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Motor Challenge: Improving Efficiency of Tube Drawing Bench Reduces Energy Use by 34%
The case study reveals how a manufacturer of high-precision, small-diameter steel tubing has reduced energy consumption and realized considerable electrical, labor, and materials cost savings with a more energy-efficient motor.
Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Financial Assistance Brochure
In today's competitive world markets, the success of U.S. industry hinges on technological advances. Financial Assistance helps technology innovators develop and deliver clean, energy-saving technologies to the marketplace. Two Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) programs Inventions and Innovation and NICE3 provide independent inventors, technology developers, and industry with easy access to a flexible package of services. Together, these programs issue 35 to 40 new grants each year to address pressing energy and environmental issues. Financial Assistance focuses specifically on technologies that can potentially improve energy efficiency, reduce wastes, and enhance productivity.
Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Technical Assistance Brochure
The Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Technical Assistance Program provides the tools and assistance to help manufacturers identify their best energy-efficient, pollution-preventing options, from a systems and life-cycle cost approach. Technical Assistance focuses on five key opportunities for energy efficiency and waste reduction: electric motors, steam, compressed air, combined heat and power, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs). By promoting the use of available technologies, Technical Assistance helps industry immediately impact its bottom-line performance and build its position in global markets.
OIT fact sheet: Tools and information
The US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) provides a one-stop-shop information clearinghouse that manufacturers can use to help make their businesses more productive, competitive, and efficient. The fact sheet describes these sources of information, which include software and databases, a technical newsletter, technical publications, and access to a comprehensive Web site that lists OIT programs, training opportunities, and links to other pertinent sites.
Petroleum--Project Fact Sheet: A Motor Challenge Success Story
By upgrading its motor systems at its Richmond, California, refinery, Chevron was able to realize cost savings of more than $700,000 per year, in addition to reduced energy consumption of approximately 1 million kilowatts per month and improved equipment reliability and process control. Order this fact sheet to find out how they did it.
Plant assistance: OIT plant assistance helps you help yourself: Office of Industrial Technologies technical assistance fact sheet
This OIT fact sheet describes how your company can realize savings in its electric motor, compressed air, and steam systems, in the form of reduced electrical bills and improved efficiency.
Steel: Energy-Efficient Arc Furnace Dust into Saleable Chemical Products
Drinkard Metalox, Inc., has developed an innovative new technology to completely process electric arc furnace dust into saleable products by means of a hydro metallurgical process. Order this fact sheet to read how this new technology can both lower energy costs and eliminate the need to dispose of and transport hazardous waste off site.
Steel: Energy-Efficient Process for Hot-Dip Batch Galvanizing
This fact sheet describes a new lead-free batch technology that will significantly improve on the galvanizing process. Productivity increases of as much as 30% and significantly reduced energy costs may accrue.
Steel: Reducing BOF Hood Scrubber Energy Costs at a Steel Mill (Technical Case Study)
This OIT Technical Case Study reveals how Bethlehem Steel Corporation, by installing a variable-frequency drive and making associated equipment modifications, was able to save energy, reduce operational costs, and decrease system maintenance.
Steel: Steel Reheating for Further Processing
Oxy-fuel combustion burners have the potential to reduce energy consumption by as much as 45% per ton of steel. Order this fact sheet and read about the many other benefits of this exciting new process.
Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training
Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization.
Energy Matters, July 1999
This issue of Energy Matters focuses on selling an energy-efficient project to management. There are also articles on combined heat and power systems, inspecting steam traps for efficient system, root cause failure analysis on AC induction motors, and performance optimization tips.
Ford F-250 Fact Sheet: Bi-fuel propane pickup
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. A 1999 F-250 bi-fuel propane pickup was run through a series of tests while operating on LPB and gasoline. The tests are explained briefly in this fact sheet.
Ford F250 Dedicated CNG Pickup
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford F-250 pickups: one dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) model and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise.
Ford Taurus Ethanol-Fueled Sedan
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford Tauruses: one E85 (85% gasoline/15% ethanol) model (which was tested on both E85 and gasoline) and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise.
SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Start-Up Experience
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with several industry partners, are collaborating with SuperShuttle of Denver, Colorado, to evaluate natural gas vans added to the SuperShuttle fleet in 1999. Brand new (1999 model year) dedicated and bi-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG) vans manufactured by Ford Motor Company will be operated side-by-side with several similar gasoline vehicles in normal revenue service. Once the study is complete, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will analyze and compile the results for release.
Clean Cities Case Study: UPS delivers with Alternative Fuels
In the fall of 1994, the UPS fleet in Landover, Maryland, began operating 20 vehicles on CNG. UPS selected CNG because natural gas is an abundant domestic resource that is available in almost every city in the US, and it also generally costs less than other fuels. The UPS project, funded by DOE through NREL and managed by TRI, was designed to test the feasibility of using CNG in a medium-duty pick-up and delivery fleet. This study is intended only to illustrate approaches that organizations could use in adopting AFVs into their fleets.
Chemical characterization of aerosol particles by laser Raman spectroscopy. Revision
The importance of aerosol particles in many branches of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, combustion, interfacial science, and material processing, has been steadily growing during the past decades. One of the unique properties of these particles is the very high surface-to-volume ratios, thus making them readily serve as centers for gas-phase condensation and heterogeneous reactions. These particles must be characterized by size, shape, physical state, and chemical composition. Traditionally, optical elastic scattering has been applied to obtain the physical properties of these particle (e.g., particle size, size distribution, and particle density). These physical properties are particularly important in atmospheric science as they govern the distribution and transport of atmospheric aerosols.
Rethinking the role of nuclear weapons.
Discusses the changing role of nuclear weapons in the post-Cold-War era in the United States.
Common Sense Government: Works Better and Costs Less
The National Performance Review is about change---historic change---in the way the government works. As the title makes clear, the National Performance Review is about moving from red tape to results to create a government that works better and costs less. This third report of the National Performance Review describes the impact of reinvention on the American people and their government and presents more than 300 new recommendations. The National Performance Review focused primarily on how government should work, not on what it should do. On September 7, 1995, Vice President Al Gore and the National Performance Review released their third report, two years after the first report, From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less.
High Energy Physics Particle Detector Magnets
No Description Available.
Relativistic effects and relativistic methods
In the past, the vast majority of nuclear physics calculations were carried out using nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Relativistic effects were usually regarded as small corrections, primarily kinematic in origin. However, as understanding of hadronic matter has developed, and as high energy accelerators capable of probing hadronic systems to very high momenta become available, interest in relativistic methods has grown and theoretical techniques have matured. Until the early 1980's, most research was centered on methods for computing relativistic corrections to calculations which are essentially non-relativistic. The idea was to find corrections to lowest order in (v/c){sup 2}, where v is a typical particle velocity regarded as small compared to nuclear energies and masses. Recent work goes far beyond such expansion methods. Fully covariant approaches, in which the dynamics is closely connected to field theory, are now being developed.
BTS Case Study: The Galloway Family Home
Case study of an energy-efficient Habitat for Humanity house that uses 30% less energy than conventional residential construction. The project was part of the Jimmy Carter Work Project in rural Appalachia in 1997.
Cooperative Efforts Raise Building Energy Codes and Appliance Standards
An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards programs to establish minimum efficiency codes, standards, and guidelines for reduced energy use and lower operating costs in U.S. building components.
Energy Efficiency Pays
A fact sheet explaining the technology and benefits of energy efficient residential construction using the ''whole building'' approach.
Energy Star Partnerships Generate Powerful Savings at Home and at Work
An overview of the Energy Star program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency
Rebuilding America - One Community at a Time
An overview of the voluntary network of community partnerships joined with the US Department of Energy to improve the energy efficiency of their communities buildings.
State and Local Partnerships Accelerate the Use of New Energy Technologies
An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of State and Community Programs activities and partnership approaches.
Whole House Fan
An informational fact sheet about the energy-cost benefits of a whole house fan, installation tips, and selection criteria.
Measurement and modeling of shortwave irradiance components in cloud-free atmospheres
Atmosphere scatters and absorbs incident solar radiation modifying its spectral content and decreasing its intensity at the surface. It is very useful to classify the earth-atmospheric solar radiation into several components--direct solar surface irradiance (E{sub direct}), diffuse-sky downward surface irradiance (E{sub diffuse}), total surface irradiance, and upwelling flux at the surface and at the top-of-the atmosphere. E{sub direct} depends only on the extinction properties of the atmosphere without regard to details of extinction, namely scattering or absorption; furthermore it can be accurately measured to high accuracy (0.3%) with the aid of an active cavity radiometer (ACR). E{sub diffuse} has relatively larger uncertainties both in its measurement using shaded pyranometers and in model estimates, owing to the difficulty in accurately characterizing pyranometers and in measuring model inputs such as surface reflectance, aerosol single scattering albedo, and phase function. Radiative transfer model simulations of the above surface radiation components in cloud-free skies using measured atmospheric properties show that while E{sub direct} estimates are closer to measurements, E{sub diffuse} is overestimated by an amount larger than the combined uncertainties in model inputs and measurements, illustrating a fundamental gap in the understanding of the magnitude of atmospheric absorption in cloud-free skies. The excess continuum type absorption required to reduce the E{sub diffuse} model overestimate ({approximately}3--8% absorptance) would significantly impact climate prediction and remote sensing. It is not clear at present what the source for this continuum absorption is. Here issues related to measurements and modeling of the surface irradiance components are discussed.
Pulte homes - Las Vegas, Nevada: Cost-saving system trade-offs for hot, dry climates: Building America fact sheet
Building America houses in Las Vegas, Nevada, are using state-of-the-art building materials and systems to provide residents with much lower energy bills than standard construction. The houses use unvented roofs, high-performance windows, and combo domestic hot-water and air-conditioning units.
Effects of Oil and Gas Development: A Current Awareness Bibliography
Cumulative bibliography of documents published between 1995 and 1997 regarding oil and gas research in five major topic areas: biology, chemistry/geochemistry/geology, engineering/physics, environment/ecosystem management/spills, and socioeconomic/regulation/general.
Surface Reactions Studied by Synchrotron Based Photoelectron Spectroscopy
The goal of this article is to illustrate the use of synchrotron radiation for investigating surface chemical reactions by photoelectron spectroscopy. A brief introduction and background information is followed by examples of layer resolved spectroscopy, oxidation and sulfidation of metallic, semiconducting and oxide surfaces.
Synchrotron sources
Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of electromagnetic radiation extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. Brightness, defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle, is normally a more important quantity than flux or intensity, particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. The authors have attempted to compile the formulae needed to calculate the flux, brightness, polarization and power produced by the three standard storage ring synchrotron radiation sources: bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Where necessary, these formulae have contained reference to the emittance of the electron beam, as well as to the electron beam size and its divergence. For all three type sources, the source phase space area, i.e. the spatial and angular extent of the effective (real) source, is a convolution of its electron and photon components.
Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)
Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.
Emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture and food manufacturing -- A summary white paper
This paper summarizes the current scientific and technological knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from various agricultural practices and the manufacturing of food. The study also provides estimates that compare agriculture-related alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Biomass cofiring: A renewable alternative for utilities and their customers
Cofiring biomass with coal has environmental advantages, including reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and acid rain precursors such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Over the last decade, electric utilities across the country have implemented biomass cofiring in demonstrations and in commercial operations. As a result of this experience, information is now available on the technical and economic performance of cofiring biomass with coal.
The Vermont Gasifier
A new demonstration biomass gasifier in Burlington, Vermont, is a major advance toward biopower systems of the 21st century. The purpose of the project is to verify design and operating characteristics of this gasification technology at an intermediate size. The Vermont gasifier is rated at 200 tons of biomass per day. The demonstration will allow further scale-up to a first-of-its-kind commercial gasifier to be demonstrated in the future at an industrial or utility scale.
Communities of the Future: Energy Programs for Livable Communities
This document relates how several of the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) programs help communities across the nation deal with the issues of livability and sustainable growth. Highlights include background information on renewable energy technologies, some outstanding program anecdotes, and regional and Internet contact information.
Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences
A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data ...
Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)
Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It ...
Biofuels News, Fall 1998, Vol. 1, No. 4
This issue of the Biofuels News focuses on a new industry in renewable transportation fuel. BC International (BCI) became the first company to dedicate a facility to produce ethanol from agricultural residues. Also, featured is an article on the potential of switchgrass as an energy crop.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Atlanta
The Atlanta Clean City was the first to join the program in 1993, and has been successfully spreading the word about the benefits of alternative fuels ever since. They have already surpassed their year 2000 goal of operating more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 30 stakeholders continue to help spur the Atlanta AFV market development by implementing innovative alternative fuel projects. Stakeholders actively support legislation that encourages the use of AFVs and sponsor workshops on advancing the choice.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Chicago
The Chicago area coalition marks its five-year anniversary in 1999 as a member of the Clean Cities Program. Their progress in the last five years has been remarkable as they advance the alternative fuel and vehicle markets, increase coalition membership, help support new alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) legislation, and educate fleet managers. The coalition boasts more than 90 stakeholders, including industry, government, environmental and academic organizations, and membership continues to grow. Thanks to dedicated coalition members' efforts, a variety of AFVs can be seen on Chicago's streets, including transit and school buses, taxicabs, sedans, vans, and trucks.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley
Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Denver
The cities of Denver and Boulder comprise the Denver Clean Cities Coalition. They are committed to cleaner fuels, greener fleets, and bluer skies. More than 25 active stakeholders, including local government agencies, utilities, and private organizations, work together to advance alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles in the region. The city of Denver boasts several neighborhood electric vehicles for employees' use around town. The coalition has also sponsored alternative fuel workshops, special events, and has been successful in passing major alternative fuels legislation.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Long Island
This coalition was the culmination a two-year joint effort by Long Island Lighting Company and the Long Island Regional Planning Board. The group's first alternative fuel project was a single fill compressed natural gas station and a converted Chevrolet Caprice. Since then, the coalition has made steady progress in the alternative fuel and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market. They have over 400 AFVs and 21 fueling stations in their operating area. Thanks to strong partnerships with local public and private organizations, they've also passed some of the most progressive state tax incentive legislation for AFVs in the country.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Philadelphia
Always going beyond expectations, the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program provides its stakeholders with excellent resources to implement alternative fuel projects. They are known as one of the most successful coalitions in the Clean Cities Program, and are a member-funded organization comprised of large government organizations, utilities, and non-profit groups in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The coalition aggressively promotes alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions; their public outreach efforts target all stakeholders and provide numerous resources to advance the alternative fuel choice.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Los Angeles
As the second largest city in the United States, Los Angeles has more than 9 million motor vehicles on the road, accounting for up to 60% of the region's air pollution. Clean Cities Los Angeles has pioneered efforts in implementing innovation pollution reduction strategies, using alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 475 compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and electric vehicles (EVs) have been incorporated into city fleets. They've also launched Quick Charge L.A., a comprehensive EV infrastructure program that has established almost 200 EV charging stations at workplaces, event centers, rail stations, and other sites throughout the city. Clean Cities Los Angeles also leads the way in securing grants for AFV projects.
Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City
Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.