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Cases Adjudged in The Supreme Court at October Term, 2000
Volume of the United States Reports containing the final decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court justices regarding cases between June 11 and September 25, 2001. Also includes notes regarding the members of the Supreme Court, orders, and other relevant materials. Index starts on page 1307.
Cases Adjudged in The Supreme Court at October Term, 2000
Volume of the United States Reports containing the final decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court justices regarding cases between October 2, 2000, and March 1, 2001. Also includes notes regarding the members of the Supreme Court, orders, and other relevant materials. Index starts on page 1207.
Cases Adjudged in The Supreme Court at October Term, 2000
Volume of the United States Reports containing the final decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court justices regarding cases between March 5 and June 10, 2001. Also includes notes regarding the members of the Supreme Court, orders, and other relevant materials. Index starts on page 1093.
Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates
School districts around the country are finding that smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create an exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 1, Pages 1 to 438, December 26, 2001 - January 4, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 439 to 1408, January 7 - January 18, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 24, Pages 18049 to 18946, September 23-September 27, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 25, Pages 18947 to 19343, September 30-October 4, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 26, Pages 19344 to 20085, October 7-October 11, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 36, Pages 27039 to 27408, Supplement
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 37, Pages 27409 to 28244, Supplement
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
THE RHIC ACCELERATOR.
This review discusses the design and initial operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), noting the novel features of a heavy ion collider that are distinct from conventional hadron colliders. These features reflect the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range, including collisions between ions of unequal energies and polarized protons. Other unique aspects of RHIC include intrabeam scattering, interaction-region error compensation, and transition crossing with a slow ramp rate. The RHIC facility has just completed the second physics run after beam commissioning in 2000.
Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide
The North Dakota Consumer's Guide for Small Wind Electric systems provides consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include: how to make your home more energy efficient, how to choose the right size turbine, the parts of a wind electric system, determining if there is enough wind resource on your site, choosing the best site for your turbine, connecting your system to the utility grid, and if it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the North Dakota guide provides state specific information that includes and state wind resource map, state incentives, and state contacts for more information.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 3, Pages 1409 to 2076, January 22 - February 1, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 4, Pages 2077 to 3076, February 4 - February 15, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 5, Pages 3077 to 3452, February 19 - February 22, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Photovoltaics Overview: Fiscal Year 2001
In Fiscal Year 2001, for the third year in a row, the solar electric market grew at more than 30%. Fueling this growth is the U.S. photovoltaic industry - the companies that design, manufacture, install, operate, and maintain all components of solar generating systems. The messages of the U.S. PV industry roadmap are taken very seriously by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Solar Energy Technologies. Achieving industry's goals will demand aggressive work in fundamental and exploratory research, manufacturing, and system applications to reduce the cost of solar electric systems. This is an annual report of the DOE PV Program, FY2001.
CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW.
This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 6, Pages 3453 to 4114, February 22 - March 4, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 7, Pages 4115 to 4934, March 4 - March 15, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 8, Pages 4935 to 5645, March 18 - March 22, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2001 Information Resources Catalog
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) eighth annual Information Resources Catalog can help keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The catalog includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.
NEUTRON IMAGING, RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOGRAPHY.
Neutrons are an invaluable probe in a wide range of scientific, medical and commercial endeavors. Many of these applications require the recording of an image of the neutron signal, either in one-dimension or in two-dimensions. We summarize the reactions of neutrons with the most important elements that are used for their detection. A description is then given of the major techniques used in neutron imaging, with emphasis on the detection media and position readout principle. Important characteristics such as position resolution, linearity, counting rate capability and sensitivity to gamma-background are discussed. Finally, the application of a subset of these instruments in radiology and tomography is described.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 9, Pages 5646 to 6331, March 25 - April 5, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 10, Pages 6332 to 6986, April 8 - April 12, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 11, Pages 6987 to 7916, April 15 - April 26, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U. S. Glass Industry
Report documenting the partnership between DOEs Office of Industrial Technologies and the U.S. glass industry.
COMBINED FLUORESCENT AND GOLD PROBES FOR MICROSCOPIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
Nanogold{reg_sign}, a gold cluster with a core of gold atoms 1.4 nm in diameter, has proven to be a superior probe label for electron microscopy (EM), giving both higher labeling density and improved access to previously hindered or restricted antigens. It may be visualized by autometallography (AMG) for use in light microscopy (LM): silver-and gold-amplified Nanogold detection has proven to be one of the most sensitive methods available for the detection of low copy number targets such as viral DNA in cells and tissue specimens. AMG enhancement has also made Nanogold an effective detection label in blots and gels. The following protocols will be described: Labeling of nuclear components in cells. Protocol for in situ hybridization and detection with fluorescein-Nanogold--or Cy3{trademark}-Nanogold-labeled streptavidin. Nanogold is an inert molecule, and generally does not interact with biological molecules unless a specific chemical reactivity is introduced into the molecule. Conjugates are prepared using site-specific chemical conjugation through reactive chemical functionalities introduced during Nanogold preparation, which allows the gold label to be attached to a specific site on the conjugate biomolecule. For example, a maleimido-Nanogold derivative, which is specific for thiol binding, is frequently attached to the hinge region of an antibody at a unique thiol site generated by selective reduction of a hinge disulfide. This site is remote from the antigen combining region, and the Nanogold, therefore, does not compromise target binding. Nanogold may also be prepared with specific reactivity towards amines or other unique chemical groups. This mode of attachment enables the preparation of probes labeled with both Nanogold and fluorescent labels. Different chemical reactivities are used to attach the Nanogold and the fluorescent groups to different sites in the conjugate biomolecule, as shown in Figure 7.1. In this manner, the two labels are spaced sufficiently far apart that fluorescent resonance energy transfer ...
SILVER AND GOLD BASED AUTOMETALLOGRAPHY OF NANOGOLD.
For many applications, silver salt-based autometallography (often also called silver enhancement or silver development) is required to visualize colloidal gold (1-5 nm in diameter) or the small 1.4 nm Nanogold{reg_sign} particles (Nanoprobes, Yaphank, NY, USA). Although even Nanogold may be seen directly by scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM), by transmission EM (TEM; in thin sections without stain or ice-embedded cryo-EM samples), energy filtered TEM, and scanning EM (SEM), silver enhancement makes viewing in the EM more facile since the particles are enlarged to approximately 10 to 20 nm, convenient for most specimens. Autometallographic (AMG) enhancement is required in order to visualize smaller gold particles such as Nanogold for light microscopy (LM) or in blots or gels. This chapter includes the following protocols: Protocol for HQ silver enhancement of Nanogold; Protocols for use of silver-enhanced Nanogold with osmium tetroxide--(A) Procedure using reduced concentration of OsO{sub 4}; (B) Procedures for gold toning; Protocol for HQ silver enhancement of Nanogold in pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for cell cultures; Protocol for gold enhancement of Nanogold for EM; Protocol for gold enhancement of Nanogold for LM; Protocol for staining blots with Nanogold and silver enhancement; and Protocol for staining gels with Nanogold and silver enhancement.
SUPERSENSITIVE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION BY TYRAMIDE SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION AND NANOGOLD SILVER STAINING: THE CONTRIBUTION OF AUTOMETALLOGRAPHY AND CATALYZED REPORTER DEPOSITION TO THE REJUVENATION OF IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION.
It is peculiar that in situ hybridization (ISH), a technique with many similarities to immunohistochemistry (IHC), has not enjoyed the phenomenal growth in both basic research and clinical applications as has its sister technique IHC. Since the late 1970s, when immunoperoxidase techniques began to be applied to routine diagnostic material and to numerous research applications, there has been a natural evolution of the IHC procedure. Namely, only a few primary antibodies were available commercially at the onset, and only one indirect and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique detection systems were in place. With the advent of avidin-biotin detection systems and monoclonal antibodies, and a viable commercial market, extraordinary growth of the procedure's applications in clinical research and diagnostic pathology occurred during the subsequent two decades. Today, IHC is automated and widely used for research purposes and, to a large extent, has become a routine diagnostic ''special stain'' in most clinical laboratories. During the same period, ISH enjoyed very little growth in both research and diagnostic applications. What has accounted for this lack of maturation of the technique? The success of IHC is part of the reason measuring a gene's encoded protein routinely and inexpensively, particularly as automation evolved, rendered IHC a more viable choice in many instances. Inherent comparative sensitivity of the procedures has also clearly been a factor. Unfortunately, the chromogenic procedures in place are often insufficiently sensitive to detect the relatively low amounts of DNA and RNA levels at which the clinical utility is to be found.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 12, Pages 7917 to 8570, April 29 - May 10, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 13, Pages 8571 to 9319, May 13 - May 17, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 14, Pages 9320 to 10116, May 20 - May 24, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Using Distributed Energy Resources, A How-To Guide for Federal Facility Managers
The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) established the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Program to assist Federal agencies in implementing DER projects at their facilities. FEMP prepared this How-To Guide to assist facility managers in evaluating potential applications and benefits. It provides step-by-step advice on how to carry out a Federal DER project. It also describes and explains DER applications and potential benefits in Federal facilities; DER technologies and how to match them to applications; a step-by-step approach to implementing projects; potential barriers and how to overcome them; and resources to assist you in implementing new DER projects.
Wind Power Today: Wind Energy Program Highlights 2001
Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program accomplishments for the previous year. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2001 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2001, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.
RESONANT X-RAY SCATTERING AS A PROBE OF ORBITAL AND CHARGE ORDERING.
Resonant x-ray scattering is a powerful experimental technique for probing orbital and charge ordering. It involves tuning the incident photon energy to an absorption edge of the relevant ion and observing scattering at previously ''forbidden'' Bragg peaks, and it allows high-resolution, quantitative studies of orbital and charge order--even from small samples. Further, resonant x-ray scattering from orbitally ordered systems exhibits polarization- and azimuthal-dependent properties that provide additional information about the details of the orbital order that is difficult, or impossible, to obtain with any other technique. In the manganites, the sensitivity to charge and orbital ordering is enhanced when the incident photon energy is tuned near the Mn K absorption edge (6.539 keV), which is the lowest energy at which a 1s electron can be excited into an unoccupied state. In this process, the core electron is promoted to an intermediate excited state, which decays with the emission of a photon. The sensitivity to charge ordering is believed to be due to the small difference in K absorption edges of the Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} sites. For orbital ordering, the sensitivity arises from a splitting--or difference in the weight of the density of states [239]--of the orbitals occupied by the excited electron in the intermediate state. In the absence of such a splitting, there is no resonant enhancement of the scattering intensity. In principle, other absorption edges in which the intermediate state is anisotropic could be utilized, but the strong dipole transition to the Mn 4p levels--and their convenient energies for x-ray diffraction--make the K edge well-suited to studies of manganites. The Mn 4p levels are affected by the symmetry of the orbital ordering, which makes the technique sensitive to the orbital degree of freedom. Therefore resonant x-ray scattering can be used to obtain important quantitative information concerning the ...
Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates (Revision)
School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.
Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates
School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 15, Pages 10117 to 10900, May 28 - June 7, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 16, Pages 10901 to 11794, June 10 - June 20, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 17, Pages 11795 to 12499, June 21 - June 28, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 18, Pages 12450 to 13281, June 28 - July 5, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 19, Pages 13282 to 14153, July 8 - July 19, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
SIGNALING TO THE P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR THROUGH PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC STRESSES.
The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is post-translational modified at {approx}18 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review the posttranslational modifications to p53 and the pathways that produce them in response to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.
Storage Manager and File Transfer Web Services
Web services are emerging as an interesting mechanism for a wide range of grid services, particularly those focused upon information services and control. When coupled with efficient data transfer services, they provide a powerful mechanism for building a flexible, open, extensible data grid for science applications. In this paper we present our prototype work on a Java Storage Resource Manager (JSRM) web service and a Java Reliable File Transfer (JRFT) web service. A java client (Grid File Manager) on top of JSRM and is developed to demonstrate the capabilities of these web services. The purpose of this work is to show the extent to which SOAP based web services are an appropriate direction for building a grid-wide data management system, and eventually grid-based portals.
A Web Services Data Analysis Grid
The trend in large-scale scientific data analysis is to exploit compute, storage and other resources located at multiple sites, and to make those resources accessible to the scientist as if they were a single, coherent system. Web technologies driven by the huge and rapidly growing electronic commerce industry provide valuable components to speed the deployment of such sophisticated systems. Jefferson Lab, where several hundred terabytes of experimental data are acquired each year, is in the process of developing a web-based distributed system for data analysis and management. The essential aspects of this system are a distributed data grid (site independent access to experiment, simulation and model data) and a distributed batch system, augmented with various supervisory and management capabilities, and integrated using Java and XML-based web services.
Measurement of Simulated Waste Glass Viscosity
A new high-temperature glass viscometer instrument was established and evaluated using a simulated waste glass in a comparative test with eight other laboratories and viscometers. The unit has distinct advantages in physical size, the amount of glass required for testing, and the simplicity of operation. These advantages can be important for work with radioactive materials. Results from the comparison indicate excellent accuracy and repeatability.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 20, Pages 14154 to 15147, July 22 - August 2, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 17, No. 21, Pages 15148 to 16043, August 5 - August 16, 2002
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
Advancements in the characterization of 'hyper-thin' oxynitride gate dielectrics through exit wave reconstruction HRTEM and XPS
The physical thickness of silicon oxynitride gate dielectric materials currently in development have dimensions in the range of 15-20 Angstrom ({approx}6-8 oxygen atoms), while approaching the dielectric constant equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 12 Angstrom silicon dioxide. These structures present serious challenges in meeting stringent requirements within the semiconductor industry for precise determination of thickness, interfacial roughness and chemical distribution. Limitations in conventional HRTEM must be removed that would minimize errors in such measurements. Our approach was to use the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) One Angstrom Microscope (O Angstrom M), together with focal series acquisition (FSA) and exit wave reconstruction (EWR) techniques to obtain <0.8A interpretable resolution. HRTEM data on the same oxynitride materials from an aberration corrected (Cs=0) microscope were also collected as part of this work, as were scanning TEM (STEM) measurements. The H RTEM characterization provides an absolute calibration and validation for a precise ''near-line'' metrology to determine gate oxide thickness and nitrogen dose using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).