl ester combustion [1]. These factors have led to interest in synthesizing a hydrocarbon fuel from methyl esters, one that will maintain the cetane number but will achieve better performance in an automobile: enhanced mixing, injection, and combustion, and reduce downstream issues such as emissions and upstream issues such as fuel preparation and transportation. ...
Sustainability Consideration for Forest Biomass Feedstocks
No Description Available.
Temperature sensitivity of canopy photosynthesis phenology in northern ecosystems
No Description Available.
U.S. Patent 8,389,878, Weigh-in-Motion Scale with Foot Alignment Features
A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other comer foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the comer foot member.
U.S. Patent 8,410,952, Method for Forewarning of Critical Condition Changes in Monitoring Civil Structures
Sensor modules including accelerometers are placed on a physical structure and tri-axial accelerometer data is converted to mechanical power (P) data which then processed to provide a forewarning of a critical event concerning the physical structure. The forewarning is based on a number of occurrences of a composite measure of dissimilarity (Ci) exceeding a forewarning threshold over a defined sampling time; and a forewarning signal is provided to a human observer through a visual, audible or tangible s1gnal. A forewarning of a structural failure can also be provided based on a number of occurrences of (Ci) above a failure value threshold.
Volume- and Caesiated-Volume Negative Ion Sources
H- volume sources and especially caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This paper discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal s discovery of the H- volume production, the paper briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding cesiated surfaces to supplement the volume produced ions with surface produced ions as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output as well as in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 2, Pages 876 to 1828, February 1 - February 26, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
A Flow-Channel Analysis for the Mars Hopper
The Mars Hopper is an exploratory vehicle designed to fly on Mars using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere as a rocket propellant. The propellent gasses are thermally heated while traversing a radioisotope ther- mal rocket (RTR) engine’s core. This core is comprised of a radioisotope surrounded by a heat capacitive material interspersed with tubes for the propellant to travel through. These tubes, or flow channels, can be manu- factured in various cross-sectional shapes such as a special four-point star or the traditional circle. Analytical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) anal- yses were performed using flow channels with either a circle or a star cross- sectional shape. The nominal total inlet pressure was specified at 2,805,000 Pa; and the outlet pressure was set to 2,785,000 Pa. The CO2 inlet tem- perature was 300 K; and the channel wall was 1200 K. The steady-state CFD simulations computed the smooth-walled star shape’s outlet temper- ature to be 959 K on the finest mesh. The smooth-walled circle’s outlet temperature was 902 K. A circle with a surface roughness specification at 0.01 mm gave 946 K and at 0.1 mm yielded 989 K. The The effects of a slightly varied inlet pressure were also examined. The analytical calculations were based on the mass flow rates computed in the CFD simulations and provided significantly higher outlet temperature results while displaying the same comparison trends. Research relating to the flow channel heat transfer studies was also done. Mathematical methods to geometrically match the cross-sectional areas of the circle and star, along with a square and equilateral triangle, were derived. A Wolfram Mathematica 8 module was programmed to analyze CFD results using Richardson Extrapolation and calculate the grid convergence index (GCI). A Mathematica notebook, also composed, computes and graphs the bulk mean temperature along a ...
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 3, Pages 1829 to 2763, February 27 - March 15, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 4, Pages 2764 to 3699, March 18 - March 29, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 5, Pages 3700 to 4038, Supplement (March 2013)
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 6, Pages 4039 to 5006, April 1 - April 17, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 7, Pages 5007 to 5986, April 18 - April 30, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 8, Pages 5987 to 6863, May 1 - May 10, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 9, Pages 6864 to 7840, May 13 - May 24, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Getting in step: Engaging stakeholders in Your Watershed 2nd edition
A guide for involving stakeholders in the protection of the watershed environment
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 10, Pages 7841 to 8830, May 28 - June 14, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 11, Pages 8831 to 9715, June 17 - July 5, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 13, Pages 9959 to 10739, July 8 - July 22, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 14, Pages 10740 to 11616, July 23 - August 6, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 15, Pages 11617 to 12583, August 7 - August 21, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 16, Pages 12584 to 13565, August 22 - September 18, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Commission on Long-Term Care: Report to the Congress
The federal Commission on Long-Term Care. Established as part of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 and signed into law January 2, 2013, the commission's goal was to advise Congress on how comprehensive, high-quality long-term care can be better provided and financed for the nation's older adults and people with disabilities. The Commission is composed of 15 members of the Senate and House of Representatives and released this final report on September 18, 2013. In this document, the commission charted a vision of a fiscally sustainable and effective service delivery system built around concepts of person-and-family-centered care, with integration of long-term services and supports (LTSS) and medicare for both older and younger people with significant cognitive or physical functional limitations. The report provides a solid foundation from which Congress and federal agencies can initiate a more extensive effort to confront the identified LTSS challenges and to move forward on the development and implementation of a better, more comprehensive LTSS system.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 17, Pages 13566 to 14514, September 19 - October 18, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 18, Pages 14515 to 15396, October 21 - November 1, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 19, Pages 15397 to 16271, November 4 - November 29, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 20, Pages 16272 to 17252, December 2 - December 27, 2013
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 28, No. 21, Pages 17253 to 17558, Supplement (September-December 2013)
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.