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Transducer Signal Noise Analysis for Sensor Authentication

Description: The abstract is being passed through STIMS for submision to the conference. International safeguards organizations charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy employ unattended and remote monitoring systems supplemented with onsite inspections to ensure nuclear materials are not diverted for weaponization purposes. These systems are left unattended for periods of several months between inspections. During these periods physical security means are the main deterrent used to detect intentional monitoring system tampering. The information gathering components are locked in secure and sealed rooms. The sensor components (i.e. neutron and gamma detectors) are located throughout the plant in unsecure areas where sensor tampering could take place during the periods between inspections. Sensor tampering could allow the diversion of nuclear materials from the accepted and intended use to uses not consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear energy. A method and an apparatus is presented that address the detection of sensor tampering during the periods between inspections. It was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the IAEA. The method is based on the detailed analysis of the sensor noise floor after the sensor signal is removed. The apparatus consists of a 2.1” x 2.6” electronic circuit board containing all signal conditioning and processing components and a laptop computer running an application that acquires and stores the analysis results between inspection periods. The sensors do not require any modification and are remotely located in their normal high radiation zones. The apparatus interfaces with the sensor signal conductors using a simple pass through connector at the normal sensor electronics interface package located in the already secure and sealed rooms. The apparatus does not require hardening against the effects of radiation due to its location. Presented is the apparatus design, the analysis method, and ...
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: (043887), John M. Svoboda & Schanfein, Mark J.

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

Description: The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: (HCTT-CHE), ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site

Description: Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is ...
Date: February 24, 2013
Creator: (NFO), Scott A. Wade; (NFO), Kathryn S. Knapp & (NSTec), Cathy A. Wills

U.S. Department of Energy Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD) A model for internal oversight and external transparency

Description: This poster introduces the Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD), which contains information on all Department of Energy research projects involving human subjects that: are funded by DOE; are conducted in DOE facilities; are performed by DOE personnel; include current or former DOE or contract personnel.
Date: December 12, 2012
Creator: (ORISE), Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

RTE1, A Novel Regulator of Ethylene Receptor Function

Description: RTE1 is a novel conserved gene found in both plants and animals. The main aims of this project were to: 1) examine Arabidopsis RTE1 function using genetic and cell biological analyses, and 2) determine whether the Arabidopsis RTH gene plays a role similar to that of RTE1 in ethylene signaling.
Date: February 5, 2013
Creator: (PI), Caren Chang

DOE-ER-46139-Phase II-Final-Report-Tritt-2011

Description: This proposal emphasizes investigations of the thermal and electrical transport properties of new and novel solid-state materials, with the specific goal of achieving higher efficiency solid-state thermoelectric materials. This program will continue to build a very strong collaborative research effort between researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL) and Clemson University. We propose three new faculty hires and major equipment purchases in order to further enhance our level of national recognition. We will be positioned for competition for major non-EPSCoR DOE and DOD funding (i.e. NSF-Materials Research Center) and able to address many other areas of DOE and national importance. Graduate and undergraduate students will be extensively involved in this project, spending significant time at ORNL, thus gaining important training and educational opportunities. We will also include an outreach program to bring in outside students and faculty. An External Advisory Board of distinguished scientists will provide oversight to the program.
Date: October 21, 2011
Creator: (PI), Terry M. Tritt

Closeout of Advanced Boron and Metal Loaded High Porosity Carbons.

Description: The Penn State effort explored the development of new high-surface-area materials for hydrogen storage, materials that could offer enhancement in the hydrogen binding energy through a direct chemical modification of the framework in high specific-surface-area platforms. The team chemically substituted boron into the hexagonal sp2 carbon framework, dispersed metal atoms bound to the boro-carbon structure, and generated the theory of novel nanoscale geometries that can enhance storage through chemical frustration, sheet curvature, electron deficiency, large local fields and mixed hybridization states. New boro-carbon materials were synthesized by high temperature plasma, pyrolysis of boron-carbon precursor molecules, and post-synthesis modification of carbons. Hydrogen uptake has been assessed, and several promising leads have been identified, with the requirement to simultaneously optimize total surface area while maintaining the enhanced hydrogen binding energies already demonstrated.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: (deceased), Peter C. Eklund; Chung, T. C. Mike; Foley, Henry C. & Crespi, Vincent H.

Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

Description: In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: ,

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

Description: This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.
Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: ,

Saturation and Dynamic Range of Microchannel Plate-Based X-Ray Imagers

Description: This paper describes recent advances in Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP)–based x-ray detectors, a continuation of ongoing work in this area. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed over the past several years by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The model simulates the secondary electron emission process in an MCP pore and includes the effects of gain saturation. In this work we focus on MCP gain saturation and dynamic range. We have performed modeling and experimental characterizations of L/D = 46, 10-micron diameter, MCP-based detectors. The detectors are typically operated by applying a subnanosecond voltage pulse, which gates the detector on. Agreement between the simulations and experiment is very good for a variety of voltage pulse waveforms ranging in width from 150 to 300 ps. The results indicate that such an MCP begins to show nonlinear gain around 5 × 10^4 electrons per pore and hard saturation around 105 electrons per pore. The simulations show a difference in MCP sensitivity vs voltage for high flux of photons producing large numbers of photoelectrons on a subpicosecond timescale. Simulations and experiments both indicate an MCP dynamic range of 1 to 10,000, and the dynamic range depends on how the voltage is applied.
Date: May 4, 2012
Creator: ,

Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2012 Annual Report

Description: The reports included in this report are for project activities that occurred from October 2011 through September 2012. These reports describe in detail the discoveries, achievements, and challenges encountered by our talented and enthusiastic principal investigators (PIs). Many of the reports describe R&D efforts that were “successful” in their pursuits and resulted in a positive outcome or technology realization. As we’ve stated before, and continue to stress, in some cases the result is a “negative” finding, for instance a technology is currently impractical or out of reach. This can often be viewed erroneously as a “failure,” but is actually a valid outcome in the pursuit of high-risk research, which often leads to unforeseen new paths of discovery. Either result advances our knowledge and increases our ability to identify solutions and/or likewise avoid costly paths not appropriate for the challenges presented. The SDRD program continues to provide an unfettered mechanism for innovation and development that returns multifold to the NNSS mission. Overall the program is a strong R&D innovation engine, benefited by an enhanced mission, committed resources, and sound competitiveness to yield maximum benefit. The 23 projects described exemplify the creativity and ability of a diverse scientific and engineering talent base. The efforts also showcase an impressive capability and resource that can be brought to find solutions to a broad array of technology needs and applications relevant to the NNSS mission and national security.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: ,

Search for New Heavy Particles Decaying to Z0 Z0 to llll, lljj in p pbar Collisions at Sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

Description: We report on a search for anomalous production of Z pairs through a massive resonance decay in data corresponding to 2.5-2.9 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. This analysis, with more data and channels where the Z bosons decay to muons or jets, supersedes the 1.1 fb{sup -1} four-electron channel result previously published by CDF. In order to maintain high efficiency for muons, we use a new forward tracking algorithm and muon identification requirements optimized for these high signal-to-background channels. Predicting the dominant backgrounds in each channel entirely from sideband data samples, we observe four-body invariant mass spectra above 300 GeV/c{sup 2} that are consistent with background. We set limits using the acceptance for a massive graviton resonance that are 7-20 times stronger than the previously published direct limits on resonant ZZ production.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: , & Aaltonen, T.

Technical Report

Description: The 2011 World Materials Summit, held on 10/9-12/2011 in Washington DC, provided a forum for top decision makers and energy experts from aropund the world to focus on the materials research needs for the growing energy economy. Organized jointly by the Materials Research Society (MRS), the European MRS (E-MRS), and the Chinese MRS (C-MRS), the goal of the Summit was to explore how the different regions of the world can work together on the critical issue of clean energy, including its relation to environmental sustainability and water. The participants considered the area of materials research as well as advocacy, economics, outreach, and education. Realizing that the concerns are long-term and that young players will ultimately be the ones who are going to need to solve the energy challenges, the chairs of the Summit inaugurated a Student Congress, a program for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in fields directly related to energy and environmental science, engineering, and/or policy. The top 45 candidates coming from 18 countries were selected on a competititve basis to participate in the Student Congress. The four-day effort culminated in a 2011 Worlds Materials Summit Declaration delineating materials directions related to global access to clean energy and water in a sustainable way.
Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: ,; , & ,

Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

Description: This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.
Date: February 16, 2013
Creator: ., Heiser

A Second Look at Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis as a Spent Fuel NDA Technique

Description: Many different nondestructive analysis techniques are currently being investigated as a part of the United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) seeking methods to quantify plutonium in spent fuel. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) is one of these techniques. Having first been explored in the mid-1970s for the analysis of individual spent-fuel pins a second look, using advanced simulation and modeling methods, is now underway to investigate the suitability of the NRTA technique for assaying complete spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The technique is similar to neutron time-of-flight methods used for cross-section determinations but operates over only the narrow 0.1-20 eV range where strong, distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239, 240, 241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Initial modeling shows excellent agreement with previously published experimental data for measurements of individual spent-fuel pins where plutonium assays were demonstrated to have a precision of 2-4%. Within the simulation and modeling analyses of this project scoping studies have explored fourteen different aspects of the technique including the neutron source, drift tube configurations, and gross neutron transmission as well as the impacts of fuel burn up, cooling time, and fission-product interferences. These results show that NRTA may be a very capable experimental technique for spent-fuel assay measurements. The results suggest sufficient transmission strength and signal differentiability is possible for assays through up to 8 pins. For an 8-pin assay (looking at an assembly diagonally), 64% of the pins in a typical 17 ? 17 array of a pressurized water reactor fuel assembly can be part of a complete transmission assay measurement with high precision. Analysis ...
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: .Sterbentz, James W & Chichester, David L.

Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

Description: The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.
Date: March 14, 2012
Creator: 0812, Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768

Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about a new program for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (project title "Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics") including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet is the first open solicitation, announcing funding opportunities for involvement in the project.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: 1366 Technologies, Inc.

Optimization of the Configuration of Pixilated Detectors Based on the Sgabbib-Nyquist Theory for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Tokamak Plasmas

Description: This paper describes an optimization of the detector configuration, based on the Shannon-Nyquist theory, for two major x-ray diagnostic systems on tokamaks and stellarators: x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers and x-ray pinhole cameras. Typically, the spectral data recorded with pixilated detectors are oversampled, meaning that the same spectral information could be obtained using fewer pixels. Using experimental data from Alcator C-Mod, we quantify the degree of oversampling and propose alternate uses for the redundant pixels for additional diagnostic applications.
Date: August 9, 2012
Creator: : E. Wang, P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, L.F. Delgado-Apricio, K.W. Hill and N. Pablant