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Periodic stresses in gyroscopic bodies, with applications to air screws

Description: Report discusses periodic stresses in gyroscopic bodies with applications to air screws caused by particle mass. Report concludes that all modern air screws obey the laws found for plane groups of particles. In particular the two-bladers exert on the shaft a rhythmic gyroscopic torque; the multibladers a steady one; both easily calculable for any given conditions of motion and mass distribution.
Date: January 1, 1918
Creator: Zahm, A F

Relation of rib spacing to stress in wing planes

Description: The stress relations to the fabric and the rib consequent upon a change of spacing between ribs in a wing plane are discussed. Considering the wing plane as a static structure, and ignoring the question of aerodynamic efficiency, it appears that the unit stress in the rib and fabric will remain constant for constant p if the linear dimensions of both rib and fabric are increased alike, viz., if wing and fabric remain geometrically similar. Since the bulge and the structural dimensions remain geometrically similar, the whole distended plane remains so, and hence should have the same pressure distribution and efficiency. If therefore the Burgess rule of making the rib spacing always one-fifth of the chord of the plane be valid, it must be valid for all others that are mechanically similar in structure and covering.
Date: May 1, 1920
Creator: Zahm, A F

The six-component wind balance

Description: Dr. Zahm's report is a description of the six-component wind-tunnel balance in use at the Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard. The description of the balance gives the mechanical details and the method of operation, and is accompanied by line drawings showing the construction of the balance. The balance is of particular interest, as it allows the model to be set up quickly and accurately in roll, pitch, and yaw, without stopping the wind. It is possible to measure automatically, directly, and independently the drag, cross-wind force, and lift; also the rolling, pitching, and yawing moments. It is also possible to make the balance self-recording.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A F

Theories of flow similitude

Description: The laws of comparison of dynamically similar fluid motions are derived by three different methods based on the same principle and yielding the same or equivalent formulas. This report outlines the three current methods of comparing dynamically similar motions, more especially of fluids, initiated respectively by Newton, Stokes (or Helmholtz), and Rayleigh. These three methods, viz., the integral, the differential, and the dimensional, are enough alike to be studied profitably together. They are treated in succession then compared. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F

The vector ruling protractor

Description: The theory, structure and working of a vector slide rule is presented in this report. This instrument is used for determining a vector in magnitude and position when given its components and its moment about a point in their plane.
Date: March 1, 1924
Creator: Zahm, A F

A study of wing flutter

Description: Part I describes vibration tests, in a wind tunnel, of simple airfoils and of the tail plane of an M0-1 airplane model; it also describes the air flow about this model. From these tests are drawn inferences as to the cause and cure of aerodynamic wing vibrations. Part II derives stability criteria for wing vibrations in pitch and roll, and gives design rules to obviate instability. Part III shows how to design spars to flex equally under a given wing loading and thereby economically minimize the twisting in pitch that permits cumulative flutter. Resonant flutter is not likely to ensue from turbulence of air flow along past wings and tail planes in usual flying conditions. To be flutterproof a wing must be void of reversible autorotation and not have its centroid far aft of its pitching axis, i. e., axis of pitching motion. Danger of flutter is minimized by so proportioning the wing's torsional resisting moment to the air pitching moment at high-speed angles that the torsional flexure is always small. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F & Bear, R M

Airplane Stress Analysis

Description: Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.
Date: January 1, 1918
Creator: Zahm, A F & Crook, L H

Tables for pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

Description: In Technical Report no. 247 of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics theoretical formulas are given from which was computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. In that report, the table gave incompressible and adiabatic stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour and for some even-speed intervals in knots per hour. Table II of the present report extends the above-mentioned table by including the stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour, feet per-second, knots per hour, kilometers per hour, and meters per second. The pressure values in table II are also more exact than values given in the previous table. To furnish the aeronautical engineer with ready numerical formulas for finding the pressure of air on coming to rest, table I has been derived for the standard values specified below it. This table first presents the theoretical pressure-speed formulas and their working forms in C. G. S. Units as given in NACA Technical Report No. 247, then furnishes additional working formulas for several special units of speed. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Zahm, A F & Louden, F A

Air forces, moments and damping on model of fleet airship Shenandoah

Description: From Introduction: "To furnish data for the design of the fleet airship Shenandoah, a model was made and tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel for wind forces, moments, and damping, under conditions described in this report. The results are given for air of standard density. P=0.00237 slugs per cubic foot with vl/v correction, and with but a brief discussion of the aerodynamic design features of the airship."
Date: 1922~
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A

Drag of C-class airship hulls of various fineness ratios

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests on eight C-class airship hulls with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The purpose of the tests was to determine the variation of resistance with fineness ratio, and also to find the pressure and friction elements of the total drag for the model having the least shape coefficient. Seven C-class airship hulls with fineness ratios of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 were made and verified. These models and also the previously constructed original C-class hull, whose fineness ratio is 4.62, were then tested in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel for drag of 0 degree pitch and yaw, at various wind speeds. The original hull, which was found to have the least shape coefficient, was then tested for pressure distribution over the surface at various wind speeds. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A

Forces on elliptic cylinders in uniform air stream

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on four elliptic cylinders with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The object of the tests was to investigate the characteristics of sections suitable for streamline wire which normally has an elliptic section with a fineness ratio of 4.0; also to learn whether a reduction in fineness ratio would result in improvement; also to determine the pressure distribution on the model of fineness ratio of 4. Four elliptic cylinders with fineness ratios of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 were made and then tested in the 8 by 8 wind tunnel; first, for cross-wind force, drag, and yawing moment at 30 miles an hour and various angles of yaw; next for drag 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds; then for end effect on the smallest and largest models; and lastly for pressure distribution over the surface of the largest model at 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds. In all tests, the length of the model was transverse to the current. The results are given for standard air density, p = .002378 slug per cubic foot. This account is a slight revised form of report no. 315. A summary of conclusions is given at the end of the text. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics

Description: This report gives the pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. For the cases treated the concordance of theory and measurement is so close as to make a resume of results desirable. Incidentally formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given, some being new forms for ready use derived in a previous paper. (author).
Date: January 1, 1927
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics

Description: The pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid are calculated. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. Formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given. Pressure and pressure drag are discussed for a sphere, a round cylinder, the elliptic cylinder, the prolate and oblate spheroid, and the circular disk. The velocity and pressure in an oblique flow are examined.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. In some useful cases experimental pressures are plotted for comparison with theoretical. The pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight are calculated. General equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid are derived. Formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms are presented.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

Stability equations for airship hulls

Description: In the text are derived simple formulae for determining, directly from the data of wind tunnel tests of a model of an airship hull, what shall be the approximate character of oscillation, in pitch or yaw, of the full-scale airship when slightly disturbed from steady forward motion. (author).
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

Lift and drag effects of wing-tip rake

Description: This report deals with a description and report of tests carried out at the Washington Navy Yard on models of the RAF-6, albatross and Slone airfoils to determine the effectiveness of the conventional wing-trailing edge being always longer than the leading edge. The results are compared with the values computed by standard formulae in use at the time the tests were conducted.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A. F.; Bear, R. M. & Hill, G. C.

The drag of C class airship hull with varying length of cylindric midships

Description: A model of the C class airship hull, when severed at its major section and provided with a cylindric mid-body of variable length, had its air resistance increased about in proportion to the length of the mid-body up to 3 diameters, and in about the manner to be expected from the increase of skin friction on this variable length. For greater length the drag increased less and less rapidly.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A. F.; Smith, R. H. & Hill, G. C.

Point drag and total drag of navy struts no. 1 modified

Description: This report deals with the results of tests on struts conducted at Washington Navy Yard. Two models of the modified Navy strut, no. 1, were tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel. The tests were made to determine the total resistance end effect and the pressure distribution at various wind-tunnel speeds with the length of the strut transverse to the current. Only the measurements made at zero pitch and yaw are given in this report.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A. F.; Smith, R. H. & Hill, G. C.