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Appropriations for FY2002: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees.
Date: March 11, 2002
Creator: Irwin, Paul M.

Summary of Hanford Subsurface Air Flow and Extraction (SAFE) Activities for Fiscal Year 2002

Description: Potential leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation techniques are being developed to support Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval operations. In July and August 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory demonstrated several of these technologies for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., at the Mock Tank Site in the 200 East Area. These subsurface air flow and extraction (SAFE) technologies use air injection and extraction wells to create an advective air flowfield beneath a tank. SAFE includes the following technologies: 1) leak detection--in-tank tracers, flowfield disturbance, radon displacement, and tank waste vapors; 2) leak monitoring--partitioning tracer method and reactive tracers; 3) leak mitigation--soil desiccation before and after leakage and in situ gaseous reduction; and 4) subsurface characterization--interfacial tracers. This report provides an overview of these technologies and discusses the FY 2001 demonstration activities at the Mock Tank Site, their results, and implications for future work.
Date: March 20, 2002
Creator: Cameron, Richard J.; Evans, John C.; Johnson, Michael D. & Liikala, Terry L.

Documentation for FY2002 BTS GPRA Metrics

Description: PNNL estimated the FY2002 energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., metrics) of the technologies and practices in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS). BTS uses the estimates of benefits as part of its annual budget request. This report includes an overview of the analytical approaches used to estimate energy savings for the FY2002 appropriated budget for BTS. The report also includes descriptions of key assumptions and the methodology that is used to calculate energy savings estimates for each BTS program.
Date: April 15, 2002
Creator: Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A. & Dirks, James A.

Tank Lay-Up Information Package and List of Questions for US Department of Energy High-Level Waste Tank Storage Sites

Description: This document provides background information and a list of questions to be addressed during an information-gathering visit by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc personnel. Jacobs has been funded by the Tanks Focus Area to complete a task "Pre-closure Interim Tanks Maintenance." The overall objective of this task is to develop a central informaion center of site conditions, site requirements, alternative technical and other approaches, closure plans and activities, regulatory drivers and methodolgies for decision-making to assist site decisdion-makers in teh evaluation of alternative high-level waste (HLW) tank lay-up configureations. Lay-up is the term used for the period between intial decontamination and decommissioning of the tanks and final closure. Successful lay-up will place the tanks in a safe, stable, and minimum-maintenance mode until final closure.
Date: June 21, 2002
Creator: Elmore, Monte R. & Henderson, Colin

Geologic and Wireline Summaries from Fiscal Year 2002 ILAW Boreholes

Description: Four boreholes were drilled at the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Site in April 2002. Three were completed as groundwater monitoring wells. This report documents the results of the drilling and data collected from the drilling.
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: Reidel, Steve P. & Ho, Anita M.

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report

Description: The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth & Buongiorno, Jacopo

LDRD 26573 Ultra-Low Power Spread Spectrum Receiver, FY02 Final Report

Description: This report describes the development of an ultra-low power spread spectrum receiver based on a programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator. This work was funded under LDRD 02-26573, Ultra-Low Power Spread Spectrum Receiver. The approach taken in this project uses direct demodulation of a radio frequency (RF) signal from carrier frequency to data frequency. This approach was taken to reduce power consumption and size. The design is based on the technique of correlating the received RF signal with the preprogrammed spreading code. The system requirements, applications, design methodology, and testing results are all documented in the following pages.
Date: October 2002
Creator: Brocato, Robert W.

ESC FY2002 Annual Report: Synchrotron-Radiation-Based Photoelectron Spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

Description: Despite recent intensive experimental effort, the electronic structure of Pu, particularly {delta}-Pu, remains ill defined. An evaluation of our previous synchrotron-radiation-based investigation of {alpha}-Pu and {delta}-Pu has lead to a new paradigm for the interpretation of photoemission spectra of U, Np, {alpha}-Pu, {delta}-Pu and Am. This approach is founded upon a model in which spin and spin-orbit splittings are included in the picture of the 5f states and upon the observation of chiral/spin-dependent effects in non-magnetic systems. By extending a quantitative model developed for the interpretation of core level spectroscopy in magnetic systems, it is possible to predict the contributions of the individual component states within the 5-f manifold. This has lead to a remarkable agreement between the results of the model and the previously collected spectra of U, Np, Pu and Am, particularly {delta}-Pu, and to a prediction of what we might expect to see in future spin-resolving experiments.
Date: October 4, 2002
Creator: Tobin, J G; Chung, B W; Schulze, R K & Shuh, D K

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Self-Evaluation Report: 2002

Description: This report will summarize PNNL's progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives and performance indicators as delineated in the FY 2002 Performance Evaluation and Fee Agreement. In addition, this report will summarize PNNL's analysis of the results of the FY2002 Peer Reviews, the implementation of PNNL's FY2002 Operational Improvement Initiatives, and the resolution of the Key Areas for Improvements.
Date: October 29, 2002
Creator: Cuello, Robert

Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2002

Description: This report summarizes the earthquake activity on Hanford for FY 2002. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,177 triggers during fiscal year 2002. Of these triggers, 553 were earthquakes. Two earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 13 occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 12 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 17 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 13 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was associated with major structures, and 28 were random events. There were no earthquake triggers of the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during fiscal year 2002.
Date: November 15, 2002
Creator: Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P. & Rohay, Alan C.

FY02 CBNP Annual Report: Discovery of DNA Signature of Biothreat Detection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

Description: Our goal is to develop robust DNA signatures for rapid and specific DNA-based detection platforms that can be employed by CBNP to detect a wide range of potential agents. Our approach has resulted in highly specific DNA signatures for Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Brucella species. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any genome (even uncharacterized ones), which facilitates DNA signature development for detection of newly emerging pathogens. We are using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) as a tool to define large DNA regions specific to multiple biothreat pathogens by comparing them to genomes of the most closely related organisms. This approach has become increasingly accurate as we continue to find new, distinctive strains and ever-closer near-neighbors. With the huge costs incurred by whole genome sequencing, it is not possible to sequence each new bacterial genome. However, it is completely practical to identify genome differences in the laboratory using SSH, and becomes especially useful when comparing new strains to previously sequenced genomes.
Date: November 19, 2002
Creator: Andersen, G L & Radnedge, L

The General Atomics Fusion Theory Program Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2002

Description: OAK B202 THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2002. The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance the scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).
Date: December 1, 2002

Results of Performance Evaluation Testing of Electrical Leak-Detection Methods at the Hanford Mock Tank Site--FY 2002-2003

Description: Application of two electrical resistivity methods at the Hanford Site Mock Tank during 2002, indicate the viability of the methods as possible leak-detection tools for SST retrieval operations. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and High-Resolution Resistivity were used over a 109-day period to detect leakage of a waste simulant beneath the tank. The results of the test indicate that both of these two methods, and subset methods may be applicable to SST leak detection.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Johnson, Michael D.; Medina, Victor F.; Mendoza, Donaldo P. et al.

Review of the Sandia National Laboratories -- Albuquerque, New Mexico DOE/DP Critical Skills Development Programs FY '02

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia--and DP Complex--employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded seven laboratory critical skills development programs in FY02. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status.
Date: February 1, 2003

Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

Description: A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite differences in their requirements ...
Date: February 10, 2003
Creator: Hyde, R

Melt Rate Testing for the DWPF: Summary of FY02 Testing

Description: A study performed in FY01 recommended that the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) replace Frit 200 with Frit 320 for the processing of sludge batch 2 (SB2) to improve melt rate (Lambent et al., 2001) contingent upon additional testing which included slurry feeding. The FY02 melt rate program was developed to support this recommendation as well as to investigate alternative methods of improving melt rate above and beyond a change in frit composition. The integrated program was primarily based on a sound testing methodology from which the frit change was recommended. In addition, the program included the development of additional tools to provide further insight into melt rate enhancements. The overall strategy of the FY02 testing program was to design suites of melt rate tests based on recommendations from previous work that provided insight into other methods of improving melt rate for the DWPF. The objectives of the FY02 testing program included how melt rate might be influenced by increases in waste loading, differences in frit particle size, the use of batch chemicals rather than a pre-fabricated frit, and the impact of uranium. This report summarizes the equipment development and setup, procedures, and results of this testing, and includes recommendations on the processing of SB2 with Frit 320 and future research.
Date: February 19, 2003
Creator: Lorier, T.H.

XFEM: Exploratory Research into the Extended Finite-Element Method, FY02 LDRD Final Report

Description: This report is one of two components, the first an overview document outlining the goals and results of the XFEM LDRD project, and the other (titled ''Structured Extended Finite Element Methods of Solids defined by Implicit Surfaces'') detailing the scientific advances developed under FY01/FY02 LDRD funding. The XFEM (Extended Finite-Element Method) Engineering LDRD/ER Project was motivated by three research and development goals: (1) the extensions of standard finite-element technology into important new research venues of interest to the Engineering Directorate, (2) the automation of much of the engineering analysis workflow, so as to improve the productivity of mesh-generation and problem setup processes, and (3) the development of scalable software tools to facilitate innovation in XFEM analysis and methods development. The driving principle behind this LDRD project was to demonstrate the computational technology required to perform mechanical analysis of complex solids, with minimal extra effort required on the part of mechanical analysts. This need arises both from the growing workload of LLNL analysts in problem setup and mesh generation, and from the requirement that actual as-built mechanical configurations be analyzed. Many of the most important programmatic drivers for mechanical analysis require that the actual (e.g., deformed, aged, damaged) geometric configuration of the solid be deduced and then accurately modeled: for this programmatic need, XFEM provides one of the only accurate methods available that can provide high-fidelity results.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Mish, K.

Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002

Description: This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2002 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This report is written to meet the requirements in CERCLA, RCRA, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and Washington State Administrative Code.
Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F. & Webber, William D.

LDRD 10729 Ultra Miniaturization of RF using Microwave Chip on Flex Technology, FY02 Final Report

Description: This report describes the activities on the ''Ultra Miniaturization of RF'' project conducted as part of Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. The objective was to evaluate a multichip module technology known as Microwave Chip on Flex (MCOF) [1], which is a newer form of the standard high density interconnect (HDI) technology originally developed by General Electric and Lockheed Martin [2,3]. The program was a three-year effort. In the first year, the team focused on understanding the technology and developing a basic design library. In the second year, devices and interconnects used at L, X, and Ku frequency bands were evaluated via a test coupon (with no application specific circuit design). In the third year, we designed, fabricated, and evaluated a specific Ku-band circuit. The circuit design and layout was performed by Sandia, and the module fabrication was performed by Lockheed Martin Government Electronic Systems. In MCOF technology [1], bare die are placed face down on an adhesive backed flex circuit. The first level of the circuit is a pre-patterned titanium copper thin film metal system on a polyimide dielectric material. The complete module is then framed and filled with an epoxy encapsulant. The module is flipped and via holes are laser drilled through subsequent interconnect layers. Each addition layer is adhered to the top of the module and laser drilling repeated. The baseline design consisted of the original pre-patterned layer plus two additional metal layers. The base of the module is then machined so the heat spreader and frame are planar for a good thermal and electrical connection to the next assembly. This report describes the efforts conducted to evaluate the technology and its applicability to Sandia RF systems.
Date: March 1, 2003

Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2002

Description: This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 2002. Results from the tests provide hydrologic information that supports the needs of RCRA waste management characterization and sitewide groundwater monitoring and modeling programs and reduces the uncertainty of groundwater flow conditions at selected Hanford locations.
Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R. & Thorne, Paul D.

Summary of Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002

Description: This report is a summary of the larger report, ''Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002.'' The report provides highlights of monitoring groundwater, vadose zone activities, and information about specific contaminant plumes.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F. & Webber, William D.

Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2002

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The goals are: (1) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; (2) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.
Date: September 1, 2003