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COMPARISONS OF CODED APERTURE IMAGING USING VARIOUS APERTURES AND DECODING METHODS

Description: The utility of coded aperture imaging of radioisotope distributions in Nuclear Medicine is in its ability to give depth information about a three dimensional source. We have calculated imaging with Fresnel zone plate and multiple pinhole apertures to produce coded shadows and reconstruction of these shadows using correlation, Fresnel diffraction, and Fourier transform deconvolution. Comparisons of the coded apertures and decoding methods are made by evaluating their point response functions both for in-focus and out-of-focus image planes. Background averages and standard deviations were calculated. In some cases, background subtraction was made using combinations of two complementary apertures. Results using deconvolution reconstruction for finite numbers of events are also given.
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Chang, L.-T.; Macdonald, B. & Perez-Mendez, V.
Item Type: Article

Absolute Glovebox Ventilation Filtration System with Unique Filter Replacement Feature

Description: A glovebox ventilation system was designed for a new plutonium-238 processing facility that provided 1) downdraft ventilation, 2) a leak tight seal around the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, and 3) a method for changing the filters internally without risk of contaminating the laboratory.
Date: December 31, 1975
Creator: Freeman, S. S. & Slusher, W. A.
Item Type: Report

THE MARINE MAMMAL FAUNA OF POTENTIAL OTEC SITES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND HAWAII

Description: Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is Tursiops truncatus, the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, Stenella plagiodon, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi), an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Stenella longirostris, the spinner dolphin; and Tursiops sp., the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Payne, S.F.
Item Type: Article

Secondary succession: Composition of the vegetation and primary production in the field-to-forest at Brookhaven, Long Island, N.Y.

Description: Natural communities respond to disruption through a series of changes in plant and animal communities that are broadly predictable. The field-to-forest sere of central Long Island follows the pattern set forth earlier for the Piedmont of North Carolina and for New Jersey. The communities of herbs that occur in the years immediately after abandonment are followed by an Andropogon stage which is replaced before the 20th year by pine forest. The pine is replaced in the next 25 years by oak-pine, which in the normal Course is followed by oak-hickory. With repeated burning the oak-pine stage in various combinations of oaks and pine may be maintained indefinitely. Diversity, measured as number of species per unit land area, increased in this sere through the 3-5th years after abandonment to a maximum, dropped, and rose again in the later forest stages. Exotics were a conspicuous part of the communities of the earlier stages but their importance diminished as succession progressed and their contribution to net production was zero beyond the 20th year. The removal of exotics would probably not have changed the pattern of diversity appreciably. Net primary production increased with succession in this sere with major changes occurring as life-forms of the dominants shifted to woody plants. The peak net production was in the most mature forest, about 1200 g/m{sup 2}/yr. Root/shoot ratios declined from 4-5 in the early stages of succession to 0.3-0.5 with later stages. The standing crop of organic matter including humus throughout the sere was about 15 times the net production, indicating a halftime of residence for all organic matter throughout the sere of about 10 years.
Date: August 23, 1973
Creator: Woodwell,G.M.; Holt, B. R. & Flaccus, E.
Item Type: Report

SOD1 UM FIRE ACCIDENTS IN REACTOR COtdTAI NMENT VOLUME: A SUMMARY OF PARAMETR-I C STUDIES

Description: Atmospheric pressure and temperature excursions at constant volume for oxidation of high temperature sodium are investigated analytically. Data under both the adiabatic condition and the time dependent transient heat transfer condition are reported. The analyses represent parametric cases involving variations in containment geometry, variations in sodium conditions, and variations in contained gas conditions including oxygen concentrations of 0 to 21 vol%. The objective is to obtain data for design of containment for the Fast Flux Test Facility. Design of containment requires a knowledge of maximum temperatures and pressures to be expected as a consequence of the unlikely occurrence of a high volume sodium leak. This information is presented in graphical and tabular form.
Date: March 7, 1970
Creator: Shire, PR
Item Type: Report

A Sampling Plan for Use with Dynamic Calibration

Description: Dynamic calibration is a measurement control technique designed to facilitate the use of nondestructive assay for the control and accounting of special nuclear material. The implementation of dynamic calibration requires selection of an appropriate control measurement and sampling plan to provide traceability for the measurement system. A general sampling plan for use when the control measurement is an independent assay is presented with examples.
Date: September 14, 1979
Creator: Lemming, John F. & Rudy, Clifford R.
Item Type: Report

COMPARISON OF NUTRIENT DATA FROM FOUR POTENTIAL OTEC SITES

Description: An in-progress assessment of nutrient chemical data (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and silicate) from four potential OTEC sites (Puerto Rico, the Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii, and the South Atlantic) show reasonable comparison with archival data. At this time sufficient data is available only at the Tampa site (Gulf of Mexico) to discern seasonal variations which show an influx of nutrient-rich water in February, which decreases with time to a minimum in December. Results show a greater potential for stimulation of primary productivity at the Hawaii site than in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to the discharge of the cold water pipe into the photic zone.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Quinby-Hung, M.S.
Item Type: Article

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM AT POTENTIAL OTEC SITES

Description: Ecologically sound operations of projected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants can be insured by careful attention to the marine environment during the design phase. this requires quality information from regions of potential OTEC interest, coordinated with required assessment studies to insure legal compliance. Currently, preliminary or actual surveys and laboratory studies are being conducted in the waters of Puerto Rico, the Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii, and Guam for potential moored or seacoast OTEC plants and in the equatorial South Atlantic for proposed plant-ship operations to provide such benchmark and baseline data. These data plus existing archival information can be used to model effects of OTEC operations based on projected design schemes. Four major areas of concerns (1) redistribution of oceanic properties, (2) chemical pollution, (3) structural effects, and (4) socio-legal-economic; and 11 key issues associated with OTEC deployment and operation have been identified. In general mitigating strategies can be used to alleviate many deleterious environmental effects of operational problems as biostimulation, outgassing, etc. Various assessment research studies on toxicity, biocide releases, etc., are under way or are planned to investigate areas where no clear mitigating strategy is available. Data from the monitoring and assessment programs is being integrated into a series of environmental compliance documents including a comprehensive programmatic environmental impact assessment.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Wilde, P.
Item Type: Article

Corrosion Considerations in the Use of Boral in Spent Fuel Storage Pool Racks

Description: Boral is a cermet of Boron Carbide 'B{sub 4}C' in aluminum clad in aluminum. It is manufactured in rolled sheets using techniques similar to those used in the production of uranium aluminum fuel elements. The core of the standard Boral contains 35% boron carbide by weight. Cladding material is typical 1100 aluminum. Where it is exposed to water in service, the edges of the Boral are recommended by the manufacturer to be clad with aluminum by welding. In Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) racks, the Boral is usually not a structural member but is inserted in cavities between the spent fuel storage positions in the racks. In these locations it is sealed by welding to prevent access of water. Inherently, however, the corrosion of the Boral, both the boron carbide-aluminum cermet and the aluminum cladding, should be minimal in a spent fuel storage pool. The cavities into which the Boral is sealed are typically fabricated of aluminum alloys, i.e. type 6061, or stainless steel. In either case, these are the structural members of the SFP racks. In an SFP, water chemistry tends to be strictly controlled because the SFP water mixes with the reactor coolant during refueling procedures. In SFP's at BWR sites, water chemistry is typical of that of a BWR i.e. high resistivity neutral water. In SFP's at PWR sites water chemistry typically contains 2 to 3,000 parts per million ppm boron as boric acid, which is there primarily to prevent dilution of the reactor primary coolant during refueling and is not relied on for criticality considerations. The water chemistries and anticipated corrosion of SFP materials were reviewed in an earlier report. BNL-NUREG 23021, July, 1977.
Date: February 22, 1979
Creator: Weeks,J.R.
Item Type: Report

Second Annual AEC Scientific Computer Information Exhange Meeting. Proceedings of the technical program theme: computer graphics

Description: The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Peskin,A.M. & Shimamoto, Y.
Item Type: Article

Heat Transfer Correlation for Finned Casks

Description: Design of finned casks for dissipation of heat from radioactive decay usually requires reliance on generalized correlations in the literature which do not necessarily apply to the specific cask design. A correlation was developed, based on temperature profile measurements, for the design of upright cylindrical casks with vertical fins for convective and radiant heat transfer to ambient air. Temperature data at various heat loads were obtained for two different cask sizes of the same basic design. Each cask is mounted on a steel pallet and contained within a steel mesh cage. The smaller cask, which has 23 fins, has been approved (DOT-SP-6321) for shipment of up to 1400 W (th), and approval is being obtained (AEC AL USA/9503 BLF) for shipment of up to 3500 W heat load in the larger, 60-fin cask. The applicable theoretical equations were fit to the temperature data for both casks by simply adjusting the value used for the number of fins. The resulting correlation provides a reliable method for interpolation and extrapolation and for design of similar finned casks.
Date: April 1, 1974
Creator: Griffin, J. F.
Item Type: Article

Reference Documents for the Proposal for a NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

Description: The spectra, angular distribution and polarization functions of synchrotron radiation are tabulated in parametric form. Numerous graphs of the functions are included which can be used for rapid estimation of photon flux as a function of the various parameters. The extended synchrotron radiation source is described and the exact, but unintegrable, equations are derived. Properties of this source depend upon at least nine parameters. An approximation of the source accurate enough for estimating flux in optical instruments is developed. Power and power density in the radiation beam are described and convenient approximations are developed. Simple optical transformations are used to illustrate some of the important properties of the extended source. Also included are: (1) a brief description and short table of the Bessel functions used; (2) an outline of the properties of electron orbits in a storage ring; and (3) a description and short table of integrating function ef(a,Y).
Date: April 16, 1976
Creator: Blewett,J.P.
Item Type: Report

AN INVESTIGATION OF METALLURGICAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS

Description: The relationship between microstructure, heat treatment and room temperature fracture toughness has been determined for the low alloy ultra-high strength steels 4130, 4330, 4340, 4140 and 300-M. Optical metallography, microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology, while both Charpy V-notch impact tests and plane strain fracture toughness tests were used to determine the fracture properties. The normal commercial heat treatment resulted in the formation of some bainite in all the alloys. MnS inclusions on prior austenite grain boundaries were found to initiate cracks during loading. By increasing the austenitizing temperature to l200 C, the fracture toughness could be increased by at least 60%. For some alloys increasing the severity of the quench in conjunction with the higher austenitizing temperatures resulted in further increases in the fracture toughness, and the elimination of any observable upper bainite. There was no correlation between the Charpy impact test results and the fracture toughness results. The alloys 4130, 4140, 4340 all showed a severe intergranular embrittlement when austenitized at high temperatures and tempered above 200 C, while the alloys 4330 and 300-M exhibited no drop in toughness for the same heat treatment conditions. The as-quenched tensile specimens had a very low 'micro' yield strength which rapidly increased to the level of the 'macro' yield strength when tempered.
Date: May 1, 1973
Creator: Wood, William E.; Parker, Earl R. & Zackay, Victor F.
Item Type: Report

ISOTOPE PRODUCTION CROSS SECTIONS FROM THE FRAGMENTATION OF 16O AND 12C AT RELATIVISTIC ENERGIES

Description: The 0-degree fragmentation products of {sup 16}O and {sup 12}C at 2.1-GeV/n and {sup 12}C at 1.05-GeV/n have been measured for targets ranging from H to Pb. They present a total of 464 partial-production cross sections for 35 isotopes. The cross sections are energy independent and can be factored into beam-fragment and target terms. The target factor, {gamma}{sub T} = A{sub T}{sup 1/4}, and other evidence, imply the isotopes are produced in peripheral interactions.
Date: February 1, 1975
Creator: Lindstrom, P.J.; Greiner, D.E.; Heckman, H.H.; Cork, Bruce & Bieser, F.S.
Item Type: Article

MULTIPERIPHERAL MODEL WITH PSEUDOSCALAR AND VECTOR MESON EXCHANGE

Description: Previous work on generalizations of the ABFST multiperipheral model is extended to allow for vector meson exchange. The intercept of the Pomeranchon pole, the magnitude of asymptotic total cross sections and off-shell corrections to them are calculated.
Date: September 1, 1972
Creator: Avalos, Daniel R. & Sorensen, Cristian.
Item Type: Article

PHYTOPLANKTON AND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION AT POTENTIAL OTEC SITES

Description: Net or large phytoplankton species composition and most phytoplankton abundance was measured at three OTEC sites. In the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii, diatoms dominated while the blue-green algae Trichodesmium was most common at Puerto Rico. The species ratio of diatoms to dinoflagellates was approximately 1:1. The species diversity varied from site to site, Hawaii > Puerto Rico > Gulf of Mexico. Chlorophyll a, which is a measure of the pigment of all algae size ranges, showed a subsurface peak of 0.14-0.4 g per liter at 75 to 125 m. Occasional surface peaks up to 0.4 pg per liter occurred. Further refinement of collection techniques is needed to delineate the subtle environmental effects expected by OTEC plant discharges.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Johnson, P.W. & Horne, A.J.
Item Type: Article

Study on the Adsorption of Radioisotopes in Solution: I - Adsorption of Pu(IV) in a Sulfuric Acid Media

Description: The adsorption of tetravalent plutonium on glass and platinum in a sulfuric acid solution was studied in the concentration range of the order of 10sup(-5)M. The adsorption is reversible, decreases with an increase in acidity and, in all the cases examined, quite weak (less than 0.01%). It follows the Freundlich isotherm on glass and the Langmuir isotherm on platinum.
Date: June 18, 1971
Creator: Haissinsky, M. & Laflammee, Y.
Item Type: Report

Mound Laboratory's Air Surveillance System

Description: A comprehensive air surveillance system was developed. The system includes surveillance of the source, transport conditions, and concentration at the receptor sites. An unusual aspect of the system is the implementation of off-site sampling programs through local governmental agencies. Background levels of radioactivity are routinely determined.
Date: December 31, 1974
Creator: Carfagno, D. G.
Item Type: Report

Development of Low Thermal Expansion Tungsten UO 2 Cermet Fuel

Description: ´╗┐An attempt was made to develop a tungsten-uranium dioxide cermet of high fue 1 loading with thermal expans ion approaching that of tungsten and with good dimensional stability on thermal cycling. These goals were sought through the use of tungsten-coated uranium dioxide particles with sufficient locally available void vo lume to accommodate the difference in thermal expansion between the uranium dioxide and the tungsten matrix and through limitation of plastic deformation in the particles during fabrication to avoid mechanical keying of the particles and the matrix. The particles were vibratorily compacted prior to hot pressing. The thermal expansion of the cermets was determined and they were thermal cycle tested. The thermal expansion of the cermets was considerably closer to that of tungsten than was observed with previously reported spec imens of similar composition. However, the thermal cycling of the cermets resulted in intolerable growth. This growth could be accounted for by the agglomeration of gases trapped in the uranium dioxide particles during deposition of the tungsten coating.
Date: March 31, 1970
Creator: Marlowe, M.O. & Kaznoff, A.I.
Item Type: Report

High-speed Photography of Pyrotechnic Materials and Components with a Coppper Vapor Laser

Description: The evaluation of the properties of energetic materials, such as burn rate and ignition energy, is of primary importance in understanding their reactions and the functioning of devices containing them. One method for recording such information is high-speed photography at rates of up to 20,000 images per second. When a copper vapor lazer is synchronized with the camera, laser-illuminated images can be recorded that detail the performance of a material or component in a manner never before possible. Recent results from high-speed photography of several pyrotechnic materials and devices will be presented. These include a pyrotechnic torch, laser ignition of high explosives, and a functioning igniter. Equilibrium chemical computations have recently been begun on the pyrotechnic torch to obtain flame compositions and temperatures. The results of these calculations, and their explanation of the change in torch function with composition, will be discussed.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Dosser, Larry R.; Reed, John W. & Stark, Margaret A.
Item Type: Report