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Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief

Description: This report discuses Turkey's relations with the U.S. and growing tensions between the U.S .and Turkey over President Erdogan's domestic power consolidations following a coup attempt in July 2016, regional partnerships with Russia, relations with the Kurds, and a series of diplomatic and human rights incidents.
Date: November 9, 2017
Creator: Zanotti, Jim & Thomas, Clayton

Muslim Holidays: Fact Sheet

Description: This report discuses major Muslim holidays and their significance as well as how American Muslims celebrate them. This report is designed to assist congressional offices with work related to Islamic holidays. It contains sample speeches and remarks from the Congressional Record, presidential proclamations and remarks, and selected historical and cultural resources.
Date: October 31, 2017
Creator: Gibbs, David S.

Availability of Legislative Measures in the House of Representatives (The "Three-Day Rule")

Description: This report discuses rules in the House of Representatives governing the length of time legislative measures must be available to Members before being considered on the floor. Generally most measures are required to be available for three calendar days excluding weekends and holidays unless the House is in session on those days. The House has several means by which it can choose to waive these availability requirements and call up, debate, and vote on a measure in a single calendar day, even if the text of the measure was not made available prior to consideration. These include adopting a special rule that waives the three-day requirement; adopting a special rule that waives the one-day requirement for another special rule; and convening a second legislative day on the same calendar day.
Date: June 12, 2017
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth

Science and Technology Issues in the 115th Congress

Description: This report briefly outlines an array of science and technology (S&T) policy issues that may come before the 115th Congress. Given the rapid pace of S&T advancement and its importance in many diverse public policy issues, S&T-related issues not discussed in this report may come before the 115th Congress. The selected issues are grouped into 9 categories: Overarching S&T Policy Issues, Agriculture, Biomedical Research and Development, Defense, Energy, Environment and Natural Resources, Homeland Security, Information Technology, Physical and Material Sciences, and Space. Each of these categories includes concise analysis of multiple policy issues. The material presented in this report should be viewed as illustrative rather than comprehensive. Each section identifies CRS reports, when available, and the appropriate CRS experts to contact for further information and analysis.
Date: May 23, 2017
Creator: Gottron, Frank

Systemically Important or "Too Big to Fail" Financial Institution.

Description: This report discusses the "To Big To Fail" (TBTF) system of the government intervening and bailing out certain companies whose collapse is deemed too disruptive to the American financial market to let occur. This report discusses the economic issues raised by TBTF, broad policy options, and policy changes made by the relevant Dodd-Frank provisions.
Date: May 26, 2017
Creator: Labonte, Marc

Lebanon

Description: This report provides an overview of Lebanon's political and governmental structure, economy, security situation, refugee population, and other current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action.
Date: November 9, 2017
Creator: Humud, Carla E.

President Trump's Withdrawal from the Paris Agreement Raises Legal Questions: Parts 1 and 2

Description: This report discusses various legal questions raised by President Trump's announcement of the U.S.'s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement. Questions addressed include the withdrawal process, whether the agreement is binding or non-binding, the role of United States in other international climate meetings, and why President Trump announced the exit.
Date: June 9, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA): 2017 Reauthorization as PDUFA VI

Description: This report discusses the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) and its reauthorization as PDUFA VI. The bill allows the FDA to collect fees from pharmaceutical companies to support the review process for human drug applications. The various stages of drafting and passing the bill as well as changes from the most recent PDUFA are included.
Date: June 8, 2017
Creator: Dabrowska, Agata & Thaul, Susan

Post-Heller Second Amendment Jurisprudence

Description: This report examines the scope of the Second Amendment, as interpreted by the federal circuit courts of appeals, after the watershed Supreme Court decisions in "District of Columbia v. Heller" and "McDonald v. City of Chicago". After "Heller" and "McDonald", numerous challenges were brought on Second Amendment grounds to various federal, state, and local firearm laws and regulations. Because Heller neither purported to define the full scope of the Second Amendment, nor suggested a standard of review for evaluating Second Amendment claims, the lower federal courts have been tasked with doing so in the Second Amendment challenges brought before them. This report discusses in detail notable post-Heller Second Amendment cases decided by federal courts of appeals. Because "Heller" and "McDonald" provide the only recent Supreme Court guidance on the Second Amendment, the analyses in these cases may provide useful guideposts for Congress should it seek to enact further firearm regulations.
Date: November 21, 2017
Creator: Herman, Sarah S.

GAO Issues Opinions on Applicability of Congressional Review Act to Two Guidance Documents

Description: This report discusses the Government Accountability Office's (GAO) issued opinions regarding whether a 2013 interagency guidance document and a 2016 amendment to the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan by the Department of Agriculture were considered "rules" and as such be subject to the Congressional Review Act (CRA). The GAO determined neither document was a rule and thus they were not subject to CRA.
Date: October 25, 2017
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.

Implementation of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Amendments (P.L. 114-182)

Description: This report summarizes select EPA actions to implement the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) amendments over the past year since their passage on June 22, 2016 as a part of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for 21st Century Act (P.L. 114-182). Brief discussions and lists of various chemicals that are being evaluated or have been evaluated under the law are included.
Date: June 7, 2017
Creator: Yen, Jerry H.

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's funding requests and proposed acquisition strategies for these three potential new weapons for the 2018 fiscal year. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect future Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the defense industrial base.
Date: October 17, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes, Challenges, and Policy Considerations

Description: This report addresses the conditions and activities that contribute to the occurrence of freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs), steps that Congress and federal agencies--particularly EPA--and their partners are taking to address and mitigate their occurrence, and the current knowledge gaps on this issue. This report is focused on freshwater HABs, not marine or coastal HABs or issues associated with HABs in drinking water supplies.
Date: June 20, 2017
Creator: Gatz, Laura

Federal Individual Income Tax Terms: An Explanation

Description: This report describes the terms most commonly used when discussing the federal individual income tax. Most of these tax terms are explained in the order that they occur in the process of determining one's income tax on the Form 1040. A copy of the 2016 IRS Form 1040 is included at the end of this report.
Date: May 31, 2017
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.

U.S. Beef: It's What's for China

Description: This report discusses the opening of the Chinese market to U.S. beef imports under certain restrictions. The negotiation process and conditions of the agreement and China's current largest beef import partners are also discussed.
Date: June 22, 2017
Creator: Greene, Joel L.

Taiwan: Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes Taiwan's governmental structure, politics, economy, relations with its neighbors, and ongoing sovereignty disputes with China which have intensified recently. U.S. relations with Taiwan and legislation related to Taiwan in the 115th Congress is also discussed.
Date: October 30, 2017
Creator: Lawrence, Susan V. & Morrison, Wayne M.

A Primer on U.S. Immigration Policy

Description: This report provides a broad overview of U.S. immigration policy. The first section addresses policies governing how foreign nationals enter the United States either to reside permanently or to stay temporarily. Related topics within this section include visa issuance and security, forms of quasi-legal status, and naturalization. The second section discusses enforcement policies both for excluding foreign nationals from admission into the United States, as well as for detaining and removing those who enter the country unlawfully or who enter lawfully but subsequently commit crimes that make them deportable. The section also covers worksite enforcement and immigration fraud. The third section addresses policies for unauthorized aliens residing in the United States.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Kandel, William A.

Update: What Constitutes "Sexual Abuse of a Minor" For Immigration Purposes

Description: This report provides an update of an earlier report from April 6, 2017, providing the final decision by the Supreme Court in the case of "Esquivel-Quintana v. Sessions". The case concerned the question of whether an immigrant alien who was convicted of sexual abuse of a minor where the minor was under 18 but at least 16 (in this case statutory rape in California between a 21 year old male and a 17 year female) was removable for an aggravated felony under immigration law. The Supreme Court ruled that the immigration law required the victim be under 16 before the removal of an alien for an aggravated felony would be allowable.
Date: June 7, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions regarding the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) program which requires international trade agreements that reduce tariff or non-tariff barriers to trade in ways that require changes in U.S. law, to be implemented only through the enactment of legislation. If the trade agreement and the process of negotiating it meet certain requirements, TPA allows Congress to consider the required implementing bill under expedited procedures, pursuant to which the bill may come to the floor without action by the leadership, and can receive a guaranteed up-or-down vote with no amendments.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Davis, Christopher M.

Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues

Description: This report discusses nuclear energy and various issues and concerns related to it use. Congressional actions and related CRS reports are described for six topics which are: radioactive waste, economic viability, safety, technological advances, security and emergency plans, and nuclear weapon nonproliferation.
Date: November 27, 2017
Creator: Holt, Mark