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Transonic Flutter Investigation of an All-movable Horizontal Tail for a Fighter Airplane
Transonic flutter of all-movable horizontal tail - bending & pitching moments.
Lift and drag data for 30 pusher-propeller shaft housings on an NACA 65,3-018 airfoil section
No Description Available.
Test of NACA 66,2-116, a = 0.6 airfoil section fitted with pressure balanced and slotted flaps for the wing of the XP-63 airplane
No Description Available.
Wind-tunnel investigation of profile drag and lift of an intermediate wing section of the XP-51 airplane with beveled trailing-edge and contour ailerons
Report presenting the results of flight investigations showing that a beveled trailing-edge aileron gives as low or a lower profile drag than a contour aileron. Section profile drag and lift coefficients with two different types of ailerons were obtained at 3 different Reynolds numbers.
Experiments with an airfoil model on which the boundary layers are controlled without the use of supplementary equipment
This report describes test made in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel of the NACA to determine the possibility of controlling the boundary layer on the upper surface of an airfoil by use of the low pressure existing near the leading edge. The low pressure was used to induce flow through slots in the upper surface of the wing. The tests showed that the angle of attack for maximum lift was increased at the expense of a reduction in the maximum lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient.
Lift and drag characteristics of a low-drag airfoil with slotted flap submitted by Curtiss-Wright Corporation
Report presenting a wooden model equipped with a slotted flap that was tested in the two-dimensional tunnel. It represented a wing section of the Curtiss-Wright P-60A airplane and the NACA 66,2-118 section. Results regarding lift characteristics, drag coefficients, and flap deflection characteristics are provided.
Pressure-distribution measurements of a low-drag airfoil with slotted flap submitted by Curtiss-Wright Corporation
From Summary: "Pressure-distribution measurements were made at the request of the Materiel Division, U.S. Army Air Corps, on a 24-inch-chord wooden model equipped with a slotted flap and submitted by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. The tests were made in the Langley two-dimensional tunnel at a Reynolds number of about 5,600,000."
Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel
This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.
The drag of two streamline bodies as affected by protuberances and appendages
This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of two airship models conducted to determine the drag coefficients at zero pitch, and the effect of fins and cars and of flat and streamlined protuberances located at various positions along the hull. During the investigation the stern of one model was rounded off to produce a blunter shape. The extreme range of the Reynolds number based on the over-all length of the models was from 1,300,000 to 33,000,000. At large values of the Reynolds number the streamlined protuberance affected the drag very little, and the additional drag caused by the flat protuberance was less than the calculated drag by the protuberance alone. The fins and cars together increased the bare-hull drag about 20 per cent.
Fuselage-drag tests in the variable-density wind tunnel: streamline bodies of revolution, fineness ratio of 5
From Summary: "Results are presented of the drag tests of six bodies of revolution with systematically varying shapes and with a fineness ratio of 5. The forms were derived from source-sink distributions, and formulas are presented for the calculation of the pressure distribution of the forms. The tests were made in the N.A.C.A. variable-density tunnel over a range of values of Reynolds number from about 1,500,000 to 25,000,000. The results show that the bodies with the sharper noses and tails have the lowest drag coefficients, even when the drag coefficients are based on the two-thirds power of the volume. The data shows the most important single characteristic of the body form to be the tail angle, which must be fine to obtain low drag."
Interference effects of longitudinal flat plates on low-drag airfoils
Three airfoils were tested with an intersecting flat plate normal to the span as a preliminary study of interference effects on airfoils. Small interference effects were noted on the first two airfoils, while larger effects were noted on the NACA 66,2-422 section, which had previously been shown to be unconservative with respect to separation. Airfoils known to be conservative should be used for inboard sections subject to nacelle and fuselage interference.
Pressure-Distribution Measurements of a Model of a Davis Wing Section with Fowler Flap Submitted by Consolidated Aircraft Corporation
Wing pressure distribution diagrams for several angles of attack and flap deflections of 0 degrees, 20 degrees, and 40 degrees are presented. The normal force coefficients agree with lift coefficients obtained in previous test of the same model, except for the maximum lifts with flap deflection. Pressure distribution measurements were made at Reynolds Number of about 6,000,000.
Pressure-distribution measurements of two airfoil models with Fowler flaps submitted by Consolidated Aircraft Corporation as alternative wing sections of the XB-32 airplane
Report presenting pressure distribution measurements on two 24-inch chord models equipped with Fowler flaps in the two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel. Results regarding pressure-distribution diagrams and normal-force and moment coefficients are provided.
Tests of four models representing intermediate sections of the XB-33 airplane including sections with slotted flap and ailerons
Report presenting testing in the two-dimensional tunnel of four models submitted by the Glenn L. Martin Company as intermediate sections of the wing of the XB-33 airplane. Each airfoil model had different types of flaps or no flaps at all. Results regarding the lift and drag data, lift coefficients, effect of flap positions, aileron effects, drag coefficients, and hinge-moment coefficients are provided.
Tests in the variable-density wind tunnel of the NACA 23012 airfoil with plain and split flaps
From Summary: "Section characteristics for use in wing design are presented for the NACA 23012 airfoil with plain and split flaps of 20 percent wing chord at a value of the effective Reynolds number of about 8,000,000. The flap deflections covered a range from 60 degrees upward to 75 degrees downward for the plain flap and from neutral to 90 degrees downward for the split flap. The split flap was aerodynamically superior to the plain flap in producing high maximum lift coefficients and in having lower profile-drag coefficients at high lift coefficients."
Tests of a Highly Cambered Low-Drag-Airfoil Section with a Lift-Control Flap, Special Report
Tests were made in the NACA two-dimensional low turbulence pressure tunnel of a highly cambered low-drag airfoil (NACA 65,3-618) with a plain flap designed for lift control. The results indicate that such a combination offers attractive possibilities for obtaining low profile-drag coefficients over a wide range of lift coefficients without large reductions of critical speed.
Flow observations with tufts and lampblack of the stalling of four typical airfoil sections in the NACA variable-density tunnel
From Summary: "A preliminary investigation of the stalling processes of four typical airfoil sections was made over the critical range of the Reynolds Number. Motion pictures were taken of the movements of small silk tufts on the airfoil surface as the angle of attack increased through a range of angles including the stall. The boundary-layer flow also at certain angles of attack was indicated by the patterns formed by a suspension of lampblack in oil brushed onto the airfoil surface. These observations were analyzed together with corresponding force-test measurements to derive a picture of the stalling processes of airfoils."
Summary of Airfoil Data
From Summary: "The historical development of NACA airfoils is briefly reviewed. New data are presented that permit the rapid calculation of the approximate pressure distributions for the older NACA four-digit and five-digit airfoils by the same methods used for the NACA 6-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6 and 7-series airfoils together with their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Detail data necessary for the application of the airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures placed at the end of the paper. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed, together with aerodynamic problems of application."
Tail Buffeting
An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.
The Theory of a Free Jet of a Compressible Gas
In the present report the theory of free turbulence propagation and the boundary layer theory are developed for a plane-parallel free stream of a compressible fluid. In constructing the theory use was made of the turbulence hypothesis by Taylor (transport of vorticity) which gives best agreement with test results for problems involving heat transfer in free jets.
Theoretical Investigation of the Performance of Proportional Navigation Guidance Systems-effect of Method of Positioning the Radar Antenna on the Speed of Response
Proportional navigation guidance systems - radar antenna positioning effects on speed of response.
Theoretical investigation of the performance of proportional navigation guidance systems : effect of method of positioning the radar antenna on the speed of response
No Description Available.
Theoretical investigation of the performance of proportional navigation guidance systems : effect of missile configuration on the speed of response
No Description Available.
The effect of stick-force gradient and stick gearing on the tracking accuracy of a fighter airplane
Report presenting steady straight-and-level and steady turning tracking runs against an aerial target using an F-51H airplane equipped with a fixed optical sight and with various combinations of maneuvering stick-force and stick-deflection gradients. Results regarding aim wander, elevator movement, and stick-force variation for various test conditions are provided.
Theoretical Investigation of the Effects of the Artificial-Feel System on the Maneuvering Characteristics of the F-89 Airplane
The possibility of overshooting the anticipated normal acceleration as a result of the artificial-feel characteristics of the F-89C airplane at a condition of minimum static stability was investigated analytically by means of an electronic simulator. Several methods of improving the stick-force characteristics were studied. It is shown that, due to the lag in build-up of the portion of the stick force introduced by the bobweight, it would be possible for excessive overshoots of normal acceleration to occur in abrupt maneuvers with reasonable assumed control movements. The addition of a transient stick force proportional to pitching acceleration (which leads the normal acceleration) to prevent this occurring would not be practical due to the introduction of an oscillatory mode to the stick-position response. A device to introduce a viscous damping force would Improve the stick-force characteristics so that normal acceleration overshoots would not be likely, and the variation of the maximum stick force in rapid pulse-type maneuvers with duration of the maneuver then would have a favorable trend.
Investigation of the use of a stick force proportional to pitching acceleration for normal-acceleration warning
Report presenting an investigation of the feasibility of modifying the transient portion of the stick force in abrupt maneuvers in order to eliminate inadvertent normal-acceleration overshoots. The modification consists of additional stick force proportional to a quantity which leads the normal acceleration. The characteristics introduced by the inclusion of the force were considered to be very desirable by pilots.
Investigation of internal film cooling of exhaust nozzle of a 1000-pound-thrust liquid-ammonia liquid-oxygen rocket
Report presenting an investigation of internal film cooling of the exhaust nozzle of a 1000-pound-thrust liquid ammonia liquid-oxygen rocket engine. With water as a coolant, approximately 16 percent of the total propellant and coolant flow was required to film-cool the entire nozzle and with anhydrous liquid ammonia, approximately 19 percent of the total flow was required. Results regarding the coolant results and performance results are provided.
Variation in the number of revolutions of air propellers
No Description Available.
Natural icing of an axial-flow turbojet engine in flight for a single icing condition
No Description Available.
Preliminary results of natural icing of an axial-flow turbojet engine
No Description Available.
Flight investigation of a liquid hydrogen fuel system
No Description Available.
Preliminary results of natural icing of an axial-flow turbojet engine
Report presenting a flight investigation in natural icing conditions to determine the effect of ice formations on the performance of an axial-flow turbojet engine. Results regarding the tail-pipe temperature, engine jet thrust, and characteristics of ice formation are provided. No general conclusions can be reached from the data because the icing condition was relatively light.
Comparison of flight performance of AN-F-58 and AN-F-32 fuels in J35 turbojet engine
Report presenting a flight investigation to determine the comparative performance of AN-F-58 and AN-F-32 fuels in a 4000-pound-thrust turbojet engine. The fuels were equivalent over the range of conditions investigated. Results regarding corrected net thrust, corrected jet-fuel consumption, variation of corrected tail-pipe temperature, combustor blow-out speeds, and visual observations of the jet exhaust are provided.
Effects of inlet icing on performance of axial-flow turbojet engine in natural icing conditions
A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted to determine the effect of inlet ice formations on the performance of axial-flow turbojet engines. The results are presented for icing conditions ranging from a liquid-water content of 0.1 to 0.9 gram per cubic meter and water-droplet size from 10 to 27 microns at ambient-air temperature from 13 to 26 degrees F. The data show time histories of jet thrust, air flow, tail-pipe temperature, compressor efficiency, and icing parameters for each icing encounter. The effect of inlet-guide-vane icing was isolated and shown to account for approximately one-half the total reduction in performance caused by inlet icing.
Flight Comparison of Performance and Cooling Characteristics of Exhaust-Ejector Installation with Exhaust-Collector-Ring Installation
Flight and ground investigations have been made to compare an exhaust-ejector installation with a standard exhaust-collector-ring installation on air-cooled aircraft engines in a twin-engine airplane. The ground investigation allowed that, whereas the standard engine would have overheated above 600 horsepower, the engine with exhaust ejectors cooled at take-off operating conditions at zero ram. The exhaust ejectors provided as much cooling with cowl flaps closed as the conventional cowl flaps induced when full open at low airspeeds. The propulsive thrust of the exhaust-ejector installation was calculated to be slightly less than the thrust of the collector-ring-installation.
Accelerations in fighter-airplane crashes
From Introduction: "This report describes some measurements of these quantities obtained by crashing fighter aircraft under circumstances approximating those observed in service."
Air forces on airfoils moving faster than sound
We are undertaking the task of computing the air forces on a slightly cambered airfoil in the absence of friction and with an infinite aspect ratio. We also assume in advance that the leading edge is very sharp and that its tangent lies in the direction of motion.
Drag measurements of two thin wing sections at different index values
It is stated that the index value 6000, as found in normal tests of wing sections with a 20 cm chord, falls in the same region where the transition of laminar to turbulent flow takes place on thin flat plates. It is to be expected that slightly cambered, thin wing sections will behave similarly. The following test of two such wing sections were made for the purpose of verifying this supposition.
Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Cavitation in Water
"The cavitation in nozzles on airfoils of various shape and on a sphere are experimentally investigated. The limits of cavitation and the extension of the zone of the bubbles in different stages of cavitation are photographically established. The pressure in the bubble area is constant and very low, jumping to high values at the end of the area. The analogy with the gas compression shock is adduced and discussed" (p. 1).
Experiments on airfoils with trailing edge cut away
"Airfoils with their trailing edge cut away are often found on aircraft, as the fins on the hulls of flying boats and the central section of the wings for affording better visibility. It was therefore of some interest to discover the effect of such cutaways on the lift and drag and on the position of the center of pressure. For this purpose, systematic experiments were performed on two different airfoils, a symmetrical airfoil and an airfoil of medium thickness, with successive shortenings of their chords" (p. 1).
High-speed wind tunnels
Wind tunnel construction and design is discussed especially in relation to subsonic and supersonic speeds. Reynolds Numbers and the theory of compressible flows are also taken into consideration in designing new tunnels.
Present and future problems of airplane propulsion
Some of the problems considered in this report include: thermodynamics of surface friction, application of thick wing sections, special applications of controllable propellers, and gas turbines for aircraft.
Recent experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute
This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).
Removing boundary layer by suction
"Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface" (p. 1).
Aerodynamic Heat-Power Engine Operating on a Closed Cycle
"Hot-air engines with dynamic compressors and turbines offer new prospects of success through utilization of units of high efficiencies and through the employment of modern materials of great strength at high temperature. Particular consideration is given to an aerodynamic prime mover operating on a closed circuit and heated externally. Increase of the pressure level of the circulating air permits a great increase of limit load of the unit. This also affords a possibility of regulation for which the internal efficiency of the unit changes but slightly. The effect of pressure and temperature losses is investigated" (p. 1).
Experiments with an airfoil from which the boundary layer is removed by suction
Our attempts to improve the properties of airfoils by removing the boundary layer by suction, go back to 1922. The object of the suction is chiefly to prevent the detachment of the boundary layer from the surface of the airfoil. At large angles of attack, such detachment prevents the attainment of the great lift promised by the theory, besides greatly increasing the drag, especially of thick airfoils. This report gives results of those experiments.
Investigations of Compression Shocks and Boundary Layers in Gases Moving at High Speed
The mutual influences of compression shocks and friction boundary layers were investigated by means of high speed wind tunnels.Schlieren optics provided a clear picture of the flow phenomena and were used for determining the location of the compression shocks, measurement of shock angles, and also for Mach angles. Pressure measurement and humidity measurements were also taken into consideration.Results along with a mathematical model are described.
Investigations on wings with and without sweepback at high subsonic speeds
Drag tests at zero lift have been made at Mach numbers from 0.7 to approximately 0.95 in the high speed wind tunnel of the Institute of Aerodynamics, ETH, Zurich, on a group of untapered wings of aspect ratio 3.25, having sweep angles of 0 degree and 35 degrees. For each sweep angle, a series of geometrically similar models was tested at a constant Reynolds number to provide a verification of computed tunnel blocking corrections. Tests were also made for wings having thickness ratios of 0.09 and 0.12 and the results compared with results predicted by von Karman's similarity law.
Flight measurements of the effect of various amounts of aileron droop on the low-speed lateral-control characteristics of an observation airplane
No Description Available.
Flight measurements of the effects of a wing leading-edge slot and other modifications on the stability, maximum lift, and high speed of an observation airplane
No Description Available.