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Surface Reactions Studied by Synchrotron Based Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Description: The goal of this article is to illustrate the use of synchrotron radiation for investigating surface chemical reactions by photoelectron spectroscopy. A brief introduction and background information is followed by examples of layer resolved spectroscopy, oxidation and sulfidation of metallic, semiconducting and oxide surfaces.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Hrbek, J.

Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Technical Assistance Brochure

Description: The Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Technical Assistance Program provides the tools and assistance to help manufacturers identify their best energy-efficient, pollution-preventing options, from a systems and life-cycle cost approach. Technical Assistance focuses on five key opportunities for energy efficiency and waste reduction: electric motors, steam, compressed air, combined heat and power, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs). By promoting the use of available technologies, Technical Assistance helps industry immediately impact its bottom-line performance and build its position in global markets.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Ericksen, E.

NREL's Desiccantcool web site

Description: Learn about cutting-edge desiccant cooling and dehumidification technologies, current research, industry developments, and upcoming conferences and workshops on this website.
Date: May 3, 1999

State Renewable Energy News: Vol. 8, No. 3, Fall 1999

Description: This newsletter is prepared for the NARUC Subcommittee on Renewable Energy to promote information sharing on state-level renewable electric activities. It is sponsored by the Office of Power Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy.
Date: January 3, 2000
Creator: Swezey, B.

NREL PV Working With Industry Newsletter: 4th Quarter 1999

Description: NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The Fourth Quarter, 1999 issue, titled ''Knowledge is PV Power'' focuses on the contribution of the university-based subcontractors to the PV Program. The editorialist is Robert Birkmire, Director of the Institute of Energy Conversion, which is affiliated with the University of Delaware.
Date: March 3, 2000
Creator: Moon, S. & Poole, L.

NREL Information Resources Catalogue 1999

Description: This is the sixth annual catalogue listing documents produced by NREL during the last fiscal year. Each year the catalogue is mailed to state energy offices, DOE support offices, and to anyone looking to find out more information about NREL's activities and publications.
Date: April 3, 2000

Wind powering America: Colorado

Description: This fact sheet contains information about green power programs in Colorado and a description of the Ponnequin Wind Farm.
Date: April 3, 2000
Creator: O'Dell, K.

Alternative Fuel News: May 2000 Special Edition

Description: In this special issue of Alternative Fuel News, the authors summarize DOE's current position on the local government and private fleet rulemaking that has been under consideration. The authors also look at the new area of focus, niche markets. Your participation and input are invited as the authors craft new directions for the nation's transportation future.
Date: May 3, 2000
Creator: Brennan, A. & Ficker, C.

NREL PV working with industry, first quarter 2000; pulling out all the stops

Description: NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The First Quarter, 2000, issue offers an in-depth look at the PV Program's Five Year Plan and the PV industry's progress in developing a 20-year roadmap. The editorialist is Roger Little, President and CEO of Spire Corporation and a member of the NCPV Advisory Board.
Date: May 3, 2000
Creator: Moon, S.; Poole, L. & Cook, G.

1999 Federal energy saver showcases

Description: Sixteen-page booklet containing case studies of the nine Federal Energy Saver Showcase award recipients for 1999.
Date: July 3, 2000
Creator: Nahan, R.


Description: It is generally accepted that the information necessary to specify the native, functional, three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded entirely within its amino acid sequence; however, efficient reversible folding and unfolding is observed only with a subset of small single-domain proteins. Refolding experiments often lead to the formation of kinetically-trapped, misfolded species that aggregate, even in dilute solution. In the cellular environment, the barriers to efficient protein folding and maintenance of native structure are even larger due to the nature of this process. First, nascent polypeptides must fold in an extremely crowded environment where the concentration of macromolecules approaches 300-400 mg/mL and on average, each ribosome is within its own diameter of another ribosome (1-3). These conditions of severe molecular crowding, coupled with high concentrations of nascent polypeptide chains, favor nonspecific aggregation over productive folding (3). Second, folding of newly-translated polypeptides occurs in the context of their vehtorial synthesis process. Amino acids are added to a growing nascent chain at the rate of -5 residues per set, which means that for a 300 residue protein its N-terminus will be exposed to the cytosol {approx}1 min before its C-terminus and be free to begin the folding process. However, because protein folding is highly cooperative, the nascent polypeptide cannot reach its native state until a complete folding domain (50-250 residues) has emerged from the ribosome. Thus, for a single-domain protein, the final steps in folding are only completed post-translationally since {approx}40 residues of a nascent chain are sequestered within the exit channel of the ribosome and are not available for folding (4). A direct consequence of this limitation in cellular folding is that during translation incomplete domains will exist in partially-folded states that tend to expose hydrophobic residues that are prone to aggregation and/or misfolding. Thus it is not surprising that, ...
Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Flanagan, J. M. & Bewley, M. C.

Modeling the Reactions of Energetic Materials in the Condensed Phase

Description: High explosive (HE) materials are unique for having a strong exothermic reactivity, which has made them desirable for both military and commercial applications. Although the history of HE materials is long, condensed-phase properties are poorly understood. Understanding the condensed-phase properties of HE materials is important for determining stability and performance. Information regarding HE material properties (for example, the physical, chemical, and mechanical behaviors of the constituents in plastic-bonded explosive, or PBX, formulations) is necessary in efficiently building the next generation of explosives as the quest for more powerful energetic materials (in terms of energy per volume) moves forward. In addition, understanding the reaction mechanisms has important ramifications in disposing of such materials safely and cheaply, as there exist vast stockpiles of HE materials with corresponding contamination of earth and groundwater at these sites, as well as a military testing sites The ability to model chemical reaction processes in condensed phase energetic materials is rapidly progressing. Chemical equilibrium modeling is a mature technique with some limitations. Progress in this area continues, but is hampered by a lack of knowledge of condensed phase reaction mechanisms and rates. Atomistic modeling is much more computationally intensive, and is currently limited to very short time scales. Nonetheless, this methodology promises to yield the first reliable insights into the condensed phase processes responsible for high explosive detonation. Further work is necessary to extend the timescales involved in atomistic simulations. Recent work in implementing thermostat methods appropriate to shocks may promise to overcome some of these difficulties. Most current work on energetic material reactivity assumes that electronically adiabatic processes dominate. The role of excited states is becoming clearer, however. These states are not accessible in perfect crystals under realistic pressures and temperatures, but may still be accessed through defects or other energy localization mechanisms.
Date: December 3, 2003
Creator: Fried, L. E.; Manaa, M. R. & Lewis, J. P.

A multi-scale approach to molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves

Description: Study of the propagation of shock waves in condensed matter has led to new discoveries ranging from new metastable states of carbon [1] to the metallic conductivity of hydrogen in Jupiter, [2] but progress in understanding the microscopic details of shocked materials has been extremely difficult. Complications can include the unexpected formation of metastable states of matter that determine the structure, instabilities, and time-evolution of the shock wave. [1,3] The formation of these metastable states can depend on the time-dependent thermodynamic pathway that the material follows behind the shock front. Furthermore, the states of matter observed in the shock wave can depend on the timescale on which observation is made. [4,1] Significant progress in understanding these microscopic details has been made through molecular dynamics simulations using the popular non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) approach to atomistic simulation of shock compression. [5] The NEMD method involves creating a shock at one edge of a large system by assigning some atoms at the edge a fixed velocity. The shock propagates across the computational cell to the opposite side. The computational work required by NEMD scales at least quadratically in the evolution time because larger systems are needed for longer simulations to prevent the shock wave from reflecting from the edge of the computational cell and propagating back into the cell. When quantum mechanical methods with poor scaling of computational effort with system size are employed, this approach to shock simulations rapidly becomes impossible.
Date: September 3, 2004
Creator: Reed, E. J.; Fried, L. E.; Manaa, M. R. & Joannopoulos, J. D.

BRAC 2005 DoD Report MED Justification Book

Description: Major Admin and Headquarters Military Value. Relative order of value. FORT BLISS; FORT CARSON; Hurlburt Field; Shaw AFB; Peterson AFB; Saufley Field; Offutt AFB; NAVSTA ANNAPOLIS; FORT SILL; Brooks City-Base; Cannon AFB; FORT RUCKER; Robins AFB; Marine Corps Air Station Miramar; Langley AFB; FORT DETRICK; Fairchild AFB; FORT WAINWRIGHT; Wright-Patterson AFB; FORT MEADE; Kirtland AFB; Eielson AFB; Charleston AFB; FORT LEE; Eglin AFB; Naval Air Station North Island; Davis-Monthan AFB; FORT BENNING; Ellsworth AFB; Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth; Francis E. Warren AFB; Naval Air Station Whiting Field; Tyndall AFB; Vandenberg AFB; Sheppard AFB; Marine Corps Base Hawaii Kaneohe; FORT SAM HOUSTON ; Vance AFB; Barksdale AFB; FORT MONROE; Naval Station Norfolk; FORT MCNAIR; MacDill AFB; McGuire AFB; Nellis AFB; Naval Station San Diego; Joint Reserve Base New Orleans; FORT MCPHERSON; Lackland AFB; National Naval Medical Center Bethesda; Hill AFB; Naval Air Station Key West; Pope AFB
Date: June 3, 2005
Creator: United States. Department of Defense.

BRAC 2005 DoD Report MED Justification Book

Description: CANDIDATE Recommendations; Medical JCSG; COBRA REALIGNMENT SUMMARY REPORT; Candidate Recommendation #MED-0057R Brooks City Base, TX.
Date: June 3, 2005
Creator: United States. Department of Defense.