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Experiments with an airfoil model on which the boundary layers are controlled without the use of supplementary equipment

Description: This report describes test made in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel of the NACA to determine the possibility of controlling the boundary layer on the upper surface of an airfoil by use of the low pressure existing near the leading edge. The low pressure was used to induce flow through slots in the upper surface of the wing. The tests showed that the angle of attack for maximum lift was increased at the expense of a reduction in the maximum lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient.
Date: April 1, 1931
Creator: Abbott, I H

Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.
Date: January 27, 1931
Creator: Abbott, Ira H

The drag of two streamline bodies as affected by protuberances and appendages

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of two airship models conducted to determine the drag coefficients at zero pitch, and the effect of fins and cars and of flat and streamlined protuberances located at various positions along the hull. During the investigation the stern of one model was rounded off to produce a blunter shape. The extreme range of the Reynolds number based on the over-all length of the models was from 1,300,000 to 33,000,000. At large values of the Reynolds number the streamlined protuberance affected the drag very little, and the additional drag caused by the flat protuberance was less than the calculated drag by the protuberance alone. The fins and cars together increased the bare-hull drag about 20 per cent.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Abbott, Ira H

Fuselage-drag tests in the variable-density wind tunnel: streamline bodies of revolution, fineness ratio of 5

Description: Results are presented of the drag tests of six bodies of revolution with systematically varying shapes and with a fineness ratio of 5. The forms were derived from source-sink distributions, and formulas are presented for the calculation of the pressure distribution of the forms. The tests were made in the N.A.C.A. variable-density tunnel over a range of values of Reynolds number from about 1,500,000 to 25,000,000. The results show that the bodies with the sharper noses and tails have the lowest drag coefficients, even when the drag coefficients are based on the two-thirds power of the volume. The data shows the most important single characteristic of the body form to be the tail angle, which must be fine to obtain low drag.
Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Abbott, Ira H

Pressure-Distribution Measurements of a Model of a Davis Wing Section with Fowler Flap Submitted by Consolidated Aircraft Corporation

Description: Wing pressure distribution diagrams for several angles of attack and flap deflections of 0 degrees, 20 degrees, and 40 degrees are presented. The normal force coefficients agree with lift coefficients obtained in previous test of the same model, except for the maximum lifts with flap deflection. Pressure distribution measurements were made at Reynolds Number of about 6,000,000.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Abbott, Ira H

Tests in the variable-density wind tunnel of the NACA 23012 airfoil with plain and split flaps

Description: Section characteristics for use in wing design are presented for the NACA 23012 airfoil with plain and split flaps of 20 percent wing chord at a value of the effective Reynolds number of about 8,000,000. The flap deflections covered a range from 60 degrees upward to 75 degrees downward for the plain flap and from neutral to 90 degrees downward for the split flap. The split flap was aerodynamically superior to the plain flap in producing high maximum lift coefficients and in having lower profile-drag coefficients at high lift coefficients.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Abbott, Ira H & Greenberg, Harry

Flow observations with tufts and lampblack of the stalling of four typical airfoil sections in the NACA variable-density tunnel

Description: A preliminary investigation of the stalling processes of four typical airfoil sections was made over the critical range of the Reynolds Number. Motion pictures were taken of the movements of small silk tufts on the airfoil surface as the angle of attack increased through a range of angles including the stall. The boundary-layer flow also at certain angles of attack was indicated by the patterns formed by a suspension of lampblack in oil brushed onto the airfoil surface. These observations were analyzed together with corresponding force-test measurements to derive a picture of the stalling processes of airfoils.
Date: October 1, 1938
Creator: Abbott, Ira H & Sherman, Albert

Tests of a Highly Cambered Low-Drag-Airfoil Section with a Lift-Control Flap, Special Report

Description: Tests were made in the NACA two-dimensional low turbulence pressure tunnel of a highly cambered low-drag airfoil (NACA 65,3-618) with a plain flap designed for lift control. The results indicate that such a combination offers attractive possibilities for obtaining low profile-drag coefficients over a wide range of lift coefficients without large reductions of critical speed.
Date: December 1, 1942
Creator: Abbott, Ira H. & Miller, Ralph B.

Summary of Airfoil Data

Description: The historical development of NACA airfoils is briefly reviewed. New data are presented that permit the rapid calculation of the approximate pressure distributions for the older NACA four-digit and five-digit airfoils by the same methods used for the NACA 6-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6 and 7-series airfoils together with their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Detail data necessary for the application of the airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures placed at the end of the paper. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed, together with aerodynamic problems of application. (author).
Date: January 1, 1945
Creator: Abbott, Ira H; Von Doenhoff, Albert E & Stivers, Louis, Jr

Tail Buffeting

Description: An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.
Date: February 1, 1943
Creator: Abdrashitov, G.

The Theory of a Free Jet of a Compressible Gas

Description: In the present report the theory of free turbulence propagation and the boundary layer theory are developed for a plane-parallel free stream of a compressible fluid. In constructing the theory use was made of the turbulence hypothesis by Taylor (transport of vorticity) which gives best agreement with test results for problems involving heat transfer in free jets.
Date: March 1, 1944
Creator: Abramovich, G. N.