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United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

Description: This report focuses on U.N. reform efforts and priorities from the perspective of several key actors, including the U.S. government, the U.N. Secretary-General, selected member states, and a cross-section of groups tasked with addressing U.N. reform. It also examines congressional actions related to U.N. reform, as well as future policy considerations.
Date: December 21, 2011
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation.
Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

Description: This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons in several nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Date: February 28, 2011
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan; Belkin, Paul; Kan, Shirley A.; Kerr, Paul K.; Mix, Derek E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

Description: As an aid to Congress in understanding nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation, and arms control matters, this report describes which agency is responsible for research and development (R&D) of nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that deliver them) in the nine nations with nuclear weapons and whether these agencies are civilian or military. It also traces the history of such agencies in the United States from 1942 to the present.
Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan; Kan, Shirley A.; Kerr, Paul K.; Migdalovitz, Carol; Mix, Derek E.; Nikitin, Mary Beth et al.

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

Description: This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that carry them) in these nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Date: February 22, 2013
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan; Mix, Derek E.; Belkin, Paul; Nikitin, Mary Beth; Kan, Shirley A.; Zanotti, Jim et al.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the G-20, an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies among major advanced and emerging economies. Previous summits have, for example, focused on financial regulatory reform, global imbalances, funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), voting power of emerging economies in international financial institutions, and fossil fuel subsidies.
Date: November 7, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the G-20, an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies among major advanced and emerging economies. Previous summits have, for example, focused on financial regulatory reform, global imbalances, funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), voting power of emerging economies in international financial institutions, and fossil fuel subsidies.
Date: November 5, 2014
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
Date: October 23, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

World Oil Demand and its Effect on Oil Prices

Description: Demand patterns for world oil and oil products show significant diversity by country, region, and product groupings. As a result of this diversity it is not possible to attach blame for the current level of price to any one nation, region, or product segment. The view that the oil market is international in scope and tightly interrelated is enhanced by the demand data. As a result of the integrated nature of the world oil market it is unlikely that any one nation acting on its own can implement policies that isolate its market from broader price behavior. As new major oil importers, notably China, and potentially India, expand their demand, the oil market likely will have to expand production capacity. This promises to increase the world’s dependence on the Persian Gulf members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, especially Saudi Arabia, and maintain upward pressure on price.
Date: June 9, 2005
Creator: Pirog, Robert L

World Oil Demand and the Effect on Oil Prices

Description: Demand patterns for world oil and oil products show significant diversity by country, region, and product groupings. As a result of this diversity it is not possible to attach blame for the current level of price to any one nation, region, or product segment. The view that the oil market is international in scope and tightly interrelated is enhanced by the demand data. As a result of the integrated nature of the world oil market it is unlikely that any one nation acting on its own can implement policies that isolate its market from broader price behavior. As new major oil importers, notably China, and potentially India, expand their demand, the oil market likely will have to expand production capacity. This promises to increase the world’s dependence on the Persian Gulf members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, especially Saudi Arabia, and maintain upward pressure on price.
Date: August 18, 2004
Creator: Pirog, Robert L

China-U.S.-Soviet Relations

Description: In 1979, a time of clear downturn in U.S.-Soviet relations over such sensitive issues as SALT, Soviet troops in Cuba, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Carter Administration moved ahead with a series of measures designed to improve relations with Moscow's major adversary in Asia, the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.). The purpose of this report is to provide background for and summarize current developments in U.S. - People’s Republic of China (PRC) relations, including current and pending congressional actions involving the PRC.
Date: December 3, 1981
Creator: Sutter, Robert G.

Newsmap for the Armed Forces : Moscow conference decisions

Description: Front: Text describes 5 Moscow conference decisions. Maps: Moscow conference decisions as reflected on the global map. Includes photograph of Ernest Bevin (Britain), V. M. Molotov (Russia) and James F. Byrnes (U.S.) Back: Reenlistment. List of reasons to reenlist. Charts of income and retirement income for enlisted classes.
Date: January 7, 1946
Creator: [United States.] Army Information Branch

Newsmap. Monday, August 3, 1942 : week of July 24 to July 31

Description: Text describes action on various war fronts: New Guinea -- China -- Philippines -- Siberia --Mediterranean -- Western Europe -- Russia. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Includes inset maps: Action in New Guinea -- Drive to the Caucasas -- Vital distances in Europe, Africa, and Western Asia. Photographs: Combat photo taken through a submarine's periscope of a sinking Japanese destroyer -- U.S. aid to Russia -- Tommy goes over [method of crossing a river] -- Jap 'Belly tank' -- Stingers on the Flying Fortress.
Date: August 3, 1942
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, August 9, 1943 : week of July 29 to August 5, 204th week of the war, 86th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Italy, Sicily, Rumania, Russia, Germany, Burma-China, Southwest Pacific. Map: Strategic air distances across the Mediterranean./ Relief shown by hachures. Photographs: Army engineers work in the Aluetians; A Tommy reads "Soldier's guide to Sicily"; Royal Artillery Detachment stationed north of Syracuse, Sicily examines damage done by Italians to a mobile anti-aircraft train; Nazis surrender to U.S. Infantrymen near Carlentini; Junkers-290 transport shot down by an RAF Marauder near the coast of Bastia, Corsica; U.S. Marines push a generator into position near Munda; Japanese interpreters of the U.S. Army decipher papers found on a wounded Japanese officer; A winch pulls a mud-splattered jeep free on Rendova; 155mm rifle sends rounds into Munda from Rendova Island. Back: [text and ill.]: The long, tough fight ahead : beyond sunny Italy!/ Back text includes quote from the President of the United States, July 28, 1943: "I confess that I myself am sometimes bewildered by conflicting statements that I see in the press ..."
Date: August 9, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, August 23, 1943 : week of August 12 to August 19, 206th week of the war, 88th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text desribes action on various war fronts: Air offensive, Sicily, Russia, New Guinea, New Georgia, Borneo, Kuril Is., Pacific. Maps show military activities throughout Europe and the Solomon Islands during the week. Includes photographs: the raid on oil refineries in the Ploesti area of Rumania; Looking Southeast from Salamaua. Back: China's army is a seasoned military team. Illustration of Chinese soldiers with text describing historical and cultural points. English - Chinese translation of common phrases used by soldiers.
Date: August 23, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, August 30, 1943 : week of August 19 to August 26, 207th week of the war, 89th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Italy, Russia, Kiska, Berlin, Conference, Burma, China, New Guinea, New Georgia. Maps show Russian front -- Southern Italy. Includes photographs: Kiska, Sicily. Back: Weapons of the German Infantry Division. 17 weapons are identified and described, including the size, maximum range, and number found in various German Army units. Each weapon is keyed by number to a battle illustration.
Date: August 30, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, December 6, 1943 : week of November 25 to December 2, 221st week of the war, 103rd week of U.S. participation

Description: Text describes action on various war fronts: Italy, USSR, Germany, Central Pacific, Southwest Pacific, China, Plans. Inset maps: central Italy, northeast New Guinea, Action areas in central and southwest Pacific, Truk Is., Nauru, Wotje, Jaluit, Makin, Tarawa. Photographs: Australian Air Force Beaufighter, Sgt. Ben Kuroki of Hershey, Nebraska, Captured Soviet equipment, Rescued blindfolded Nazi. German built road in Isernia. Back: Text and 11 illustrations highlight the 11 general orders that must be known by sentinels.
Date: December 6, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, December 20, 1943 : week of December 9 to December 16, 223rd week of the war, 105th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Southwest Pacific, Central Pacific, China, USSR, Italy, Air offensive, Submarines. Inset maps: Southeast Europe, Central China battle area. Photographs: U.S. Army engineers replace a bridge in Italy, Antiaircraft fire from a U.S. carrier, Brazilian ground and air troops, Turkish officials, "Rome or Death." Back: Text and photographs illustrate the battle for the Gilbert Islands.
Date: December 20, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, December 21, 1942 : week of December 11 to December 18

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Libya; Tunisia; New Guinea; Solomons; China; Russia; Aleutians Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Includes inset maps: New Guinea; Mediterranean Sea; Russian front. Photographs: Supply dock; wrecked by recoil; Captured Italian flag; Hot on Rommel's heels; Yanks advance on Japs in New Guinea Back: Text describes the history and power of infantry. Includes 19 photographs and a map of Stalingrad and the Caucasus operations area.
Date: December 21, 1942
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course

Newsmap. Monday, February 22, 1943 : week of February 12 to February 19, 180th week of the war, 62nd week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Russia, New Guinea, Solomons, China, Pacific and Far East, French fleet, North Africa. Large world map is keyed to text. Includes table: Great Circle Distances in Statute Miles. Inset maps show Tunisia and Russia. Includes 8 photographs. Back: Poster provides recognition cues and front and profile drawings of Allied and Axis light tanks and self-propelled weapons. Includes range scale.
Date: February 22, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course