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Description: In this work a technique was described to study the repassivation of bare metal surfaces. The advantage of this approach over other techniques is the ease with which multiple repassivation events can be studied. The repassivation rate of aluminum was found to depend on the anion in solution. Repassivation rates are higher for aluminum in phosphate and sulfate solutions compared to borate. It is possible that borate may interact more strongly than sulfate or phosphate on the bare aluminum surface blocking the diffusion of oxygen or changing the rate of repassivation.
Date: September 1, 1977

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: January-March 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes the development of electrolyte structures which have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long term stability, and on developing methods of synthesis amenable to mass production.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A.; Arons, R. M.; Kinoshita, K. et al.

A Field Test of Selected Insects and Pathogens for Control of Waterhyacinths, Report 1: Preliminary Results for the 1975-76 Season

Description: "During the growing season of 1975, a field experiment was initiated on Lake Concordia, Louisiana, to test the potential effectiveness of selected organisms as control agents against waterhyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. [...] This report describes the experiment, presents the collected data, and summarizes the observations. Statistical analyses and interpretation of the data are also presented" (abstract).
Date: September 1977
Creator: Addor, Eugene E.


Description: Plutonium is one of the principal materials of both commercial and military nuclear power. It is produced primarily in fission reactors that contain uranium fuel, and its importance arises from the fact that a large portion of the plutonium produced is fissile: like uranium 235, the mass 239 and 241 isotopes of plutonium can be caused to fission by neutrons, including those with low energy. Because such fission events also release neutrons, substantial amounts of energy can be extracted from plutonium in a controlled or an explosive nuclear chain reaction. Now that commercial nuclear reactors provide a noticeable fraction of United States (and world) electrical energy, these reactors account for most plutonium production. For the most part, this material now remains in the irradiated fuel after removal from reactors, but should this fuel be reprocessed, the plutonium could be recycled to provide part and even most of the fissile content of fresh fuel. For the current generation of water-cooled reactors, the amount of plutonium to be recycled is substantial. In fast breeder reactors, designed to produce more fissile material than they destroy, considerably larger quantities of plutonium would be recycled. In other types of advanced reactors, particularly those which depend heavily on thorium as the material from which fissile material (primarily uranium 233) is produced, the amount of plutonium to be handled would be considerably reduced. Because plutonium is a highly toxic substance, great care is taken to contain it at the sites and facilities where it is stored or handled. In addition, it is necessary that devices be available to monitor any releases from these facilities into environmental media and to measure concentrations of plutonium in these media. The radiation protection standards are so strict for plutonium that only small releases and low concentrations can be tolerated. Such considerations, ...
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Aggarwal, B.B.; Quintanilha, A.T.; Cammack, R. & Packer, L.

Development and Demonstration of Compound Parabolic Concentrators for Solar Thermal Power Generation and Heating and Cooling Applications, Progress Report: July-December 1975

Description: Progress report describing the development of Compound Parabolic Concentrators (CPC). A tenfold concentrator with a cavity receiver was constructed and tested. The optical efficiency was very good (65 percent), but the thermal performance was degraded by heat losses of the cavity receiver. A summary of the results of subcontracts described in the previous progress report are presented, and the influence of these results on ANL programs is noted.
Date: 1977
Creator: Allen, John W.; Levitz, Norman M.; Rabl, Ari; Reed, Kent A.; Schertz, William W.; Thodos, George et al.

Milliwatt Generator Heat Source. Progress report. January 16, 1977--April 15, 1977

Description: Activities at MRC associated with the Milliwatt Generator Heat Source efforts over the period Jan. 16, 1977 to April 15, 1977 are presented. Topics include: pressure burst capsule capsule evaluations, Tantalum/ SPR {sup 2}PuO{sub 2} compatibility, moisture content of plutonia. capsule impact and evaluations, Pre-TMS activities.
Date: December 31, 1977
Creator: Amos, W.R.


Description: Neodymium (III) chloride reacts with sodium isopropoxide in isopropyl alcohol to produce a complex which has been characterized by an x-ray crystal structure determination to be hexa-isopropoxy-nona({mu}{sub 2}-isopropoxy)-di-({mu}{sub 3}-isopropoxY)-({mu}{sub 6}-chloro-hexa-neodymium), Nd{sub 6}[OCH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 17}Cl. The pale blue crystals are monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n with cell dimensions a = 24.52(2) {angstrom}, b = 22.60(2) {angstrom}, c = 14.22(1) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 101.05(5){sup o}; for four molecules in the unit cell the calculated density is 1.636 gm/cc. The structure was refined by full-matrix least-squares to a conventional R factor of 0.076 for 2327 data with I > 2{sigma}. The six neodymium atoms form a trigonal prism centered about the chloride atom. Six isopropoxide groups are terminal, nine are edge bridging, and two are bridging a trigonal face of the prism yielding six two-coordinate, nine three-coordinate, and two four-coordinate oxygen atoms, respectively. The average Nd-Cl distance is 3.05(1) {angstrom}. The average Nd-O distances for oxygen atoms which are bonded to one, two, and three Nd atoms are 2.05(2) {angstrom}, 2.36(4) {angstrom}, and 2.45(5) {angstrom}, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Andersen, R.A.; Templeton, D.H. & Zalkin, A.

Ground Water in the Lajas Valley, Puerto Rico

Description: Abstract: Lajas Valley is plagued with problems of salinity and waterlogging the soils. Use of brackish (500 milligrams per liter) irrigation compounded ground water for the problem until an irrigation-drainage system was constructed in 1955. Lajas is an alluvium-filled limestone highlands. The alluvium, mostly clay and as much 300 feet (90 meters) thick, contains brackish ground water except in the recharge areas located along the foothills...Results from a digital model show that a network of discharge wells could alleviate waterlogging of the soils in the artesian area.
Date: March 1977
Creator: Anderson, Henry R.

An Analysis of Angular Distributions of Relativistic Particles in Inelastic Pion - Nucleus Collisions at 200-GeV/c

Description: General parameters characterizing single particle inclusive distributions of shower particles and their dependence on the multiplicity are discussed in {Pi} interactions at 200 Gev. The qualitative comparison of data presented with predictions of several popular models for hadron nucleus collisions are performed.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Anzon, Z.V.; Gaitinov, A.Sh.; Eremenko, L.E.; Kanygina, E.K.; Takibaev, Zh.S.; Chasnikov, I.Ya. et al.

Multiplicity of Charged Particles in Pion - Nucleus Interactions in an Emulsion at 200-GeV/c

Description: The experimental data on multiplicities of charged secondaries produced in pion-nucleus interactions in an emulsion at 200 Gev/c and correlations bet6ween them are presented and discussed. Parameters of multiplicity distributions are compared with the relevant ones at lower energies and with data from pA-interactions at 200 Gev/c. The multiplicity of heavily ionizing particles in {Pi}{sup -}A-interactions weakly depend on the incident energy. The KNO scaling is observed being the same for incident protons and pions.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Anzon, Z.V.; Gaitinov, A.Sh.; Eremenko, L.E.; Kanygina, E.K.; Takibaev, Zh.S.; Chasnikov, I.Ya. et al.

A Study of Two Particle Correlations in Inelastic Pion - Nucleus Interactions at 200-GeV/c

Description: Pseudorapidity and azimuthal two-particle correlations have been investigated in pion-nucleus interactions at 200 Gev/c. The considerable attention has been devoted to the exclusion of kinematical and pseudo-correlations. The qualitative comparison of experimental results with some theoretical models has been performed.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Anzon, Z.V.; Gaitinov, A.Sh.; Eremenko, L.E.; Kanygina, E.K.; Takibaev, Zh.S.; Chasnikov, I.Ya. et al.

Scaling of Multiplicity Distributions from p Emulsion Collisions at Energies between 6.2-GeV and 300-GeV

Description: The multiplicity distributions from p-nucleus interactions in emulsion are found to be consistent with the KNO semi-inclusive scaling hypothesis for p-p collisions, without any change in parameters. The applicability of the scaling law has been extended from current FNAL energies down to 6.2 GeV. the results indicate a fundamental consistency in the multiplicity distributions, regardless of the size of the target nucleus.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Areti, V.H.; Hebert, C.J.D.; Hebert, J. & U., /Ottawa

Materials Science Division Coal Technology Quarterly Report: October-December 1976

Description: Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding coal technology research and development. This report discusses a project for the economical conversion of coal into cleaner and more usable fuels: evaluation of ceramic-refractories exposed to abrasion-corrosion caused by coal slag, evaluation of ceramic coatings and refractories exposed to erosive environments, development of nondestructive evaluation methods applicable to coal-conversion systems, development of analytical models to predict corrosion behavior, and analysis of failed coal-gasification plant components.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Preliminary Assessment of the Health and Environmental Effects of Coal Utilization in the Midwest. Volume 1. Energy Scenarios, Technology Characterizations, Air and Water Resource Impacts, and Health Effects

Description: This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.
Date: January 1977
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Preliminary Assessment of the Health and Environmental Impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Coal as Applied to Electrical Utility Systems

Description: The objective of this study was to assess the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal (FBC), specifically as applied to base-load generation of electrical energy by utilities. The public health impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) plants are expected to be quite similar to those for Low Sulfur Coal (LSC) and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants because all appear to be able to meet Federal emission standards; however, there are emissions not covered by standards. Hydrocarbon emissions are higher and trace element emissions are lower for FBC than for conventional technologies. For FBC, based on an analytical model and a single emission data point, the polycyclic organic material decreases the anticipated lifespan of the highly exposed public very slightly. Added health protection due to lower trace element emissions is not known. Although there is a large quantity of solid wastes from the generating plant, the environmental impact of the FBC technology due to solid residue appears lower than for FGD, where sludge management requires larger land areas and presents problems due to the environmentally noxious calcium sulfite in the waste. Fixing the sludge may become a requirement that increases the cost of wet-limestone FGD but makes that system more acceptable. The potential for aquatic or terrestrial impacts from hydrocarbon emissions is low. If application of AFBC technology increases the use of local high-sulfur coals to the detriment of western low-sulfur coal, a sociological benefit could accrue to the FBC (or FGD) technology, because impacts caused by western boom towns would decrease. The infrastructure of areas that mine high-sulfur coal in the Midwest are better equipped to handle increased mining than the West.
Date: February 1977
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory