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Aerodynamic Heat-Power Engine Operating on a Closed Cycle

Description: Hot-air engines with dynamic compressors and turbines offer new prospects of success through utilization of units of high efficiencies and through the employment of modern materials of great strength at high temperature. Particular consideration is given to an aerodynamic prime mover operating on a closed circuit and heated externally. Increase of the pressure level of the circulating air permits a great increase of limit load of the unit. This also affords a possibility of regulation for which the internal efficiency of the unit changes but slightly. The effect of pressure and temperature losses is investigated. A general discussion is given of the experimental installation operating at the Escher Wyss plant in Zurich for a considerable time at high temperatures.
Date: November 1942
Creator: Ackeret, J. & Keller, D. C.
Item Type: Report

Investigations of Compression Shocks and Boundary Layers in Gases Moving at High Speed

Description: The mutual influences of compression shocks and friction boundary layers were investigated by means of high speed wind tunnels.Schlieren optics provided a clear picture of the flow phenomena and were used for determining the location of the compression shocks, measurement of shock angles, and also for Mach angles. Pressure measurement and humidity measurements were also taken into consideration.Results along with a mathematical model are described.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Ackeret, J.; Feldmann, F. & Rott, N.
Item Type: Report

Experiments with an airfoil from which the boundary layer is removed by suction

Description: Our attempts to improve the properties of airfoils by removing the boundary layer by suction, go back to 1922. The object of the suction is chiefly to prevent the detachment of the boundary layer from the surface of the airfoil. At large angles of attack, such detachment prevents the attainment of the great lift promised by the theory, besides greatly increasing the drag, especially of thick airfoils. This report gives results of those experiments.
Date: August 1926
Creator: Ackeret, J; Betz, A & Schrenk, O
Item Type: Report

Investigations on wings with and without sweepback at high subsonic speeds

Description: Drag tests at zero lift have been made at Mach numbers from 0.7 to approximately 0.95 in the high speed wind tunnel of the Institute of Aerodynamics, ETH, Zurich, on a group of untapered wings of aspect ratio 3.25, having sweep angles of 0 degree and 35 degrees. For each sweep angle, a series of geometrically similar models was tested at a constant Reynolds number to provide a verification of computed tunnel blocking corrections. Tests were also made for wings having thickness ratios of 0.09 and 0.12 and the results compared with results predicted by von Karman's similarity law.
Date: November 1, 1951
Creator: Ackeret, Jakob; Rott, Nikolaus & Degen, Max
Item Type: Report

The Magnus effect in theory and in reality

Description: A discussion of the Flettner rotor is presented from a nautical and economic viewpoint, and although it was a failure, the experimental and theoretical inventions cannot be disregarded. The following critical and experimental investigation will show the relations and applicability of the theories and practical applications. The Magnus effect is described in detail and a discussion and critical review of the Magnus effect is included.
Date: May 1, 1930
Creator: Ahlborn, F
Item Type: Report

Turbulence and mechanism of resistance on spheres and cylinders

Description: The nature of turbulent flow through pipes and around obstacles is analyzed and illustrated by photographs of turbulence on screens and straighteners. It is shown that the reversal of flow and of the resistance law on spheres is not explainable by Prandtl's turbulence in the boundary layer. The investigation of the analogous phenomena on the cylinder yields a reversal of the total field of flow. The very pronounced changes in pressure distribution connected with it were affirmed by manometric measurements on spheres by Professor O. Krell. The reversal in a homogenous nonvortical flow is brought about by the advance of the stable arrangement of Karman's dead air vortices toward the test object and by the substitution of an alternatingly one-sided or rotating but stable vortex formation in place of the initially symmetrical formation. This also explains the marked variations of the models.
Date: January 1932
Creator: Ahlborn, FR
Item Type: Report

Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

Description: Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.
Date: October 1, 1924
Creator: Alt, Otto
Item Type: Report

On the Calculation of Shallow Shells

Description: This paper considers a sufficiently thin shallow shell of nonzero Gaussian curvature. It also presents a system of symmetrically constructed differential equations, constructed by the mixed method through the stress function and the displpacement function.
Date: December 1, 1956
Creator: Ambartsumyan, S. A.
Item Type: Report

On the Theory of Anisotropic Shallow Shells

Description: A numerical analysis of thin-walled shallow shells is presented. Equations of equilibrium and relations between deformations and stresses are included along with fundamental differential equations.
Date: December 1, 1956
Creator: Ambartsumyan, S. A.
Item Type: Report

Calculation of tapered monoplane wings

Description: The tapered wing shape increases the lift in the middle of the wing and thus reduces the bending moment of the lifting forces in the plane of symmetry. Since this portion of the wing is the thickest, the stresses of the wing material are reduced and desirable space is provided for stowing the loads in the wing. This statically excellent form of construction, however, has aerodynamic disadvantages which must be carefully weighed, if failures are to be avoided. This treatise is devoted to the consideration of these problems.
Date: August 1, 1930
Creator: Amstutz, E
Item Type: Report

Airplane stability in taxying

Description: The stability analysis of an airplane while rolling is much more simplified to the extent that it can be obtained for numerical data which can be put to practical use in the design of landing gear dimensions. Every landing gear type attains to a critical ground friction coefficient that decides the beginning of instability, i.e., nosing over. This study has, in addition, a certain interest for the use of wheel brakes.
Date: September 1, 1932
Creator: Anderlik, E
Item Type: Report

Experiments on autorotation

Description: This article deals principally with Professor Bairstow's experiments on autorotation, in which the wing is free to rotate about an axis in its plane of symmetry, which axis is parallel with the direction of the wind.
Date: September 1, 1926
Creator: Anderlik, E
Item Type: Report

Formation of a vortex at the edge of a plate

Description: The flow about the plate of infinite width may be represented as a potential flow with discontinuity surfaces which extend from the plate edges. For prescribed form and vortex distribution of the discontinuity surfaces, the velocity field may be calculated by means of a conformal representation. One condition is that the velocity at the plate edges must be finite. However, it is not sufficient for determination of the form and vortex distribution of the surface. However, on the basis of a similitude requirement one succeeds in finding a solution of this problem for the plate of infinite width which is correct for the very beginning of the motion of the fluid. Starting from this solution, the further development of the vortex distribution and shape of the surface are observed in the case of a plate of finite width.
Date: March 1, 1956
Creator: Anton, Leo
Item Type: Report

The stresses in columns under combined axial and side loads

Description: The problem before us is to determine the total stresses in an axially loaded column of any degree of restraint which is also subject to transverse bending both from a uniformly distributed load and from concentrated loads.
Date: July 1, 1922
Creator: Arnstein, Karl
Item Type: Report

Investigation of certain wing shapes with sections varying progressively along the span

Description: This investigation has a double object: 1) the calculation of the general characteristics of certain wings with progressively varying sections; 2) the determination of data furnishing, in certain cases, some information on the actual distribution of the external forces acting on a wing. We shall try to show certain advantages belonging to the few wing types of variable section which we shall study and that, even if the general aerodynamic coefficients of these wings are not often clearly superior to those of certain wings of uniform section, the wings of variable section nevertheless have certain advantages over those of uniform section in the distribution of the attainable stresses.
Date: April 1, 1931
Creator: Arsandaux, L
Item Type: Report

Some principles governing the establishment of meteorological stations along air routes

Description: The organization of a meteorological service for an air route involves the solution of two distinct problems: distribution and grouping of meteorological stations and communications. Experience gained in the establishment of two lines, Paris-Warsaw and Constantinople-Bucharest enables us to establish certain principles, which may be of interest to note here.
Date: March 1, 1922
Creator: Aujames, P
Item Type: Report

Determination of the elastic constants of airplane tires

Description: For determination of the elastic constants of airplane tires which are required for the numerical calculations of the shimmy properties of nose and tail wheels, deformation measurements were carried out on four different tires. For this purpose, the tires were loaded in each case with a normal load and then with a lateral force, a tangential force, and a moment. Moreover, the weight and the mass moment of inertia about a vertical axis were determined for the various tires.
Date: November 1, 1954
Creator: BOECKH
Item Type: Report

The "Universal propeller": built by Paragon Engineers, Inc., Baltimore, Md

Description: At the request of the N.A.C.A. the "Universal Propeller" was operated and explained by the inventor, Mr. Spencer Heath, for the purpose of demonstrating the following features of design: 1) Elimination of continuously running gears, collars or bearings in the pitch control mechanism; 2) The use of engine power in place of manual labor in changing blade angle; 3) The absence of any structural limitation to the range of blade angles available and the possibility of limiting the blade travel between any two predetermined extreme positions; 4) Continuous indication on the instrument board of the blade position; 5) Automatic throttling of the engine while the propeller is passing through the position of neutral pitch.
Date: March 1, 1922
Creator: Bacon, David L
Item Type: Report

Measurements on a low-wing model in the rotating jet and comparison with flight measurements

Description: The present report deals with six-component measurements in the small tunnel of the DVL on a model of the BFW-M 27b(sub 1), which were made to determine the effect of rolling and yawing on the air forces and moments. The wind was given a spiral motion by means of a rotating screen, the model being suspended in the conventional manner.
Date: September 1, 1939
Creator: Bader, W
Item Type: Report