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Solidification and Separation of Ice From Saline Water

Description: From Introduction: "The principal objective of this investigation is to promote fundamental understanding of the mechanism of solidification of aqueous solutions, and the effects of externally applied electrical and magnetic fields on solidification."
Date: March 1964
Creator: Adams, Clyde M., Jr. & Rohatgi, Pradeep K.
Item Type: Report

Economic and Technical Evaluation of the Wiped Film Evaporator

Description: Report concerning the efforts to make the sea water distillation process more economical by improving the heat transfer surface. The General Electric wiped film process is one such improvement and is discussed along with its history, description, and related testing.
Date: July 1964
Creator: Anderson, Ralph E. & Lotz, Charles W.
Item Type: Report

Second Two Years' Progress on Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills

Description: From Introduction: "The investigation of solar distillation described in this Summary Report is part of the wide-ranging program of the Office of Saline Water to develop economical processes for the conversion of saline water to fresh water." From Summary: " Since the submission of the Summary Report which covered the first two years' progress, several new stills have been constructed, including four basin-type stills for the evaluation of basin liners and other materials."
Date: July 1965
Creator: Battelle Memorial Institute
Item Type: Report

Optimum Brine Heater Outlet Temperature in Sea Water Conversion Evaporators

Description: From Introduction & Scope: "This study was undertaken for the Office of Saline Water to determine the optimum brine heater outlet temperature in single-purpose sea water conversion evaporators for several fuel costs, based on balancing the increased performance ratio possible with high-temperature operations against the increased cost of pressure vessels, corrosion protection, and scale control."
Date: April 1966
Creator: Bechtel Corporation
Item Type: Report

A Study of Large Size Saline Water Conversion Plants

Description: From Introduction: "The principal objective of this study is to digest the experience accumulated in the operation of the demonstration plants, and from this information, to arrive at the cost of fresh water when produced on a large scale. It is important to recognize that the costs, as calculated in this report, are based upon the state of development of the processes as exemplified and proven in the demonstration plants. The field is new, and the rate of development is such that further cost reductions may be expected."
Date: March 1963
Creator: Bechtel Corporation
Item Type: Report

Sea Water Corrosion Test Program

Description: From Introduction: "The first demonstration plant sponsored by the Office of Saline Water was located in Freeport, Texas, and came 'on stream" in 1961. The incoming sea water was deaerated since both Speller (6) and Uhlig (7) recognized that dissolved oxygen was usually the controlling factor in the corrosion of iron stream condensate at temperatures even as high 400 degrees F. The water was acidified prior to daeration with H2SO4 to decompose the carbonates which subsequently would cause scale when the water was heated. After the carbonates were removed, the pH was raised to the neutral point, again to provide a less corrosive environment."
Date: March 1969
Creator: Behrens, H. C.; Martin, F. D.; Osborn, O.; Rice, L.; Russell, W. B.; Schreiber, C. F. et al.
Item Type: Report

Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills

Description: From Introduction: "This report describes the progress of the study and field evaluation of solar sea-water stills during the first 2 years of a research program being conducted for the Office of Saline Water, United States Department of the Interior, by Battelle Memorial Institute. The period covered by the report extends from January 20, 1958, to January 31, 1960."
Date: September 1961
Creator: Bloemer, J. W.; Collins, R. A. & Eibling, J. A.
Item Type: Report

Design of a Basin-Type Solar Still

Description: From Introduction: "This report describes the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a particular solar still that has been shown to be a practical for converting saline water to fresh water at low cost in localities where there is a reasonable amount of sunshine. A series of photographs is included which illustrate the steps in constructing a still."
Date: June 1964
Creator: Bloemer, J. W.; Irwin, J. R. & Eibling, J. A.
Item Type: Report

Temperature Distribution in the Crystallization of Undercooled Liquids in Cylindrical Tubes

Description: From Introduction: "The major difficulty in interpreting the results obtained by this simple experimental technique is the specification of the temperature at the crystal-liquid interface. Since, the liquid-to-solid transformation is exothermic the temperature in the vicinity of the interface will exceed the temperature in the vicinity of the interface will exceed the temperature of the bulk of the cooling bath, which is the quantity most conveniently measured and most frequently reported."
Date: May 1964
Creator: Brian, P. L. T. & Sperry, P. R.
Item Type: Report

Study of Two-Phase Metastable Flow

Description: From Abstract: "An experimental study was made to determine the flow rate of saturated water through short tubes of various lengths and diameters. Tubes of both rounded and sharp edge entrances were tested in the horizontal and vertical positions. Test results were analyzed and correlated."
Date: November 1966
Creator: Bryers, Richard W. & Hsieh, William S.
Item Type: Report

A Study and Development of the Hickman Sea-Water Still

Description: From Introduction: "The report is organized into three major sections and three appendixes. In first major section are presented a brief historical account of the work done by other organizations prior to November, 1957, and a detailed description of the experiments conducted by Battelle with the No.4 and No. 5 stills. The second major section summarizes the results of cost studies. The third major section gives data, calculations, and derivations pertaining to the heat-transfer aspects of the Hickman still."
Date: September 1960
Creator: Buckel, W. L.; Beck, W. D.; Irwin, J. R.; Putnam, A. A. & Eibling, J. A.
Item Type: Report

Seawater Desalting with Chemical Recovery

Description: From Introduction: "The report describes the studies made on 20mgd desalting plants, a size that was selected based on recovering 3,000 tons per day of salt for feed to a chlorine-caustic plant that would be part of the Energy Center."
Date: January 1971
Creator: Burns and Roe, Inc.
Item Type: Report