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Contributions to General Geology 1951-54

Description: A report about stratigraphic studies of late Quaternary deposits in the Rocky Mountain region which reveal a widespread uncomformity separating deposits that differ lithologically. The deposits overlying the unconformity contain modern fauna that do not occur in older deposits.
Date: 1955
Creator: Hunt, Charles B.

Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period April, May, June 1949

Description: This report summarizes the measurements made for radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the quarter April through June 1949. This belated document is issued for the records to fill in the gap for the quarterly reports not issued in 1949 because of personnel shortage at that time. Although the data summarized in this report were already reported in the H. I. Evirons Reports for the months involved, it is still of value to study the data combining the three months of data which give better opportunity to evaluate the trends and patterns of the levels of radioactive contamination emanating from the various sources at the Hanford Works. This document discusses: meteorological data and radioactive contamination in vegetation, the atmosphere, rain, Hanford wastes, the Columbia River, and in drinking water and test wells.
Date: April 3, 1950
Creator: Paas, H.J. & Singlevich, W.

Special filter samples of Hanford process effluent gases

Description: This document contains information on special filter samples of Hanford Process Effluent Gases. The filters are identified by code numbers only. Included in this paper are tables explaining the sample code numbers, sampling locations, and process conditions during sampling. Also included, is a copy of the monthly and quarterly average results for Regional Monitoring's routine stack program for the fourth quarter of 1956.
Date: January 22, 1957
Creator: Soldat, J.K.

Nuclear power plant 5,000 to 10,000 kilowatts

Description: The purpose of this proposal is to present a suggested program for the development of an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor Power Plant for the production of power in the 5000 to 10,000 kilowatt range under the terms of the Atomic Energy Commission's invitation of September 21, 1955. It envisions a research and development program prior to finalizing fabricating commitments of full scale components for the purpose of proving mechanical and hydraulic operating and chemical processing feasibility with the expectation that such preliminary effort will assure the contruction of the reactor at the lowest cost and successful operation at the earliest date. It proposes the construction of a reactor for an eventual net electrical output of ten megawatts but initially in conjunction with a five megawatt turbo-generating unit. This unit would be constructed at the site of the existing Hersey diesel generating plant of the Wolverine Electric Cooperative approximately ten miles north of Big Rapids, Michigan.
Date: February 1, 1956
Creator: Available, Not

Review of Columbia River studies program -- H. I. Development Division

Description: In view of current work on the Columbia River by the Biology Division and Development Division of the Health Instrument Divisions and the contemplated studies of the US Public Health Service Group new at Hanford, it was suggested that the groups review their programs related to studies of the Columbia River. The work carried out by the Control Functions Section of the Health Instrument Division in this respect is reviewed in outline form. Some of the studies are jointly carried out by the Control Functions Section and the Methods Group of the Environmental Hazards Section. The principal purpose for monitoring the Columbia River is to evaluate any radiation hazards that might exist as the result of discharging radioactive effluent into the river from the Hanford pile areas. The miscellaneous special studies conducted so supplement the routine monitoring program are pointed at into the river to better understand the effects of this radioactive contamination on the environment of the river and/or any drinking water supplies using the Columbia river as a source of supply. 1 fig.
Date: May 10, 1951
Creator: Singlevich, W.

P Division monthly report, January 1950

Description: This progress report discusses the activities of the P Division for the month of January 1950. The B, D, F and H pilan operated throughout the month except for outages listed under Area Activities. Power levels were as follow: B pile -- 275 megawatts (MW) D pile -- 305 MW, F pile -- 275 MW increased to 305 MW during the month, and H pile -- 275 MW increased to 330 MW during the month. The piles operated with a time operated'' efficiency of 88.8%. A total of 53.07 tons of metal at an average of 91.2% of the current goal concentration was discharged from the piles during the month. A new record canning yield of 93.9% for 4 inch canned slugs was established during January.
Date: February 6, 1950
Creator: Lee, E.P.

Radiological sciences department investigation: Radiation incident class I, No. 608-C

Description: At about 6:30 a.m. one of the two Process Operators regularly stationed at 233-S was performing routine work in the Control Room, heard a nearby Poppy alpha detector breaking down.'' He checked and found the instrument appeared to be in operating condition as it would respond to a high level source. Further checking indicated that he was contaminated and that nearby horizontal surfaces were contaminated. This information was phoned to the Shift Supervisor who told the Operator that he would be right out and to throw a pair of shoe covers out the door. On arriving, the Supervisor donned the shoe covers and then quickly checked the Poppy response and confirmed the report of the Operator. Both men then left the building. Just outside they met the other Process Operator assigned to 233-S, returning from the lunchroom. The second Operator was handed a smear, previously taken and checked by the Supervisor, and told to check it on a Poppy in the load-out-room, a room adjacent to where the contamination was originally found. When the Supervisor heard the load-out-room Poppy break down as the smear was checked he instructed both Operators to stand by just outside the building while he went for monitoring assistance. This report discusses the radiation monitoring survey results.
Date: June 28, 1956
Creator: Vanderbeek, J.W.

Nitric acid recovery and ammonia removal: Modifications to the Redox dissolver off-gas systems

Description: Project CG-588 authorized the design and construction of dissolver and waste neutralizer off-gas scrubbers to remove the ammonia given off during coating removal and waste neutralization steps of the Redox operation. It has always been recognized that the nitrogen oxides in the dissolver off-gases, resulting from the dissolution of bare uranium slugs, could also be absorbed in water under proper conditions to give re-useable nitric acid. Consequently it appeared feasible to provide facilities which would combine these ammonia removal and nitric acid recovery operations. The purpose of this report is to present a scope design for the economical recovery of nitric acid from the Redox dissolver off-gases in addition to the removal of ammonia. It is recognized that acceptance of this scope for project execution would make unnecessary the ammonia scrubbers for the dissolver off-gases of Project CG-588. 8 refs.
Date: October 1, 1954
Creator: Stoker, D.J.

Ruthenium process chemistry considerations: Redox process

Description: During the first 15 months of operation of the Redox process, it was clearly demonstrated that in the absence of any pre-solvent extraction treatment of the starting metal solution, ruthenium contributed from 75 to 95% of the remaining fission product activity in both the final uranium and plutonium streams, and that three solvent extraction cycles were able consistently to produce, at best, only marginal quality product. This precarious position was further endangered by a three-fold reduction in the gamma radioactivity specification for recovered uranium shipped from Hanford, and by increased power levels in the reactors, resulting in still higher fission product concentrations in Redox feed solutions. The purposes of this review are to summarize briefly: (1) the chemistry of Ru in the Redox process; (2) the permanganate head-end treatment and its associated problems in plant operation; and (3) alternate possibilities for the elimination or control of Ru, including those which might solve the permanganate process difficulties. It is also the purpose of this document to present a selected bibliography on the subject of ruthenium specifically for those points under discussion herein. 17 refs.
Date: June 10, 1954
Creator: Harmon, M.K.; McCormack, C.G.; Moore, R.L. & Wilson, A.S.

Studies of factors in the uptake of Sr/sup 90/. Site survey: Fall, 1954

Description: A survey was made of levels of strontium-89 and strontium-90 from fallout in samples of soil, vegetation, and animal bone collected from selected pasture sites in North Carolina, New York, Georgia, Utah, and New Jersey during 1953 and 1954. The bone levels showed an average increase by a factor of 2.4. Data are presented graphically showing the relationship of the calcium content in the soil to strontium-90 uptake in animal bones. The ratio of strontium-90 to strontium-89 in the uptake cycle at each site was determined. The fallout at each site during the animal grazing period and the vegetation growth period was collected on gummed paper exposed for weekly intervals at each site. Data are tabulated. The vegetation collected at the end of the growth period showed a strontium-90 to strontium-89 ratio similar to the fallout material for the period. This was considered evidence of leaf retention.
Date: June 6, 1955
Creator: Welford, G.A. (comp.)

Measurement of lithium in target slugs by neutron transmission

Description: An instrument was developed to measure nondestructively the lithium content of target slugs for the SRP reactors. The slugs consist of cylindrical pieces of Li-Al alloy, approximately 0.8 inches in diameter and 12 inches in length, clad with aluminum. The instrument utilizes neutron transmission to determine the Li content in the range 3% to 7% Li.
Date: February 1, 1955
Creator: Dexter, A.H.

Removal of cesium from uranium recovery process wastes

Description: The Uranium Recovery Process (TBP Process) at Hanford extracts and decontaminates uranium from the Metal Waste produced in the Bismuth Phosphate Process. Aqueous waste, approximately equal in volume to that of the Metal Waste itself, results from the process. Although of several years' age, these wastes are still sufficiently radioactive that they must be returned to underground tanks for storage. For several years aqueous wastes of low radioactive content have been discharged to ground at Hanford. Polyvalent cations are strongly absorbed by the soil. Monovalent cations are poorly absorbed if present in solutions of high salt content. Ground waters migrate toward the Columbia River very slowly. These observations point out the desirability of removing, from wastes to be cribbed, those long-lived radioactive constituents which are poorly absorbed by soil. Cesium (Cs-137) and strontium (Sr-90) are the principal constituents of Hanford wastes which possess these characteristics. Strontium, while more hazardous biologically, is of somewhat less concern than cesium because it is better absorbed from high-salt solutions by soils. This report describes research done to develop on inexpensive process for the removal of fission products, especially cesium, from Uranium Recovery Process Wastes. 4 refs., 13 tabs.
Date: May 17, 1954
Creator: Burns, R.E.; Brandt, R.L. & Clifford, W.E.

Electrolytic procedure for the removal of ruthenium and nitrate from alkaline waste solutions

Description: The flowsheet proposed by KAPL for the treatment of alkaline nitrate radiochemical processing waste has been modified to include an ion-exchange step for the decontamination of cesium, strontium, and other cationic fission products. In laboratory studies of the electrolysis steps in a nitrate reduction cell, synthetic alkaline waste, 0.55 to 4.83 M total electrolyte, was decontaminated from ruthenium by factors of > 210. The nitrate of 3.0 M waste was reduced to ammonia with current efficiencies of 100%. Power consumption was 4.7 kwh/lb of nitrate reduced. Significant factors affecting the rate of ruthenium decontamination were temperature, cathode area, cathode current density, and electrolyte concentration. Those affecting nitrate reduction current efficiencies were the cathode current density, electrolyte concentration, and stirring rate. In an acid-base membrane cell, reusable nitric acid as well as sodium hydroxide was regenerated. However, such a cell is less economical to construct and operate than the nitrate reduction cell. At least 5 kwh of power is required to transfer 1 lb of nitrate from ORNL type waste. In addition, the greater complexity of the acid-base cell makes it less adaptable for remote control.
Date: September 19, 1958
Creator: Messing, A F & Higgins, I R