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NBS-INA -- The Institute for Numerical Analysis -- UCLA 1947-1954

Description: Abstract: This is the history of the Institute for Numerical Analysis (INA) with special emphasis in its research program during the period 1947 to 1956. The Institute for Numerical Analysis was located on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. It was a section of the National Applied Mathematics Laboratories, which formed the Applied Mathematics Division of the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and technology), under the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Hestenes, Magnus Rudolph & Todd, John

Mineral Resources of the Sleeping Giant Wilderness Study Area, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

Description: From abstract: A mineral resource survey was conducted in 1987 by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the Sleeping Giant Wilderness Study Area (MT-075-111) in Lewis and Clark County, Montana. The only economic resource in the study area is an inferred 1.35-million-ton reserve of decorative stone (slate); a small gold placer resource is subeconomic. A high resource potential for decorative slate exists directly adjacent to the area of identified slate resource and in the northeastern part of the study area. The rest of the study area has a low potential for decorative slate. The westernmost part of the study area has a moderate resource potential for copper and associated silver in strata-bound deposits in green beds and limestone; potential is low in the rest of the study area.
Date: 1991
Creator: Tysdal, Russell G.; Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Carlson, Robert R. & Peters, Thomas J.

Mineral Resources of the Willow Creek and Skull Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Moffat County, Colorado

Description: Abstract: The Willow Creek Wilderness Study Area (CO-010-002) and the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area (C-010-003), which contain 13,368 acres and 13,739 acres, respectively, are in northwest Colorado near the Utah border. There are no identified resources in either of the study areas. The study areas have low resource potential for undiscovered uranium, vanadium, copper, and all other metals; oil and gas; and coal.
Date: 1990
Creator: Van Loenen, Richard E.; Folger, Helen W. & Kulik, Dolores M.

Mineral Resources of the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Grand County, Utah

Description: From abstract: The Coal Canyon (UT-060-1000), Spruce Canyon (UT-060-100D), and Flume Canyon (UT-060-100B) Wilderness Study Areas are in the Book Cliffs in Grand County, eastern Utah. Demonstrated coal reserves totaling 22,060,800 short tons, and demonstrated subeconomic coal resources totaling 39,180,000 short tons are in the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. Also, inferred subeconomic coal resources totaling 143,954,000 short tons are within the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. No known deposits of industrial minerals are in any of the wilderness study areas. All three of the wilderness study areas have a high resource potential for undiscovered deposits of coal and for undiscovered oil and gas.
Date: 1990
Creator: Dickerson, Robert P.; Gaccetta, Jerry D.; Kulik, Dolores M. & Kreidler, Terry J.

Mineral Resources of the Paria-Hackberry Wilderness Study Area, Kane County, Utah

Description: From abstract: The Paria-Hackberry Wilderness Study Area, in central Kane County, southern Utah, is a region of generally flat-lying, gently folded sedimentary rocks, bounded on the east by the east-dipping limb of the East Kaibab monocline and cut by sheer-walled, narrow canyons. The area selected for study by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management totaled 94,642 acres (148 square miles); because of uncertainty as to final boundaries, the U.S. Geological Survey studied an additional contiguous 41,180 acres (64 square miles).
Date: 1991
Creator: Bell, Henry, III; Bush, Alfred Lerner & Turner, Robert L.

Mineral Resources of the Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

Description: From abstract: The Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-037/043), for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, encompasses 40,118 acres in northwestern Arizona. Fieldwork was carried out in 1986-88 by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey to appraise the identified (known) resources and assess the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the wilderness study area. Within the Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area are 14 private parcels of land totaling 1,315 acres. The Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area, including the 14 private parcels of land, is herein referred to as the "wilderness study area" or the "study area." The Boriana, Antler, and Copper World mines lie near the east boundary of the study area. The Boriana mine was a major tungsten-producing mine of the United States during World War II. The Antler and Copper World mines produced relatively small amounts of copper and zinc prior to 1970.
Date: 1990
Creator: Conway, Clay M.; Hassemer, Jerry R. & Knepper, Daniel H., Jr.

Mineral Resources of the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

Description: From abstract: At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 113,500 acres of the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-028/029) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to as the "wilderness study area" or "study area"; any reference to the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested. This study area is located in west-central Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys to appraise the identified mineral resources (known) and assess the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out largely in 1986-1989.
Date: 1990
Creator: Gray, Floyd; Jachens, Robert C.; Miller, Robert J. & Knepper, Daniel H., Jr.

Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas, Mohave County, Arizona

Description: From abstract: At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study area is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study area.
Date: 1990
Creator: Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C. & Neubert, John T.

Mineral Resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon, Emery, and Grand Counties, Utah

Description: From abstract: In 1985, 1986, and 1988, the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey studied the Desolation Canyon (UT-060-068A), Turtle Canyon (UT-060-067), and Floy Canyon (UT-060-068B) Wilderness Study Areas, which are contiguous and located in Carbon, Emery, and Grand Counties in eastern Utah. The study areas include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres respectively. Coal deposits underlie the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon study areas.
Date: 1990
Creator: Cashion, William B.; Kilburn, James E.; Barton, Harlan N. & Kulik, Dolores M

Mineral Resources of the McCullough Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Park County, Wyoming

Description: From abstract: The McCullough Peaks Wilderness Study Area (WY-010-335) is located near the western edge of the Bighorn Basin, Park County, Wyoming. The area is about 10 miles northeast of Cody. Mineral and energy resource assessment of the McCullough Peaks Wilderness Study Area indicates a total of 52 million tons of measured and indicated subbituminous coal resources.
Date: 1990
Creator: Hadley, Donald G.; Ryder, Robert T.; Hill, Randall H. & Kulik, Dolores M.

Mineral Resources of the Negro Bill Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Grand County, Utah

Description: Abstract: The Negro Bill Canyon (UT-060-138) Wilderness Study Area is in southeastern Utah in Grand County southeast of Arches National Monument and covers 7,620 acres. No mineral resources are identified in the study area. Lode mining claims cover the western part of the Negro Bill Canyon Wilderness Study Area; there are no patented claims in the study area. The mineral resource potential for gypsum, potash, halite, and bentonite on the surface and in the subsurface beneath the wilderness study area is high. The energy and mineral resource potential for oil, gas, carbon dioxide, uranium and vanadium on the surface and beneath the wilderness study area is moderate. The potential for helium gas, geothermal sources, and metals other than uranium and vanadium is low.
Date: 1990
Creator: Bartsch-Winkler, Susan; Case, James E. & Barton, Harlan N.

Structural Analysis of a Mechanized LHD Trench Undercut Caving System

Description: Abstract: This U. S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) report presents results of stress analyses and field observations to investigate the effects of elevated trench drifts on the structural stability of rock mass zones surrounding a production draw drift in a mine utilizing a mechanized load-haul-dump (LHD) trench undercut panel caving system. A two-dimensional boundary-element mine stress model was developed to predict the locations and extent of damaged rock mass zones surrounding draw drifts where adjacent, parallel trench drifts are either elevated or not elevated above the LHD production draw drift level. A Mohr-Coulomb shear-failure criterion was obtained directly from in situ borehole shear test data. Hoek-Brown shear-failure parameter values were computed from borehole-shear and triaxial test data. A procedure is described to estimate these parameters when a rock mass rating (RMR) value and triaxial data on intact samples exist, and no borehole shear test data exist. Results indicate that trench drifts, elevated to the level equal to the height of the LHD production draw drift, would not minimize material damage nor significantly enhance the stability of rib and crown pillar zones surrounding production draw drifts in the mechanized LHD trench undercut caving panel investigated at this mine.
Date: 1995
Creator: Jude, Charles V.

Effects of Remote Drop and Pumpdown Placement on Cellular Concrete

Description: Abstract: The hazards to the public posed by abandoned mine shafts are well documented. As private development encroaches on previously mined areas, the potential for fatalities and serious injuries from abandoned mine shafts increases. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has conducted research into cellular concrete as a material for sealing these openings. The current work involves testing the characteristics of cellular concrete before and after it had been pumped or dropped from different heights into a simulated mine shaft. Cellular concrete was pumped vertically up to and subsequently dropped from heights of 18 and 37 m into concrete forms. Wet density measurements were made at multiple sampling points in the test circuit. Air content determinations and uniaxial compressive strength testing were conducted. Research results showed significant loss in air content and changes in the characteristics of cellular concrete during pumping or dropping from various heights. Recommendations on effective use of cellular concrete for sealing abandoned mine shafts are made.
Date: 1995
Creator: Boreck, D. L. & Miller, R. E.

Improved Performance of Linear Coal Cutting Compared with Rotary Cutting

Description: From abstract: The linear cutting system, developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, uses geometric principles developed by Cardan to produce a nearly constant cut depth. The new system has been extensively tested in a synthetic material under laboratory conditions to verify mechanical capability and to identify operational characteristics. This report details the improved performance versus rotary cutting.
Date: 1995
Creator: Roepke, Wallace W.; Hanson, B. D.; Olson, R. C.; Wingquist, C. F. & Myren, T. A.

Ten-Cycle Bench-Scale Study of Simplified Clay-Hydrogen Chloride Process for Alumina Production

Description: From abstract: This U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) research simplified an earlier hydrogen chloride (HCl) leachsparge process developed by the USBM to recover reduction-grade alumina from domestic kaolin clay. Improvements were made by decreasing the initial leaching acid concentration from 25 to 20 pct, decreasing the leaching time from 1 to 2 h to 15 to 30 min, eliminating the solvent extraction step for Fe removal, and eliminating the step to recover the Al content of the bleedstream circuit. A 10-cycle bench-scale experiment of the simplified process showed that the ferric chloride (FeC 3) concentration built up to 9.3 g/L in the recycle stream. This did not interfere with any of the unit operations or final alumina product purity because Fe forms stable soluble chloride complexes when sparged with HC and is easily washed from the large aluminum chloride hexahydrate (ACH) crystals. The reduced leaching time and acid concentration did not decrease Al extraction.
Date: 1995
Creator: Shanks, D. E.

High-Temperature Cyanide Leaching of Platinum-Group Metals from Automobile Catalysts--Pilot Plant Study

Description: From abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center investigated, developed, and patented a high temperature cyanide leaching process for recovering platinum-group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. A batch pilot plant was constructed at the center and operated to demonstrate this technology to industry.
Date: 1995
Creator: Kuczynski, R. J.; Atkinson, G. B. & Dolinar, W. J.

Teleoperation of a Compact Loader-Trammer

Description: Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a portable, inexpensive teleoperation system for mobile hard-rock mining equipment. The system was tested on a compact loader-trammer in a simulated stope. The teleoperation system includes radio remote control and computer-assisted navigation. A recent enhancement includes video cameras mounted on the machine to provide visual information to the operator. This system allows the operator to remain in a safe location while operating the machine from a distance, thus increasing both operator safety and mining productivity.
Date: 1995
Creator: Ruff, T. M.

Field Demonstration of Two Pneumatic Backfilling Technologies

Description: Abstract: This U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) report summarizes a field demonstration of pneumatic backfiling technologies conducted at the abandoned Hillside Coal and Iron Slope in Vandling, PA. Researchers demonstrated tro pneumatic backfilling technologies recently developed under the USBM's Abandoned Mine Reclamation Research Program, the Pneumatic Pipefeeder and the High-Efficiency Ejector. Both systems had previously been evaluated at the USBM's subsidence abatement investigation laboratory near Fairchance, PA. The objective of the demonstration was to fill 100% of the abandoned tunnel with backfill stone to prevent further subsidence. The Pneumatic Pipefeeder was used for 21 days, at a rate of 63 to 124 t/d (69 to 136 st/d), to fill 88% of the tunnel. The High-Efficiency Ejector was used for 2 days, at a rate of 125 to 132 t/d (138 to 146 st/d) to fill the remaining 12% of the tunnel. The backfill placed by both systems was tightly compacted. The major problem encountered was wear on the polyethylene pipeline from the abrasion of the high-velocity backfill. The use of heavier steel pipe minimized the problem. A cost analysis for the entire project is given.
Date: 1995
Creator: Dyni, Robert C.; Burnett, Mackenzie & Philbin, David

Development of Coal Combustion Sensitivity Tests for Smoke Detectors

Description: Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The tests are conducted using a standard smoke box designed and constructed according to Underwriters Laboratories. The tests provide a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for smoldering and flaming coal combustion, based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density and the response of a standard ionization chamber to the smoke. With these standard tests, the range of threshold limits for the response of a smoke detector and the detector's reliability can be evaluated for nearly identical smoke visibility and smoke physical characteristics. The detector's threshold response limits and reliability need to be well defined prior to the instrument's use as part of a mine fire warning system for improved mine safety.
Date: 1995
Creator: Edwards, John C. & Morrow, Gerald S.

Reactivity in the South Spoils and Hillside Dump at the Midnite Mine

Description: The Midnite Mine is an inactive open-pit uranium mine located on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Drill samples from two large waste rock dumps on the site, known as South Spoils and Hillside Dump, were collected with a Becker hammer drill and evaluated to determine potential of the rock to generate acid mine drainage (AMD). Waste rock at this mine contains both pyrite and uranium, and AMD effects are more complicated on this site than most in that uranium is soluble in both acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. Although AMD protocols identified 26% of the South Spoils samples as potentially acid, under 7% of the spoil samples were actually producing acid. Considerable calcite exists in the South Spoils, and weathering feldspars further contribute to acid neutralization. The Hillside Dump has low concentrations of pyrite and calcite that acid-base accounting protocols would predict to be non-acidic. Accumulation of sulfate in rocks with concentrations of less than 0.3% S causes some of those normally non-acid producing rocks to produce acid in the Hillside Dump.
Date: 1996
Creator: Moore, Bruce W.; Price, Jesse W. & Gardner, Ted

Data Dictionary and Discussion for the Midnite Mine GIS Database

Description: Abstract: A geographic information system (GIS) database has been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) for the Midnite Mine and surroundings in northeastern Washington State (Stevens County) on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mine is an open pit uranium mine which has been inactive since 1981. The GIS database was compiled to serve as a repository and source of historical and research information on the mine site. The database supported USBM hydrological and reclamation research on the mine site. The database also will be used by the Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (as well as others) for environmental assessment and reclamation planning for future remediation and reclamation of the site. This report describes the data in the GIS database and their characteristics. The report also discusses known backgrounds on the data sets and any special considerations encountered by the USBM in developing the database. Most of the database also is planned to be available to the public as a two-CD-ROM set, although separately from this report.
Date: 1996
Creator: Peters, Douglas C.; Smith, M. Antoinette & Ferderer, David A.

Inflatable Devices for Use in Combating Mine Fires

Description: Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines is conducting full-scale laboratory studies on the development of lightweight inflatable devices that can be used for rapidly isolating mine fire areas to allow for fire suppression and/or personnel escape. These inflatable devices were able to stop airflows of over 1,100 m3/min within several minutes. The remotely installed bag was designed to rapidly isolate the fire zone and to then serve, if necessary, as a containment form for the remote injection of low-dersil organic or inorganic foams. Other inflatable bag concepts that were tested include an inflatable feed-tube seal for high-expansion foam generators and a positive pressure inflatable walk-through escape device. Laboratory studies indicated that a high-expansion foam plug will travel 183 m through an entry with a 4.5 pct rise in elevation before foam leakage from around the inflatable feed-tube seal. Additionally, the positive-pressure, inflatable walk-through escape device with its "pass-through" feature may allow extra time for personnel evacuation. All of these inflatable devices have shown merit during laboratory studies in providing a rapid method for isolation of a mine fire prior to suppressant foam injection or personnel escape.
Date: 1996
Creator: Weiss, E. S.; Conti, R. S.; Bazala, E. M. & Pro, R. W.

Real-Time Monitoring of Field Measurements for Mine Design: Greens Creek Mine, Admiralty Island, Alaska

Description: Abstract: Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted field investigations at the Greens Creek Mine in southeast Alaska for the purpose of validating computer design of mining methods and assessing real-time monitoring capabilities. The field study required the application of new technology because of the remoteness of the study site, the need for timely acquisition of data, and a limited budget for instruments and data acquisition. Various sensors were installed to monitor rock mass deformation and strain, temperature, SO gas emissions, and blasting. Data were collected through a distributed personal computer network and high-speed modems. These readings were used to develop visualization models of underground metal mining operations and drift-and-fill mining and real-time graphics displays of ground conditions. Results of the field tests showed that it is possible to gather, process, visualize, and verify mine designs on a real-time basis.
Date: 1996
Creator: Orr, T. J. & Beus, Michael J.

1995 Midnite Mine Radiation Survey

Description: Abstract: During the week of September 4, 1995, personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a Ra-226 survey at the Midnite Mine. One hundred thirty measurements were made on a rectangular grid with 150-m spacings. Concurrently, Shepherd Miller, Inc., took gross gamma readings in gR/h at the same grid points. In addition, the USBM collected 17 soil samples to be analyzed for radium, thorium, and potassium. The results of this survey are summarized in this report.
Date: 1996
Creator: Stroud, William P. & Droullard, Robert F.