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Effects of inlet icing on performance of axial-flow turbojet engine in natural icing conditions

Description: A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted to determine the effect of inlet ice formations on the performance of axial-flow turbojet engines. The results are presented for icing conditions ranging from a liquid-water content of 0.1 to 0.9 gram per cubic meter and water-droplet size from 10 to 27 microns at ambient-air temperature from 13 to 26 degrees F. The data show time histories of jet thrust, air flow, tail-pipe temperature, compressor efficiency, and icing parameters for each icing encounter. The effect of inlet-guide-vane icing was isolated and shown to account for approximately one-half the total reduction in performance caused by inlet icing.
Date: May 25, 1950
Creator: Acker, Loren W & Kleinknecht, Kenneth S

Flight Comparison of Performance and Cooling Characteristics of Exhaust-Ejector Installation with Exhaust-Collector-Ring Installation

Description: Flight and ground investigations have been made to compare an exhaust-ejector installation with a standard exhaust-collector-ring installation on air-cooled aircraft engines in a twin-engine airplane. The ground investigation allowed that, whereas the standard engine would have overheated above 600 horsepower, the engine with exhaust ejectors cooled at take-off operating conditions at zero ram. The exhaust ejectors provided as much cooling with cowl flaps closed as the conventional cowl flaps induced when full open at low airspeeds. The propulsive thrust of the exhaust-ejector installation was calculated to be slightly less than the thrust of the collector-ring-installation.
Date: February 14, 1947
Creator: Acker, Loren W. & Kleinknecht, Kenneth S.

Tests of a Horizontal-Tail Model through the Transonic Speed Range by the NACA Wing-Flow Method

Description: A 1/12-scale model of a horizontal tail of a fighter airplane was tested through the transonic speeds in the high-speed flow over an airplane wing, the surface of which served as a reflection plane for the model. Measurements of lift, elevator-hinge moment, angle of attack, and elevator angle were made in the Mach number range from 0.75 to 1.04 for elevator deflections ranging from 10 degrees to minus 10 degrees, and for angles of attack of minus 1.2 degrees, 0.4 degrees, and 3.4 degrees. The equipment used to measure the hinge moments of the model proved to be unsatisfactory, and for this reason the hinge-moment data are considered to be only qualitative.
Date: April 11, 1947
Creator: Adams, Richard E. & Silsby, Norman S.

Investigation of Downwash, Sidewash, and Mach Number Distribution behind a Rectangular Wing at a Mach Number of 2.41

Description: An investigation of the nature of the flow field behind a rectangular circular-arc wing has been conducted in the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Pitot- and static-pressure surveys covering a region of flow behind the wing have been made together with detailed pitot surveys throughout the region of the wake. In addition, the flow direction has been measured using a weathercocking vane measurements. Theoretical calculations of the variation of both downwash and sidewash with angle of attack using Lagerstrom's superposition method have been made. In addition the effect of the wing thickness on the sidewash with the wing at 0 angle of attack has been evaluated. Near an angle of attack of 0, agreement between theory and experiment is good, particularly for the downwash results, except in the plane of the wing, inboard of the tip. In this region the proximity of the shed vortex sheet and the departure of the spanwise distribution of vorticity from theory would account for the disagreement. At higher angles of attack prediction of downwash depends on a knowledge of the location of the trailing vortex sheet, in order that the downwash may be corrected for its displacement and distortion. The theoretical location of the trailing vortex sheet, based on the theoretical downwash values integrated downstream from the wing trailing edge, is shown to differ widely from the experimental case. The rolling-up of the trailing vortex sheet behind the wing tip is evidenced by both the wake surveys and the flow-angle measurements.
Date: September 14, 1950
Creator: Adamson, D. & Boatright, William B.

Strain-Gage Measurements of Buffeting Loads on a Jet-Powered Bomber Airplane

Description: Buffet boundaries, buffeting-load increments for the stabilizers and elevators, and buffeting bending-moment increments for the stabilizers and wings as measured in gradual maneuvers for a jet-powered bomber airplane are presented. The buffeting-load increments were determined from strain-gage measurements at the roots or hinge supports of the various surfaces considered. The Mach numbers of the tests ranged from 0.19 to 0.78 at altitudes close to 30,000 feet. The predominant buffet frequencies were close to the natural frequencies of the structural components. The buffeting-load data, when extrapolated to low-altitude conditions, indicated loads on the elevators and stabilizers near the design limit loads. When the airplane was held in buffeting, the load increments were larger than when recovery was made immediately.
Date: March 19, 1951
Creator: Aiken, William S., Jr. & See, John A.

Flight Investigation to Determine the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Rocket-Powered Models Representative of a Fighter-Type Airplane Configuration Incorporating an Inverse-Taper Wing and a Vee Tail

Description: Two rocket-powered models representative of a fighter-type airplane were investigated in flight at Mach numbers up to 1.01 and 1.07 by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at its testing station at Wallops Island, Va. These models incorporated an inverse-taper wing and a vee tail and were flown with controls undeflected and wing and stabilizer set at 0 deg incidence. Values of lateral acceleration, normal acceleration velocity, and drag were obtained by use of telemeters and a Doppler velocimeter radar unit. The results of this investigation indicated no unusual variation in the lateral acceleration characteristics. After the cessation of powered flight, the lateral oscillation quickly damped to zero. The data indicated that the airplane, at low lift coefficients, should not experience any abrupt trim changes until it attains a Mach number of 0.97. The change in normal-force coefficient associated with this trim change will amount to about 0.03 with the center of gravity located at 4.48% of the mean aerodynamic chord. At higher lift coefficients, on the basis of other data, the Mach number at which this trim change occurs would be expected to be decreased. The neutral point of the model at Mach numbers near 1.05 was estimated to fall at 45% of the mean aerodynamic chord, assuming a lift-curve slope of 0.05. A value of the static-directional-stability parameter dCn/d(psi) of approximately -0.002 was estimated for a Mach number of 0.93. The values of drag coefficient obtained from both model flights were in a good comparative agreement. The highest drag coefficient occurred at a Mach number of 1.01 and was equal to 0.044.
Date: November 2, 1948
Creator: Alexander, Sidney R.

Results of Tests to Determine the Effect of a Conical Windshield on the Drag of a Bluff Body at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Tests to evaluate the effect of a conical windshield on the drag of a bluff body at supersonic speeds were performed for the following configurations: a sharp nose fuselage with stabilizing fins,a blunt nose fuselage with a hemispherical shape, and a blunt nose fuselage with a conical point. Results of the drag coeeficient are described at Mach 1.0 and the greatest Mach number of 1.37.
Date: January 14, 1947
Creator: Alexander, Sidney R.

Flight Tests to Determine the Effect of Length of a Conical Windshield on the Drag of a Bluff Body at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Flight tests were conducted to determine the effect of length of a conical windshield on the drag of a bluff body moving at supersonic speeds. A comparison is made between results obtained and results of previous drag tests of body-windshield combinations.The effect of increasing the length of the windshield is discussed.
Date: January 29, 1947
Creator: Alexander, Sidney R. & Katz, Ellis