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Stream Reconnaissance for Nutrients and Other Water-Quality Parameters, Greater Pittsburgh Region, Pennsylvania

Description: Abstract: Eighty-five stream sites in and near the six-county Greater Pittsburgh Region were sampled in mid-June 1971 and again in mid-October 1972. Concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, organic carbon, or phosphorus were high enough to indicate potential problems at about a quarter of the sampling sites. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH values indicated a generally favorable capacity for recovery from degradation, although a number of streams east of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers are marginal or lacking. Regionally, sulfate is the dominant ion and was observed in concentrations of 40 milligrams per liter or more at 90 percent of the sites. Bicarbonate exceeded 100 milligrams per liter at 22 sites. A moderate to high degree of mineralization is indicated by conductance readings of more than 500 micromhos per centimeter at half of the sampling sites.
Date: February 1975
Creator: Beall, Robert M.

Metallurgical Coke

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies on metallurgical coke. As stated in the introduction, "in this paper the attempt is made to summarize the history of coke making in the United States, to indicate the development of different methods and the modern types of ovens, and to point out the composition and physical properties of the metallurgical cokes produced in this country" (p. 5). This paper includes tables, illustrations, photographs, and a map.
Date: September 1913
Creator: Belden, A. W.

Structure and Propagation of Turbulent Bunsen Flames

Description: From Introduction and Summary: "In the assessments of research objectives after World War II it was brought out that little effort had yet been expended on an understanding of turbulent flames.The present report deals exclusively with a second stage of work which was carried out between November 1954 and August 1959. This summary report includes a few new data, but its chief purpose is to reorient the findings toward a better appreciation of what has been accomplished and what most profitably might be done in the near future."
Date: 1962
Creator: Burgess, David

Essential Factors in the Formation of Producer Gas

Description: From Introduction Scope and Purpose of Inquiry: "The Bureau of Mines, to which the testing and analyzing of fuels as carried on by the United States Geographical Survey has been transferred, is continuing producer-gas investigations at the testing station at Pittsburgh, Pa. Results of the gas-producer tests made at the coal-testing plant erected at St.Louis, Mo., and of a study of some of the problems that came up in the tests have been published by Geological Survey. Results of the tests made at Norfolk, Va., and Pittsburgh, Pa. and of further studies of particular problems, will be published by the Bureau of Mines."
Date: 1911
Creator: Clement, J. K.; Adams, L. H. & Haskins, C. N.

Carbonizing Properties: Pocahontas Number 6, Davy Sewell, and Fire Creek Coals from West Virginia and Upper and Lower Kittanning and Upper and Lower Freeport Coals from Pennsylvania

Description: From Forward: "The value of this survey of the carbonizing properties of American coals by a standard method lies in the comparability of the results on different coals. It must recognized that no standard laboratory method of carbonization, even on a large unit, can yield results that exactly duplicate those obtained in ovens and retorts. The commercial results vary with the type of oven or retort. Allowance must be made for such differences in interpreting the BM-AGA test results in terms of commercial plants."
Date: 1950
Creator: Davis, J. D.; Reynolds, D. A.; Brewer, R. E.; Wolfson, D. E.; Naugle, B. W. & Birge, G. W.

Mining and Preparing Domestic Graphite for Crucible Use

Description: From Prefactory Statement: "In this bulletin are presented the results obtained in the first two phases of the work outlined above. The bulletin is in two parts. The first part describes the methods of mining and milling used, suggests a standard method of sampling finished graphite, and describes a rapid and convenient method of analysis developed at the Pittsburgh station of the Bureau of Mines, to which has been assigned the analytical and microscopic work. The second part describes experiments on the concentration and milling of graphite, which were made at the Salt Lake City, Utah, station."
Date: 1920
Creator: Dub, George D. & Moses, Frederick G.

Incidental Problems in Gas-Producer Tests

Description: From Introduction: "In the course of this study many incidental problems of prime importance have demanded consideration. Among them is the determination, under practically constant conditions, of the duration of gas-producer tests necessary to reduce the possible error to minimum. A discussion of this proper length of test period forms the part of this bulletin."
Date: 1911
Creator: Fernald, R. H.; Smith, C. D.; Clement, J. K. & Grine, H. A.

Recent Development of the Producer-Gas Power Plant in the United States

Description: From Introduction: "A summary of the tests made at St. Louis and a resume of the conclusions to be drawn from the tests and from the opinions of gas-producer manufacturers on the status of the gas producer and gas engine was published in a Survey bulletin in 1907. As it is desirable to repeat much of the material that appeared in the former bulletin (now out of print), this presentation may be regarded as a revision of the previous one, although considerable information not previously available for publication has been added."
Date: 1910
Creator: Fernald, Robert Heywood

Resume of Producer-Gas Investigations: October 1, 1904-June 30, 1910

Description: From Scope of Report: "The purpose of this report is, therefore, to present in convenient form all the more important data accumulated in the course of the tests described, in order that the results may be readily accessible both to the Government officials having charge of the design, purchase, or care of power plants and to all persons interested in the development of the internal-combustion engine and the gas producer as means for utilizing the energy of fuels."
Date: 1911
Creator: Fernarld, R. H. & Smith, C. D.

City Smoke Ordinances and Smoke Abatement

Description: From Introduction: "In connection with the fuel investigations conducted by the Bureau of Mines much information has been accumulated as to the smoke abatement activities in various cities. The essential features of the information are presented in this report, which, it is believed, will be of public interest and benefit, especially to those communities that are just beginning organized effort to abate unnecessary smoke."
Date: 1912
Creator: Flagg, Samuel B.

Safety Cars of the United States Bureau of Mines

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the mine stations and safety cars used to reach miners in distress. As stated in the report, "the purpose, equipment, personnel, and construction of its safety cars" is presented. This report includes an illustration, and a map.
Date: March 1931
Creator: Forbes, J. J. & Ankeny, M. J.

Apparatus and Methods for the Sampling and Analysis of Furnace Gases

Description: From Introduction: "It is the purpose of this paper to describe some apparatus and methods which have proved satisfactory to those engaged in the chemical work of the investigations mentioned. While these methods and apparatus have been designed more particularly with regard to analysis of furnace gases, their use is by no means limited to that purpose."
Date: 1911
Creator: Frazer, J. C. W. & Hoffman, E. J.

Determination of Phenols in Coal Tars and Hydroxyl Groups in Coal by Forming Trimethylsilyl Ethers

Description: From Introduction: "This report reviews related previous work and describes studies by the Bureau of Mines on (1) the development of new methods for analyzing phenols, (2) the development of a specific method for the determination of phenolic hydoxyl groups in coal, and (3) the preparation and properties of trimethylsiyl derivatives of individual phenols."
Date: 1963
Creator: Friedman, Sidney; Zahn, Charles; Kaufman, Marvin & Wender, Irving

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, May 29, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "This report is one of a sequence of quarterly reports, each designed to up-date its predecessor beginning with HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests". Herein are presented data which have accrued since HASL-55. Levels of strontinum-90 in fallout, milk, air, water, vegetation, foods, and bone are given, based on data available from February 1, 1959 to May 20, 1959."
Date: May 29, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley

Combustion of Coal and Design of Furnaces

Description: From Purpose and scope of Investigations: "The combustion investigations of bureau are carried on in two parts. One part is the study of the process of combustion in the fuel bed as affected by the rate of supplying air through the fuel bed, by the character of the fuel as regards structure and composition, by the thickness of fuel bed, by the method of feeding the coal and the air and by the method of heating the coal. The second part of the investigation is the study of the process of combustion of the gases and other combustible rising from the fuel bed in the combustion space, after a sufficient quantity of air has been added. The results of the study are given in this report."
Date: 1917
Creator: Kreisinger, Henry; Augustine, C. E. & Ovitz, F. K.

Analyses of Coals in the United States with Descriptions of Mine and Field Samples Collected between July 1, 1904 and June 30, 1910: Part 1. -- Analyses

Description: From Significance and value of Analyses of Coal: "The analyses published in this report cover samples of coal collected in many different parts of the country with unusual care by experiences men, in such manner as to make them representative of extensive beds of coal."
Date: 1913
Creator: Lord, N. W.